Courses in Chemistry (Division 334)

The Chemistry Department has three types of courses available for students starting out toward careers in any of the sciences, engineering, or medicine. Students are placed into these courses according to the results of the tests in chemistry and mathematics that they take during orientation.

For students interested in the sciences, engineering or medicine, either Chem 130 or Chem 210/211 can be their starting point. Students who have had a strong course in high school (which may include AP credit in chemistry) are advised to start in Chem 210 and 211, the laboratory course that accompanies it. Chem 130 is recommended for all other students. Section 400 of Chem 130 is reserved for students who would benefit from a smaller lecture section and more frequent contact with both senior faculty and teaching assistants.

Students who have had little or no laboratory work in high school should plan to elect Chem 125 with Chem 130. Other students electing Chem 130 may postpone laboratory to a subsequent term.

105/AOSS 105. Our Changing Atmosphere. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course considers the science needed to understand human-induced threats to the atmospheric environment, with special emphasis on the global changes that are taking place, or are anticipated. We will discuss the greenhouse effect (and its impact on climate), ozone depletion, the polar ozone holes, and urban air pollution. Some basic meteorology will be presented, including how climate changes might affect the frequency and severity of hurricanes and tornadoes. Students will have access to real-time weather information via computer. This lecture course is intended for non-science concentrators, and there are no prerequisites. Grades will be based on three one-hour exams (no final exam) and homework. Cost:1 WL:1 (Samson/Wu)
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108/Geol. 130/Phys. 119. The Physical World. High-school algebra. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

See Geological Sciences 130. (van Keken)
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125. General and Inorganic Chemistry: Laboratory. To be elected by students who are eligible for (or enrolled in) Chem. 130. No credit granted to those who have completed Chem. 211. (2). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required.

This laboratory course can be elected with, or following, Chem. 130. It is intended that students planning to enroll in Chem. 130 that have had little or no previous chemistry laboratory enroll concurrently in Chem. 125. The focus of this guided inquiry laboratory is to foster critical thinking that allows students to design, perform, and interpret experiments. In addition, the student acquires technical skills that are required for further advancement in experimental sciences. Although an ability to collect and analyze data in a quantitative manner is developed, the emphasis of the course is to provide a qualitative understanding of the basic concepts of chemistry. This is accomplished by demonstrating that chemical principles are derived from experimental data. The goal is to provide students both with a more accurate picture of the scientific process and also with skills that are relevant to solving real life problems. Much of the course work is done as a member of a team. Student groups each explore the same problem with each group using different reagents and/or conditions. A networked computer system is used to collect, pool, and summarize the largely qualitative class data. Student groups address questions which require them to organize the class data using commercial graphing software. Group answers are presented in discussion.

The format of the course is organized into three sections. Pre-laboratory reading and questions are completed prior to each multi-period project laboratory. A one-hour lecture provides support for the topics and problems that will be investigated in the laboratory. The second component is performance in the laboratory where team data are shared, analyzed, and evaluated. The third begins in the first hour following completion of each multi-period project lab where groups communicate their findings during a student-led discussion. There are two one-hour written examinations, scheduled for Tuesday evenings, that constitute 30% of the grade. The remaining 70% of the grade is based on the points acquired in laboratory. Refer to the Time Schedule for examination dates and times. Cost:2 WL:2 (Kerner)
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130. General Chemistry: Macroscopic Investigations and Reaction Principles. Three years of high school math or Math. 105; one year of high school chemistry recommended. Placement by testing, or permission of Chemistry department. Intended for students without AP credit in chemistry. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

This General Chemistry course is intended to satisfy the one-term chemistry requirement for students interested in science, or as a natural science elective for non-science concentrators. This course may also be used as the first term in a four or more term chemistry sequence (probably 130, 210/211, 215/216, 260/241/242, etc.) for science concentrators and pre-professional students.

