Courses in Geological Sciences (Division 377)

A. Introductory Courses and Courses for Non-concentrators

G.S. 100-115 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Time Schedule for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Time Schedule. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. G.S. 100-115 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

100. Coral Reefs. (1). (NS). (BS).

Coral Reefs will be an in-depth tour of the biological and physical processes active in modern reef systems to provide a detailed understanding of the ecology of the individual organisms and the complex nature of their interactions within the reef community. Evolution of the reef community will be examined, ranging from the crude framework structures formed over one billion years ago by primitive algae to the luxuriant and diversified reefs of the modern-day oceans, to define the evolutionary strategies of reef building organisms. By tracking these evolutionary strategies through geologic time, the implications of man's intervention with the Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere on the character of future reef communities will be considered. Cost:1 WL:4 (Meyers)
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107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205, 270, or 271. (1). (NS). (BS).

The course is a study of the earth in action and includes the following topics: geography of earthquakes and volcanoes; catastrophic events in historic times; size and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; the products of volcanism; volcanic rocks; volcanic activity through geologic time; volcanic exhalations and the evolution of the earth's atmosphere and oceans; relationship of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics and the internal dynamics of the earth; volcanism and geothermal energy; manmade earthquakes; and earthquake prediction and control. Instruction by lecture, evaluation on basis of final exam.
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110. The History of the Oceans. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 222. (1). (NS). (BS).

The history of past oceanic inhabitants, events, and environments is recorded in the sediments which have accumulated on the ocean bottom throughout geological time. Fossils of marine plants and animals are a major part of the historical record; they give evidence of past oceanic living conditions and the evolution of life forms in the sea. Sediment particles eroded from land and carried to the oceans by rivers and winds provide insights into past climates on continents. Changes in ocean currents and in seawater chemistry have left their mark on the sediment record; the possible causes of these changes are explored. Plate tectonics and seafloor spreading have rearranged the shapes of ocean basins and repositioned continents over time. These processes are reflected in the record in marine sediments still present on the ocean floor and also in those now uplifted to form part of the continents. Selected topics include: the origin and destruction of oceans and mountains, El Ni o events, the Eocene greenhouse, and the origin of life. These topics are presented in lectures held twice weekly for a half term. A single exam at the end of the course will determine the course grade. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owen and Meyers)
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111. Climate and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 201 or 275. (1). (NS). (BS).

The intent of this course is to give a heightened awareness to students of the nature and fragility of the Earth's climate, and how changes in climate have affected past civilizations and may affect our future. Course topics will include: a description of the climate systems of the Earth, the atmosphere, oceans, and polar ice caps; the information we gather to understand the history of those systems; how changes in climate have affected past civilizations; and what may happen to the planet if the predicted "Greenhouse Effect Global Warming" finally arrives. Cost:1 WL:4 (O'Neil)
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115. Geologic Time. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 135 or 269. (1). (NS). (BS).

Until the middle of the 18th century the Earth was generally thought to be less than 10,000 years old, and according to many, close to its apocolyptic end. We now know that the Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago and that the entire history of mankind is nothing but the latest tiny fraction of Earth history. The formation of rocks, continental drift, volcanoes, and earthquakes is evaluated in the framework of geologic time and plate tectonics. The discovery of time from the Renaissance to the latest high tech developments in radioactive dating is reviewed. Finally, the history of planet Earth will be described including its accretion out of dust and giant impacts, the origin of the Moon, the formation of the atmosphere and oceans, the development of life and the building of continents. The course will draw upon examples meaningful to the student to illustrate the principles. Lectures twice weekly for half the term. Course pack provides most of the diagrams. A final one hour examination. Cost:1 WL:3/4 (Mukasa)
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117. Introduction to Geology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 119, or 120. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 117 for 4 credits. (5). (NS). (BS).

Introduction to Geology is a single term course structured to provide students from all backgrounds with an understanding of the history of Earth and of the natural processes which have given rise to its landscapes, oceans, and continents. This includes examination of: the physical processes which give rise to plate tectonics and the formation of earthquakes, volcanoes, the uplift of major mountain ranges; and of the chemical and biological phenomena which modify the character of the atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere at the Earth's surface. This course includes a laboratory to provide hands-on experience in identifying common rocks and minerals and in understanding geological and topographical maps. Topics covered in class lecture are reviewed weekly in a one hour discussion section. Course includes lectures and weekly laboratory and discussion sections. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lohmann)
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118. Introductory Geology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in GS 119, or 205 and 206, or 135. Credit is not granted for GS 118 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 117, or 218). (1). (NS). (BS).

This course provides hands-on laboratory experience for all students interested in learning to identify commonly-occurring rocks, minerals, and fossils and to interpret Earth history from geologic and topographic features represented in maps. Examples will be taken from regions complexly deformed by mountain building to areas sculptured by glaciers, erosion, and volcanism. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lohmann)
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119. Introductory Geology Lectures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 117, 120. No credit granted to those who have completed both 205 and 206. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 119 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course shares lectures and a weekly discussion section with GS 117, but does not provide a laboratory experience. Students requiring a ONE-TERM introductory science course with laboratory should elect GS 117. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lohmann)
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124/AOSS 124/Environ. Stud. 124. Environment, People, Resources. (2). (NS). (BS).

