Since the Physics Department discourages students from changing
midstream from Physics 140 to Physics 125 or from Physics 240
to Physics 126, it is important that students choose the first
course of a physics sequence with care. Prospective engineers, physicists and chemists should elect Physics 140/240 rather than
Physics 125/126 because concentration programs in these areas
require the Physics 140/240 sequence. In the case of some departmental
concentration programs * (e.g., *biology) or in special
individual circumstances, students can elect or are encouraged
to elect the Physics 125/126 sequence. Some advisors will advise
all students who have had calculus to elect Physics 140/240. Physics
140/240 can be elected by all students who have had calculus, but it should be elected only by students who enjoy solving difficult
problems and who think that they will be good at it.

Note: If the Waitlist code on a Physics course is WL:5, then both sign on the waitlist through Touch-tone Registration and contact the department office.

**103. The Physical Universe: Relativity and Quanta.
*** High School geometry, trigonometry, and algebra.
(1). (NS). (BS). *

The goal of physicists is to understand everything that goes on in the universe in terms of a small number of fundamental laws of nature. The various laws we presently know may even derive from some single unifying principle. The laws of gravity, relativity, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics will be discussed and applied to simple problems. Grades will be based on homework and a research paper of approximately 3000 words. Cost:1 WL:3

**104. The Physical Universe: What Einstein Never Knew.
*** High School geometry, trigonometry, and algebra.
(1). (NS). (BS). *

The goals of physicists is to understand everything that goes
on in the universe in terms of a small number of fundamental laws
of nature. Recent developments involving quarks, leptons, black
holes, big-bang cosmology, dark matter, *etc. *will be described
on an elementary level. In the end, all questions of "how"
and "why" must be answered or else pushed to the limit
of present knowledge. Grades will be based on homework and a research
paper of approximately 3000 words. The are no college physics
or advanced mathematics prerequisites. Cost:1 WL:3

**106. Everyday Physics. *** (3). (NS). (BS). *

This course examines everyday phenomena and current technology in terms of physical concepts and laws. The subjects examined are wide ranging and the discussion focuses on discovering common underlying themes. Examples of topics covered include: lasers, tornadoes, rainbows, computers, and satellites. This class emphasizes concepts rather than mathematical models. Grades are based on homework and exams. Curiosity is the major prerequisite. Cost:2 WL:5

**107. 20th Century Concepts of Space, Time, and Matter.
*** High school algebra and geometry. (3). (NS). (BS).
(QR/1). *

The twentieth century has been witness to two major revolutions in man's concepts of space, time and matter. The first of these was provided by Einstein's Special and General Theories of Relativity. The implications of the Special Theory to our understanding of the unity of space and time and of the General Theory to our understanding of gravity and the evolution of the universe are explored. The second revolution was provided by quantum mechanics, leading to a new picture of the basic structure of matter. Topics to be discussed in this area include the Uncertainty Principle, wave-particle duality, the forces of nature, and the continuing search for the fundamental constituents of matter. No mathematical background beyond the high school level is assumed.

**112. Cosmology: The Science of the Universe. *** (3).
(NS). (BS). *

The majority of even college educated adults have only a modest
understanding of our place in the universe at large. Most would
be hard pressed to answer correctly such questions as: What else
is there in the universe besides stars? Why do we think there
was a big bang? How big is a galaxy and how might they have formed?
This course will provide answers to such questions, stressing * conceptual understanding * over calculational problem solving.
The format will be varied and informal. In addition to regular
seminar attendance, students will likely be asked to perform small
experiments and present at least one oral presentation. Essays
and other written work will play a large role in the grade. Although
no science prerequisites are required, exposure to physics at
high school level would be helpful.

**125. General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, and Heat. *** Two
and one-half years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry.
Phys. 125 and 127 are normally elected concurrently. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 140 or
160. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 125 and 126 constitute a two-term sequence offered
primarily for students concentrating in the natural sciences, architecture, pharmacy, or natural resources; and for preprofessional
students preparing for medicine, dentistry, or related health
sciences. Physics 125 and 126 are an appropriate sequence for
any student wanting a quantitative introduction to the basic principles
of physics but without the mathematical sophistication of Physics
140 and 240. Strong emphasis is placed on problem solving, and skills in elementary algebra and trigonometry are assumed. While
a high school level background in physics is not assumed, it is
helpful. Physics 125 and 126 are * not available * by the
Keller plan.