Chemistry 130 provides an introduction to the major concepts of chemistry, including the microscopic picture of atomic and molecular structure, periodic trends in the chemical reactivity, the energetics of chemical reactions, and the nature of chemical equilibria. Students will be introduced to the fundamental principles of modern chemistry, the descriptive chemistry of the elements, and to the underlying theories that account for observed macroscopic behavior. In Chem 130, students will learn to think critically, examine experimental data, and form generalizations about data as chemists do. Chem 130 will meet three times each week in lecture sections with senior faculty (the intensive section will have four lectures a week), and once a week in small group discussion classes led by graduate student instructors. Lecturers and teaching assistants will have scheduled office hours for after-class help, and computerized study aids will be available to all students. Course grades will be determined from discussion class evaluation, three one-hour examinations (Tuesday nights), and a final examination. See Time Schedule for examination times and dates.

The intensive lecture section (Section 400) is intended for those students who would benefit from a smaller lecture section (maximum 100 students) and more lectures so that the pace is slower and there is more feedback. Placement by LS&A testing or permission of the Chemistry Department (1500 Chemistry) is needed for enrollment in this section. Cost:4 WL:2 (Section 100, 500: Griffin; Section 200: Banaszak-Holl; Section 300, 400: Weathers; Section 600: Cordes)
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210. Structure and Reactivity I. High school chemistry. Placement by examination during Orientation. To be taken with Chem. 211. (4). (NS). (BS).

Chemistry 210 is the first course in a two-term sequence in which the major concepts of chemistry are introduced in the context of organic chemistry. Emphasis is on the development of the capacity of students to think about the relationship between structure and reactivity and to solve problems in a qualitatively analytical way. This course is a particularly good first course for students with AP credit in chemistry, Honors students, and other students with a strong interest in chemistry and biology. The course has three lectures with the professor and one hour of discussion with a graduate student instructor per week. There are three hour examinations (Tuesday nights) and a final examination. See Time Schedule for examination times and dates.

NOTE: This course is linked to Chemistry 211. The recitation sections for Chemistry 210 and the corresponding laboratory sections for Chemistry 211 are listed together in the Time Schedule under Chemistry 210. Students must elect both Chemistry 210 (for 4 credits) and Chemistry 211 (for 1 credit). Cost:3 WL:2 (Section 100, 200: Coppola; Section 300: Gugelchuk)
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211. Investigations in Chemistry. To be taken with Chem. 210. (1). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($67.50) required.

Chemistry 211 is a laboratory introduction to methods of investigation in inorganic and organic chemistry. Students solve individual problems using microscale equipment and a variety of techniques such as thin layer chromatography, titrations, and spectroscopy. The course consists of a four-hour laboratory period with a teaching assistant under the supervision of the professor. Students keep laboratory notebooks, which also serve as laboratory reports. Grades are based on performance in the laboratory and the laboratory notebooks.

NOTE: This course is linked to Chemistry 210. The recitation sections for Chemistry 210 and the corresponding laboratory sections for Chemistry 211 are listed together in the Time Schedule under Chemistry 210. Students must elect both Chemistry 210 (for 4 credits) and Chemistry 211 (for 1 credit). Cost:1 WL:2 (Nolta)
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215. Structure and Reactivity II. Chem. 210, 211. To be taken with Chem. 216. (3). (NS). (BS).

The emphasis on thinking about structure and reactivity of organic molecules started in Chemistry 210 is continued in Chemistry 215, with the student learning to analyze more complicated structures, ultimately being able to understand and predict the chemistry of large multi-functional molecules of biological importance, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The course has three examinations and a final examination.

NOTE: This course is linked to Chemistry 216. The laboratory sections for Chemistry 216 are listed in the Time Schedule under Chemistry 215. Students must elect both Chemistry 215 (for 3 credits) and Chemistry 216 (for 2 credits). Cost:1 WL:2 (Section 100: Ashe; Section 200: Toogood)
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216. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Compounds. Chem. 210, 211. Must be taken with Chem. 215. (2). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($62.50) required.

Chemistry 216 builds on the experimental approach started in Chemistry 211. Students participate in planning exactly what they are going to do in the laboratory by being given general goals and directions that have to be adapted to fit the specific project they will be working on. They use microscale equipment, which requires them to develop manual dexterity and care in working in the laboratory. They also evaluate the results of their experiments by checking for identity and purity using various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Students will be expected to keep a laboratory notebook that will serve as the basis for their laboratory reports.

NOTE: This course is linked to Chemistry 215. The laboratory sections for Chemistry 216 are listed in the Time Schedule under Chemistry 215. Students must elect both Chemistry 215 (for 3 credits) and Chemistry 216 (for 2 credits). Cost:2 WL:2 (Wiseman)
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218. Independent Study in Biochemistry. Permission of instructor. For students with less than junior standing. (1). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 4 credits.

This course provides an introduction to independent biochemistry research under the direction of a faculty member whose project is in the biochemistry area. The Chemistry Department encourages students to get involved with undergraduate research as early as possible. The Chemistry Advising Office, 1500 Chemistry, provides information to help students in meeting with faculty members to discuss research opportunities. Chemistry 218 is for biochemistry concentrators, and research projects must be approved by a biochemistry advisor. Exact details such as nature of research, level of involvement of the student, and criteria for grading are individually determined in consultation with the faculty member. The student is expected to put in a minimum of three hours per week of actual work for a 14-week term for each credit elected. At the end of each term, three copies of a written report are submitted one for the Advising Office, one for the student, and one for the faculty supervisor.

For a student to receive biochemistry credit for Chem 218, the student must work on a research project supervised by a member of the biochemistry concentration research faculty, and the project must be approved by a biochemistry advisor. Final evaluation of the research effort and the report, as well as the grade for the course, rests with the biochemistry research faculty member. Cost:1 WL:3
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219. Independent Study in Chemistry. Permission of instructor. For students with less than junior standing. (1). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 4 credits.

Research in an area of interest to, and supervised by, a Chemistry faculty member. The Chemistry Department encourages students to get involved with undergraduate research as early as possible. The Chemistry Advising Office, 1500 Chemistry, provides information and help to students in meeting with faculty members to discuss research opportunities. Exact details such as nature of the research, level of involvement of the student, credits awarded, and criteria for grading are individually determined in consultation with the faculty member. The student is expected to put in at least three hours a week of actual work for a 14-week term for each credit elected. At the end of each term, three copies of a written report are submitted one for the Advising Office, one for the student, and one for the faculty supervisor.

For a student to receive Chemistry credit for Chemistry 219, the student must work on a research project supervised by a faculty member of the Chemistry Department, either alone, or in collaboration with a colleague within the department, from another department, or from another school. This collaboration must be an ongoing one, and the student must receive direct supervision by all of the faculty who have agreed to sponsor the project. Final evaluation of the research effort and the report, as well as the grade for the course, rests with the faculty member from the Chemistry Department. Cost:1 WL:3
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230. Physical Chemical Principles and Applications. Chem. 215. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Chem. 260. No credit granted to those who have completed Chem 340. (3). (NS). (BS).

This Chemistry course is intended as a fourth term in chemistry for science concentrators and pre-professional students, completing the two-year chemistry sequence required by, for example, the medical, dental, and engineering programs. Students who plan to continue beyond a fourth term in chemistry would typically enroll in Chemistry 260/241/242 instead of Chemistry 230; credit will not be given for both of these courses. In Chemistry 230, students will be introduced to the physical principles underlying some of the major topics of inorganic and analytical chemistry. We will study the liquid and solid states of matter, phase transitions, solutions, electrochemistry, coordination complexes, spectroscopy, and the principles of thermodynamics that explain observed chemical behavior. These topics will be treated from the viewpiont of the experimental scientist, with an emphasis on the application of physical chemical principles to chemical behavior in a broad spectrum of settings. Chemistry 230 will meet three times each week in lecture sections with senior faculty and once a week in small group discussion classes led by graduate student instructors. Lecturers and GSIs will have scheduled office hours for after class help, and computerized study aids will be available to all students. Course grades will be determined from three one-hour examinations. See Time Schedule for examination times and dates. Cost:2 WL:2 (Section 100: Dunn; Section 200: Sharp)
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241. Introduction to Chemical Analysis. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem 260. No credit granted to those who have completed Chem. 340. (2). (NS). (BS).