PHYSICS 125 covers classical mechanics (laws of motion, force, energy and power) and mechanical wave motion (including sound waves). The final course grade is based on three one-hour evening examinations, class performance and a final examination. Physics 127 should be taken concurrently. Cost:3 WL:5

**126. General Physics: Electricity and Light. *** Phys.
125. Phys. 126 and 128 are normally elected concurrently. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 240 or
260. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

See Physics 125 for a general description of this introductory sequence of courses.

Physics 126 is a continuation of Physics 125; it covers electricity and magnetism, the nature of light, and briefly introduces atomic and nuclear phenomena. The final course grade is based on three one-hour evening examinations, class performance and a final examination. Physics 128 should be taken concurrently. Cost:3 WL:5

**127. Mechanics, Heat and Sound Lab. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 125 is strongly recommended. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 141. (1).
(NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 127 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 125 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Macintosh computers are used for data acquisition and analysis. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2 WL:5

**128. Electricity and Light Lab. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 126 is strongly recommended. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 241. (1).
(NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 128 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 126 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2 WL:5

**140. General Physics I. *** Math. 115. Phys.
140 and 141 are normally elected concurrently. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 125 or 160.
(4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 140, 240, and 242 constitute a three-term sequence which examines concepts in physics fundamental to the physical sciences and engineering. This introductory sequence uses calculus, and, while it is possible to elect Physics 140 and Mathematics 115 concurrently, some students will find it more helpful to have started one of the regular mathematics sequences before electing Physics 140. The introductory sequence is primarily designed to develop a skill: the skill to solve simple problems by means of mathematics. Developing this skill requires daily practice and a sense for the meaning of statements and formulas, as well as awareness of when one understands a statement, proof, or problem solution and when one does not. Thus one learns to know what one knows in a disciplined way.

The topics in Physics 140 include: vectors, motion in one dimension, circular motion, projectile motion, relative velocity and acceleration, Newton's laws, particle dynamics, work and energy, linear momentum, torque, angular momentum of a particle, simple harmonic motion, gravitation, planetary motion, pressure and density of fluids, and Archimedes' principle. Evaluation is based on performance
on 3 evening hourly examinations (see * Time Schedule * for
dates and times) and a final examination.

Certain sections of Physics 140 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures. These sections are
marked PSI in the * Time Schedule. * An information sheet
describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics Student Services Office (2061 Randall Lab). Students
who want to elect Physics 140 by the Keller Plan should read this
information before registering. Cost:3 WL:5

**141. Elementary Laboratory I. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 140 is strongly recommended. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in 127. (1). (NS).
(BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 141 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 140 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Macintosh computers are used for data acquisition and analysis. Cost:2 WL:5

**160. Honors Physics I. *** Math. 115 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students should elect Phys. 141 concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in Phys. 140. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 160 is a rigorous introduction to particle mechanics and the motion of extended objects. Particular topics include vectors, one and two dimensional motion, conservation of laws, linear and rotational dynamics, gravitation, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics. Students should also elect a Physics 141 laboratory. Cost:3

**214/RC Nat. Sci. 214. The Physicists and the Bomb.
*** High school mathematics. (4). (NS). (BS). *

See RC Nat. Sci. 214. (Sanders)

**240. General Physics II. *** Phys. 140 or the equivalent; Phys. 240 and 241 are normally elected concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in 126 or 260. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

See Physics 140 for a general description of the introductory physics sequence.

The topics covered in PHYSICS 240 include (1) classical electromagnetism:
charge, Coulomb's Law, electric fields, Gauss' Law, electric potential, capacitors and dielectrics, current and resistance, electromotive
force and circuits, magnetic fields, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere's
Law, Faraday's Law of induction, simple AC circuits; and (2) geometrical
and physical optics. There will be 3 evening hourly examinations
(see * Time Schedule * for dates and times) and a final examination.