Chemistry 241 is a continuation of Chemistry 130, 210/211, and 215/216, and is designed primarily for students in the biological and chemical sciences. The course introduces students to the chemical basis of both classical wet analysis methods and modern instrumental analysis methods. The emphasis is on statistical methods and the analytical applications of equilibria, electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and radioactivity. Analytical applications are further developed through the laboratory (Chemistry 242). Grading is based on hour exams, problem sets, and a final examination. (Gordus)

Note: This course is linked to Chemistry 242. Students must elect both Chemistry 241 (for 2 credits) and Chemistry 242 (for 2 credits).
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242. Introduction to Chemical Analysis Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem 260. No credit granted to those who have completed Chem. 340. (2). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

Chemistry 242 is the laboratory component of the Chemistry 241/242 course sequence. Experiments include studies of equilibria (titration, potentiometry), separations (gas and liquid chromatography), electrochemistry, and spectroscopy (atomic and molecular absorption and emission). Grading is based on laboratory reports and a final examination.

Note: This course is linked to Chemistry 241. Students must elect both Chemistry 241 (for 2 credits) and Chemistry 242 (for 2 credits). (Gordus)
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260. Chemical Principles. Chem. 215/216, Math 115, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Phys 140. No credit granted for students that have completed or are enrolled in Chemistry 260. No credit granted to those who have completed Chem. 340. (3). (NS). (BS).

Chemistry 260 is a continuation of Chemistry 130, 210/211, 215/216, and is designed primarily for students in the biological and chemical sciences. The course introduces students to the quantal nature of matter (the Schrödinger equation and the mathematical machinery of quantum mechanics), the basic principles of chemical thermodynamics (1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics) and kinetics (empirical rate laws). In addition, this course introduces students to the fundamental principles necessary to understand spectroscopy (electronic, vibrational, and rotational) and electrochemistry (free energy, Nernst and Faraday's laws). Grading is based on hour exams, problem sets, and a final examination. Section 100: Goldstein; Section 200: Lee)
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261. Introduction to Quantum Chemistry. Chem. 215/216, Math 115, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Phys 140. Chem. 261 is intended primarily for Chemical Engineering students. No credit granted for students that have completed or are enrolled in Chemistry 260. No credit granted to students who have completed Chem. 340. (1). (Excl).

Chemistry 261 is an introduction to the quantal nature of matter (the Schrödinger equation and the mathematical machinery of quantum mechanics) and the fundamental principles necessary to understand spectroscopy (electronic, vibrational, and rotational). Chemistry 261 is intended for Chemical Engineering students. This course, together with Chem Engin 330, provides the prerequisites necessary for enrollment in Chemistry 302. Grading is based on problem sets and one hour exam. Chemistry 261 meets only for the first third of the term. (Goldstein, Lee)
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302. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure, Reactivity, and Function. Chem. 260 (or Chem. 261 and ChemE 330; or 340). (3). (NS). (BS).

This course in Inorganic Chemistry is intended to introduce students to the properties of the elements and the compounds that they form. The course should be elected by students concentrating in chemistry, chemical engineering, or cellular and molecular biology. Section 100 will have a biological flavor and Section 200 will have a materials flavor.

This course will provide an introduction to the structure and properties of those elements other than carbon. Topics that will be included are the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and extended solids, bonding, periodicity, main group and transition element chemistry, catalysis and bioinorganic chemistry. Several lectures in the materials-oriented section will be devoted to novel and emergent concepts and phenomena, such as, for example, ceramic superconductors, fundamental and applied chemistry of organometallics, inorganic polymers, and materials chemistry. The biological section will include examples of metals in proteins and nucleic acids and how these metals are involved in biological catalysis. Chemistry 302 will meet for one hour, three times each week with a senior faculty member and once a week with a graduate student instructor in groups of approximately 25. Lecturers and GSIs will have scheduled office hours. Course grades will be determined from weekly problem sets, three one-hour in class exams, and a final examination. See Time Schedule for examination times and dates. Cost:3 WL:2 (Section 100: Penner-Hahn; Section 200: Curtis)
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312. Synthesis and Characterization. Chem. 215 and 216. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 302. (2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required.

Chemistry 312 introduces students to advanced techniques used in the synthesis, purification, and characterization of inorganic and organic compounds. The course emphasizes methods for handling air-sensitive material such as organo-metallic compounds, and includes syringe techniques, working under vacuum or inert gas atmospheres, vacuum distillations as well as various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The course meets in two 4-hour laboratory periods. Some of that time may be used for discussion of techniques and principles. Grades are based on laboratory performance, written reports, and examinations. Cost:2 WL:2 (Lawton)

398. Undergraduate Research in Biochemistry. Junior standing, and permission of a biochemistry concentration advisor and the professor who will supervise the research. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 4 credits during junior or senior year.

Elected starting in the junior or senior year, this course is an optional requirement for Biochemistry students and a requirement for Honors Biochemistry students, who must elect it for a total of four credits spread out over two or more terms. The student is expected to put in a minimum of three hours a week of actual work for each credit elected. At the end of each term, a written report evaluating the progress of the project is submitted; one copy to the faculty member, one copy for the Chemistry Advising Office (1500 Chemistry), and one copy for the student. Interim reports need not be lengthy, but the final report for Chemistry 398 is expected to be more detailed and longer than the reports in 218.

For a student to receive biochemistry credit for Chem 398, the student must work on a research project supervised by a member of the biochemistry concentration research faculty and the project must be approved by a biochemistry advisor. Final evaluation of the research effort and the report, as well as the grade for the course, rests with the biochemistry research faculty member. Cost:1 WL:3
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399. Undergraduate Research. Junior standing, and permission of a chemistry concentration advisor and the professor who will supervise the research. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 4 credits during junior or senior year.

Elected starting in the junior or senior year, this course is a requirement for B.S. Chemistry students, who must elect it for a total of four credits spread out over two or more terms. The student is expected to put in at least three hours a week of actual work for each credit elected. At the end of each term, a written report evaluating the progress of the project is submitted; one copy to the faculty member, one copy for the Chemistry Advising Office, and one copy for the student. Interim reports need not be lengthy, but the final report for Chemistry 399 is expected to be more detailed and longer than the reports in 219.

For a student to receive Chemistry credit for Chemistry 399, the student must work on a research project supervised by a faculty member of the Chemistry Department, either alone, or in collaboration with a colleague within the department, from another department, or from another school. This collaboration must be an ongoing one, and the student must receive direct supervision by all of the faculty who have agreed to sponsor the project. Final evaluation of the research effort and the report, as well as the grade for the course, rests with the faculty member from the Chemistry Department. Cost:1 WL:3
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402. Intermediate Inorganic Chemistry. Chem. 302, and 461/462 (or 469). (3). (Excl). (BS).

Chemistry 402 is a second-term course in inorganic chemistry at the undergraduate level. It has as a prerequisite Chem 302. The goals of the course are two-fold. On the one hand, it will build upon the concepts presented in the earlier course. Topics included here will emphasize the interrelations of ideas presented earlier in the curriculum. For example, discussion can include the relation between oxidation and reduction and acidity, periodic trends in acids and bases, the relation of hard and soft ideas to molecular orbital theory, periodic trends in standard reduction potentials, the relation of molecular structure to conductivity and magnetism. The key topics to be covered in this portion of the course include acid-base chemistry, theories of bonding, periodic properties and d- metal complexes. The course goes on to cover additional topics selected from issues in catalysis, bioinorganic chemistry, structure-property relations, solid state chemistry, organometallic chemistry, kinetics of organometallic reactions, f- block compounds, electron deficient clusters, and quantum models of structure and bonding. The course has three lectures per week. There will be 1-3 exams and a final. Weekly homework problems will be assigned. (Coucouvanis)
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417/Physics 417. Dynamical Processes in Biophysics. Math. 216, and Phys. 340 or Chem. 463 (or 468). (3). (Excl). (BS).