Certain sections of Physics 240 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures. These sections are
marked in the * Time Schedule. * An information sheet describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics
Student Services Office (2061 Randall Lab). Students who want
to elect Physics 240 by the Keller Plan should read this information
before registering. Cost:3 WL:5

**241. Elementary Laboratory II. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 240 is strongly recommended. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in 128. (1). (NS).
(BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 241 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 240 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2 WL:5

**242. General Physics III. *** Phys. 240 or
equivalent. (3). (NS). (BS). *

This course is the third in a three-term introductory physics
sequence, and is required of all physics concentrators. It will
deal in a quantitative manner with topics which may be classified
as "modern" physics, and shall include the investigation
of special relativity, the relationship of particles and waves, the Schrödinger equation applied to barrier problems, atomic
structure and the interpretation of quantum numbers, the exclusion
principle and its applications, structure of solids, *etc. *The
class will meet as a lecture group. Applications of the principles
will be considered in the lecture section on a regular basis.
Math 215 is strongly recommended. Cost:2 WL:4

**250/Environ. Studies 353. Energy, Entropy, and Environment.
*** Two and one-half years of high school mathematics, or any college course in mathematics or natural science. (3).
(NS). (BS). *

For Fall Term, 1996, this course is offered jointly with RC Natural Science 263.

**260. Honors Physics II. *** Phys. 140 and Math. 115, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students
should elect Phys. 241 concurrently. No credit granted to those
who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 240. (4). (NS). (BS).
(QR/1). *

Physics 260 is a rigorous introduction to the theory of electromagnetic phenomena, involving a great deal of student participation. Topics include electric and magnetic fields and potentials, DC and AC circuits, inductance and Maxwell's equations. Students should elect Physics 241 laboratory. Cost:3

**262. Honors Physics III. *** Phys. 240 or
equivalent, prior or concurrent enrollment in Math. 216 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have
completed or are enrolled in Phys. 242. (4). (NS). (BS). *

Physics 262 is an introduction to the ideas of modern physics with emphasis on the development of basic Quantum Mechanics. Topics covered include special relativity, particle in a box, quantum oscillators, the hydrogen atom and its spectra, spin and statistics, and, as time permits, some aspects of condensed matter, and nuclear or particle physics. Cost:3

**333. Keller Tutor 140. *** Permission
of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL). *

Students work as tutors in Physics 140 Keller sections. One to three credits may be earned while providing tutoring on one-to-one basis under the supervision of the faculty member. Tutors are expected to spend three clock hours per week for each credit earned. Registration requires instructor approval, and the appropriate application forms are available in the Physics Student Services Office, 2061 Randall Lab.

**334. Keller Tutor 240. *** Permission of instructor.
(1-3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL). *

Students work as tutors in Physics 240 Keller sections. See Physics 333.

**401. Intermediate Mechanics. *** Phys. 126/128
or 240/241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). *

This course is required for physics concentrators. It presents
a systematic development of Newtonian mechanics beginning with
single particle motion in on dimension and extending through multiparticle
systems moving in three dimensions. The conservation laws of energy
and linear and angular momentum are emphasized. Lagrangian mechanics
is introduced, and Hamiltonian mechanics * may be * introduced
as well. Physical systems treated in detail include the forced
damped-oscillator, inverse square forced orbits, harmonic motion
in two dimensions, coupled oscillations and rigid body motion
in two and three dimensions. Mathematical topics given extensive
treatment include vector algebra, elements of vector calculus, ordinary differential equations, plane and spherical polar coordinates
and phasors and/or complex numbers. Grades are based on one or
two hourly exams and a two-hour final.

**402. Light. *** Phys. 126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This course may be included in a concentration in physics. Topics studied cover the phenomena of physical optics, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, and polarization interpreted in terms of the wave theory of light. Several topics in modern optics will also be developed. Cost:3 WL:4

**403. Optics Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 or permission
of instructor. (2). (Excl). (BS). *

This is a laboratory course in geometrical and physical optics intended for science concentrators and especially for students electing Physics 402. One experiment every one or two weeks is performed during four-hour laboratory periods; a short report is required for each experiment. The experiments are designed such that they may be performed without students having a formal background in the topic investigated. The experiments include: (1) lens equations; (2) lens aberrations; (3) telescopes; (4) polarization; (5) diffraction; (6) interferometry; (7) electro-optical effects; (8) light detection; (9) fourier optics; (10) holography; and (11) spectroscopy. Students may also devise experiments. The course grade is based on the work done in the laboratory period as well as written reports. WL:3

**405. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism. *** Phys.
126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
(BS). *

This is a second course on the classical theory of electromagnetism. Familiarity with Maxwell's equations at the level of 240 is assumed. Physics 242 is strongly recommended. The course elaborates on the theoretical content of the Maxwell theory as well as practical application. Topics: review of vector analysis; electrostatic boundary value problems; magnetostatics; dielectric and magnetic materials; Maxwell's equations and electrodynamics; the wave equation, electromagnetic waves in free space, waves in conducting and dielectric media; guided waves; electromagnetic radiation, sources of EM radiation. Cost:3 WL:4

**406. Statistical and Thermal Physics. *** Phys.
126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

An introduction to the thermal and other macroscopic properties of matter, their description in terms of classical thermodynamics, and their microscopic interpretation from the perspective of statistical mechanics. Techniques from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and elementary quantum mechanics will be used. Frequent homework problem assignments, at least one hour exam, and a final examination will be given. Cost:2 WL:4

**407. Thermodynamics Laboratory. *** Phys.
126/128 or 240/241. (2). (Excl). (BS). *

This course is normally elected concurrently with Physics 406
and emphasizes thermodynamics and heat transport. Each section
consists of eight students subdivided into groups of two with
each group rotating through five experiments: (1) use of the thermoelectric
effect to measure temperature, (2) use of thermistors for the
measurement of temperature, (3) measurement of the viscosity of
gases, (4) measurement of the thermal conductivity of gases, and (5) determination of the ice-water phase diagram. Each experiment
takes a maximum of three weeks of laboratory time. Grades are
based on the record of data taken, computation and analysis, error
analysis, display of results (graphs, tables, *etc.) *and comparison of results with theory and/or accepted values. Laboratory
performance is observed and evaluated by the course instructors.
Cost:1 WL:3

**409. Modern Physics Laboratory. *** Open primarily
to science concentrators with junior standing, or by permission
of instructor. (2). (Excl). (BS). May not be elected by Physics
concentrators unless written permission is given by a Physics
concentration advisor. *

This course is an advanced undergraduate laboratory course designed to acquaint students in the basic techniques of experimental physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Students select experiments from among those which are available. The results of the experiments are recorded. These laboratory notes together with a written laboratory report are graded. The reports and performance in laboratory are the basis for the course grade. There are no formal examinations. Students may modify existing experiments or design new experiments. Topics investigated include: photo-electric effect; diffraction; electron charge and charge-to-mass ratio and others. This laboratory is not open to physics concentrators who should choose Physics 459 or 461. This course is required for concentrators in the Engineering Physics program. Cost:1 WL:3

**413. Physics of Complexities. *** Phys. 401
or equivalent, and familiarity with programming in BASIC. (3).
(Excl). (BS). *

This course is intended to introduce some concepts of non-linear dynamics, chaos, fractals, and disorderly growth at an undergraduate level. It should be useful to students in physics, chemistry, biological sciences, engineering, medical sciences, and, in some cases, social sciences. Cost:4 WL:3

**415. Special Problems for Undergraduates. *** Permission
of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for
a total of 6 credits. *

This course emphasizes experimental or theoretical research under the supervision of a faculty member. Generally a small facet of a large research undertaking is investigated in detail. This is an independent study course, and instructor permission is required. The appropriate form is available in the Physics Student Services Office, 2061 Randall Lab.

**418/Macromolecular Science
418. Structural Macromolecular Physics. *** Math. 216
and Phys. 242; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This course will provide an introduction to physical techniques
used to study the ultrastructure of macromolecules and biomolecules:
characterization of macromolecular structure; factors influencing
conformational stability; an elementary study of structural techniques;
scattering theory (such as X-ray diffraction, light scattering, *etc.) *and spectroscopic methods (such as infrared, Raman, UV, *etc.) *with applications to macromolecules.

**419/SPP 519/NR&E 574/RC
Nat. Sci. 419. Energy Demand. *** Basic college economics
and senior standing. (3). (SS). *

The natural resource impact of any particular human activity can usually be drastically reduced-given technological development and institutional change. (This is true for a variety of resources: fuels, forests, clean water, clean air....) This course is about the end use of energy and its efficiency – in contrast with a focus on the supply of energy. Thus we will not find out how to provide more electricity or how to clean up power plants, but how we could provide needed lighting and other services with much less electricity. The course will examine the use of energy in the U.S. for transportation, for processing of materials by industry, and for comfortable buildings. There will be focus on transportation and the potential for reducing its environmental impacts, including controlling global warming by reducing the emission of green house gases associated with energy use. The study will be done from the perspectives of physics, economics, behavior, social organization, and politics. The course will require a paper on an issue involving a particular end use of energy and a project on some aspect of energy use in the locality. The course will require establishment of minimum proficiency in analytical techniques concerning energy. Cost:2