See Physics 417. (Axelrod)
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447. Physical Methods of Analysis. Chem. 260 and 241/242 (or 340). (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course introduces the student to the principles and techniques of modern analytical chemistry. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chromatographic separation techniques are stressed. Some discussion of contemporary electrochemistry is included. The principles of data collection and the processing and representation of analytical signals are introduced. The course format is lectures three times per week. A textbook is required. Readings from the review literature of analytical chemistry compensate for the inevitable shortcomings of any text. Cost:3 WL:2 (Sacks, Meyerhoff)
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451. Introduction to Biochemistry I. Chem. 215, Biol. 152 or 195, and Math. 115. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311 or Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is the first in a two-term sequence designed for students who are concentrators in biochemistry. Emphasis is on developing the capacity of the students to think about complex biological processes in terms of the underlying chemistry. An introductory section on proteins is followed by sections on enzymes and coenzymes. The discussion of biochemical energetics includes sections on glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, photosynthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism. The course has three lectures and one discussion per week. There are three hour exams and a final exam. (Yocum, Coward)
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461. Physical Chemistry I. Chemistry 260 (or 340), Physics 240, and Math. 215. No credit granted to those who have completed Chem. 397 or 469. (3). (Excl). (BS).
Section 100.
This is the second of the three-term physical chemistry sequence Chemistry 260/461/463. Chemistry 461 builds on the introduction to quantum mechanics that was given in Chemistry 260. Students will use the Schrödinger Equation in 1, 2, and 3-dimensions to solve exactly a series of important chemical problems including the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. Group theory is introduced as an aid for understanding spectroscopic selection rules. Advanced spectroscopy, including transition probabilities, normal vibrational modes, and photoelectron spectroscopies are introduced and then used to deduce molecular structure. The valence-bond and molecular orbital theories of chemical bonding are discussed, and methods for performing quantum chemical calculations, including variational and perturbation methods, are introduced. The quantum mechanics of spin and angular momentum are discussed and used to interpret magnetic resonance spectra. (Lubman)

Section 200. (Honors). This section is designed to introduce students to a more thorough, research-oriented view of Physical Chemistry. (Sension)

NOTE: Students are strongly encouraged to elect the Computational Chemistry Laboratory (Chemistry 462, 1 credit) in the same term that Chemistry 461 is taken.
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462. Computational Chemistry Laboratory. Math 215, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry 461. (1). (Excl). (BS).

This course introduces modern computational tools for symbolic mathematics and for graphical display (Mathematica and Maple). Examples are given of the use of these tools for solving problems in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, including exploration of the functional forms of wave functions, solutions of simple differential equations, and diagonalization of Hamiltonians. Molecular modeling software (HyperChem and CAChe) is introduced and used to perform both ab initio and semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The examples used are taken largely from the topics discussed in Chemistry 461. (Lohr)

NOTE: Students are strongly encouraged to elect the second term of Physical Chemistry (Chemistry 461, 3 credits) in the same term that Chemistry 462 is taken.
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463. Physical Chemistry II. Chemistry 461/462. No credit granted to those who have completed Chem. 396 or 468. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This is the third of the three-term physical chemistry sequence Chemistry 260/461/463 and builds on material presented in both previous courses. The rigorous mathematical theory of classical thermodynamics will be developed, including applications to entropy, heat engines, solution properties, and phase and chemical equilibria. Modern statistical thermodynamics will be introduced. Modern theories of fundamental reaction rates will be used built on the phenomenological kinetics introduced in Chemistry 260. Methods for determining and understanding solid state structures will be discussed, building on group theory introduced in Chemistry 461. (Kopelman)
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467/AOSS 467/Geol. 465. Biogeochemical Cycles. Math. 116, Chem. 210, and Phys. 240. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Biogeochemical cycles describe how carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements cycle through not only the atmosphere, the oceans, and the landmasses of the earth. This course is useful to students in many fields including engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry, biology, geology, natural resources, and public health. The biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur; the atmosphere and oceans as reservoirs and reaction media; the fate of natural and human-made sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds; the interactions among major biogeochemical cycles and resultant global change: greenhouse gases, acid rain, and ozone depletion. (Carroll)
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480. Physical and Instrumental Chemistry. Chem. 447 and 461/462; and concurrent enrollment in Chem. 463. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

This course explores methods for the measurement of the physical and spectroscopic properties of substances and the application of these methods in instrumental analysis. The course is focused on essential laboratory principles and operations as they relate to the physicochemical properties of organic, inorganic, and macromolecular chemical species. Experiments study the areas of equilibria, chemical structure, chemical change, and computer simulation and calculation. Emphasis is placed on the effective design of experiments together with synergistic coupling of modern instrumentation and computers. The course includes literature searches for physical data. Laboratory reports constitute an important component of the course. Ten to twelve hours a week in the laboratory. Grading is based on laboratory performance, laboratory records, and reports. WL:2 (Christensen, Meyerhoff)
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485. Projects Laboratory. Chem. 480. (2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