**435. Gravitational Physics. *** Phys. 242
and 401, or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

The Einstein theory of general relativity provides the foundation of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. After an introduction to the theory, experimental tests of general relativity which were performed in the past, the implications of pulsars, black holes, supernovae, and cosmic background radiation as well as the ongoing experimental detection of gravitational waves are discussed. This is an elective course for concentrators in physical sciences. Regular exams as for any elective course in physics are given. WL:4

**451. Methods of Theoretical Physics. *** Phys.
401 and Math. 450, or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This is a course in the mathematical methods used in physics and is considered necessary preparation for graduate school. Among the topics treated are orthogonal functions and vector spaces, complex variables, differential equations and their special functions, Fourier series, and aspects of group theory. Cost:4 WL:3

**453. Quantum Mechanics. *** Phys. 242; prior
or concurrent enrollment Phys. 401 and 405 is recommended. (3).
(Excl). (BS). *

This course begins with an overview of the experimental and theoretical foundations for quantum mechanics. The theory is developed and applied to simple physical systems, with examples taken from atomic, molecular, condensed matter, nuclear and particle physics. Topics include: basics of the Schrödinger equations and its solutions in rectangular and spherical coordinates; properties, uses, and interpretations of state functions; expectation values and physical observables; coherence, correlation, and interference. Other topics include spin, the exclusion principle, and some quantum statistical mechanics.

**455. Electronic Devices and Circuits. *** Phys.
240 and 241. (5). (Excl). (BS). *

An introduction to DC and AC circuits; equivalence theorems; introduction to diodes, bipolar transistors (BJT), field effect transistors (J-FET, MOSFET, IGFET); transistor amplifiers (frequency and pulse response via circuit simulation with SPICE); transistors as switches; integrated circuits (operational amplifiers and logic gates); Computer based circuit testing. Two or three hour exams, plus a final. Four hours of laboratory per week, with written reports.

**459. Nuclear Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor.
(2). (Excl). (BS). *

Intended mostly for science concentrators. Conducted in a manner similar to Physics 403, 407 and 409, but more advanced. Emphasis on nuclear phenomena and instrumentation. Experiments include alpha and gamma spectroscopy, Compton effect, NMR, gamma-gamma annihilation, radiobiology, mass spectrometry and others. Utilizes Macintosh computers for data analysis. Cost:1 WL:3

**461. Atomic Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor.
(2). (Excl). (BS). *

Intended mostly for science concentrators. Conducted in a manner similar to Physics 403, 407, 409 and 459, but more advanced. Emphasis on atomic phenomena and instrumentation. Experiments available include atomic spectroscopy, Zeeman effect, optical pumping and lasers, X- ray diffraction and Moseley's law, Faraday effect and others. Cost:1 WL:3

**464. Solid State Laboratory. *** Phys. 242
and 406. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Phys. 463. (2). (Excl).
(BS). *

This is a laboratory course covering experimental work in x-ray diffraction from solids, electron transport in solids, phase transitions, the use of the electron microscope and thermal mechanisms in solids. Conducted in a manner similar to the other physics labs (403, 407, 409, 459, and 461). Cost:1 WL:3

**496. Senior Thesis I. *** Permission of departmental
concentration adviser. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Students get introductory experience and research work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis for a senior thesis project. If work is not completed in the Fall Term, student would register for 497 in the Winter Term.

**497. Senior Thesis II. *** Permission of departmental
concentration advisor. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

A continuation of Physics 496. Students who do not complete their thesis research in Physics 496, may continue to 497. If continuing, a grade of Y is given for Physics 496 and a final senior thesis grade given upon completion of the research.

**498. Introduction to Research for Honors Students.
*** Permission of departmental concentration advisor.
(2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Honors students get introductory experience with research work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis for a thesis used to fulfill that part of the Honors requirement. If work is not completed in Fall Term, the student would register for 499 in Winter Term.

**499. Introduction to Research for Honors Students.
*** Permission of physics concentration advisor. (2-3).
(Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Honors students get introductory experience with research work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis for a thesis used to fulfill the part of the Honors requirement.

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