A project-oriented laboratory in which students work on one or two projects in depth during the term. The projects are suggested by the faculty of the department and require library as well as laboratory work. The projects may be in any area of analytical, inorganic, organic, physical, or polymer chemistry. Students interested in projects in inorganic or organic chemistry should elect Section 100, 200, or 300. Students interested in analytical or physical chemistry should elect Section 400 or 500. Eight hours a week in the laboratory. Grading is based on laboratory performance and a written report for each project undertaken. Cost:1 WL:2 (Lawton, Christensen)
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498. Undergraduate Honors Thesis in Biochemistry. Chem. 398 and permission of instructor. To be elected in the term in which an Honors student presents a thesis on undergraduate research. (1). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

To be elected in the term in which an Honors biochemistry student presents a thesis on undergraduate research. Cost:1 WL:3 (Yocum)
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499. Undergraduate Thesis. Chem. 399 and permission of instructor. To be elected in the term in which an Honors student presents a thesis on undergraduate research. (1). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

To be elected in the term in which an Honors student presents a thesis on undergraduate research. Cost:1 WL:3 (Coppola)
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507. Inorganic Chemistry. Chem. 461 (or 469 or 397). (3). (Excl). (BS).

Structural concepts relating to inorganic and organometallic compounds, inorganic stereochemistry, crystal chemistry, coordination theory, ligand field theory, catalysis, and generalizations about the periodic table. (Rasmussen)
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510(Biophysics 610)/Biophysics 510. Biophysical Chemistry I. Chem. 463, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 420; permission of course director. (3). (Excl).

This course is the first or a two-term Biophysical Chemistry series 510/511, but it can be taken as stand-alone course as well. The course offers an overview of protein, nucleic acid, lip and carbohydrate structures. Intra- and inter-molecular forces, helix-coil transitions and protein folding will be treated in a thermodynamical context. Thermodynamics of solutions, configurational statistics, ligand interactions, multi-site interactions and cooperativity are treated in depth. Kinetics of protein-ligand binding, including electron transfer and ligand diffusion are discussed. Chemistry 510 will introduce and explain the physico-chemical properties of biological macromolecules and their complexes, mostly in solution. Currently, biophyical, biochemical and pharmaco-chemical research literature is full with papers interpreting the properties of biological macromolecules on the the basis of their three-dimensional structure. This course will expand on that concept by offering a rigorous background in energetics, folding, interactions, and dynamics. As such the course is important to any student who has to deal with the concepts of biomolecular function and structure such as biochemists, biophysicists, mathematical biologists, and molecular pharmacologists. This course will also serve as a basis for the graduate student who will be specializing in any of these topics for thesis research.Molecular dynamics will be introduced. Instructional material: Cantor and Shimmel, Biophysical Chemistry, Part I and III and Creighton, Proteins, Structures and Molecular Properties. Evaluation: homework (50%), midterm exam (20%) and final exam (30%). (Zuiderweg)
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530. Introduction to Bioorganic Mechanisms. Chem. 215 and 216, and Chem. 340. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Applications of organic mechanistic chemistry to the problems of biochemistry, biotechnology, and molecular cell biology. Chemistry of fatty acids, carbohydrates, alkaloids and peptides and other natural products will be discussed. Cost:3 WL:3 (Marsh)
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538/Macromolecular Science 538. Organic Chemistry of Macromolecules. Chem. 215/216 and Chem. 230 or 340. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Chemistry of monomer and polymer synthesis; Mechanistristic analysis of reactions. Stereochemistry of polymer structures both natural and synthetic. Scope of subject matter: free radical and ionic polymerization, condensation polymerization, ring opening and nonclassical polymerization. Special topics from the recent literature. (Pugh)
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570. Molecular Physical Chemistry. Chem. 461 and 463 (or 468/469). (3). (Excl). (BS).

For Fall Term, 1997, this course is offered jointly with Chemistry 461.100. (Lubman)
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575. Chemical Thermodynamics. Chem. 461 (or 469). (3). (Excl). (BS).

For Fall Term, 1997, this course is offered jointly with Chemistry 463.100. (Kopelman)
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