See Environmental Studies 124. (Walker)
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125. Evolution and Extinction. Those with credit for GS 106 may only elect GS 125 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be included in a concentration plan in geological sciences.

The course examines the concepts of evolution and extinction, stressing the role that the fossil record has played in their development. The broad patterns in history of life are presented starting with earliest evidence of life on earth. Basic geological principles necessary for reconstructing earth history are introduced. Readings are drawn from a variety of sources, including primary scientific literature. Requirements: attendance in lectures, discussion sections; readings; several short writing assignments; exams. Cost:2 WL:4 (Baumiller)
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130/Phys. 119/Chem. 108. The Physical World. High-school algebra. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

The physics, chemistry, and pre-calculus (algebraic) concepts of comprehensive Earth and planetary science will be covered for those students who feel less than fully prepared for existing college-level science classes. The course is aimed at students in need of a science course, particularly those who will not readily select more than one physical science course as undergraduates at UM. Weekly discussions by a GSI will complement the lectures and amplify on them. Extensive weekly homework (quantitative exercises) will form 40% of the grade, with the remaining 60% based on two in-class exams and one final exam. Textbook: K.B. Krauskopf and A. Beiser, The Physical Universe, McGraw Hill, 7th ed. 1993. Cost:2 WL:1 (van Keken)
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201/Geography 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 268. Those with credit for GS 111 may only elect GS 201 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course is a basic introduction to physical geography which emphasizes many topics including maps, seasons, the atmosphere, greenhouse gasses, radiation and heat balance, the dangers of global warming, circulation, moisture and precipitation, air masses, and water supply. Students also study climate classification, and geologic and historical climate changes, and landforms and their formation. Students in this lecture-lab course are evaluated by hourly and final examinations with satisfactory completion of the lab work a prerequisite to the final course evaluation. (Stearns)
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204/AOSS 204/Astronomy 204. The Planets: Their Geology and Climates. High school mathematics through plane geometry and trigonometry. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 204 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course will present perspectives on the evolution of the solar system in both an historical context and in light of the extraordinary scientific advances resulting from recent space exploration. The principal focus will be on the structure, composition, and evolutionary history of the surfaces, and atmospheres of the planets and their satellites. Special emphasis will be given to comparative aspects of geology, meteorology, and climatology as developed on the various bodies of the solar system. Concepts of space exploration techniques will also be presented. The course is intended for non-science concentrators and other students with typical high school science and math backgrounds. (Atreya and Pollack)
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205. How the Earth Works: the Dynamic Planet. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117, 119, or 270. No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 105 and 107. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 205 for 1 credit. (2). (NS). (BS).

The dynamic Earth has given us oceans, continents, and an atmosphere. Its continuing activity is manifested today by the destructive powers of such natural phenomena as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building. The unifying concept of plate tectonics contains the clue to the shape and changes in the physical environment of the Earth from its initial formation to today. The goal is to present a fully integrated approach to the evolving Earth's unique features in our solar system and explain its physical principles using conceptual and factual material. Extensive use is made of videos, animations, slides, and classroom demonstrations. Two lectures/week; evaluation based on midterm and final exam. No special background required. Course reading: Earth Science and the Environment by Thompson and Turk. This course can be taken singly or concurrently with its companion course (GS 206); together they constitute a balanced introduction to modern earth sciences. Cost:2 WL:1 (van der Pluijm)
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207. How the Earth Works: A Hands-On Experience. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 117, 118, or 120. (2). (NS). (BS).

This course involves a one-hour lecture followed by a two-hour hands-on 'practicum.' It is intended for students interested in environmental issues, in particular the relationship between earth sciences and short-term (on the order of years) human concerns. We will examine a wide range of environmental issues, such as earthquake risks, volcanic hazards, slope stability and mass movement, minerals, fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal), surface and groundwater pollution, solid toxic and radioactive waste disposal. The class is aimed at all who are interested in everyday environmental concerns and want to have an introductory, hands-on approach to understanding and solving these problems. It is intended for non-science students and there are no prerequisites, except for an interest in the near future of our planet. Because you will get a solid understanding of major environmental issues, the class can serve as a pre-concentration requirement in environmental geology. Reading: "Laboratory Exercises in Environmental Geology" by H. Blatt (1994). (Walter)
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222. Introductory Oceanography. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

This course introduces students to the scientific study of the oceans. Contents include the shape, structure, and origin of the ocean basins; the sedimentary record of oceanic life and conditions in the past; the composition of seawater and its influence on life and climate; waves and currents; the life of the oceans and how it depends upon the marine environment; the resources of the ocean and their wise use by society. The course format consists of lectures and readings from an assigned textbook. The course grade will be based on three one-hour exams and a two-hour final exam. (Rea)
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223. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in GS 222. (1). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

This course is an optional laboratory intended to provide students with opportunities to explore further various oceanography topics presented in the GS 222 lectures. Laboratory sessions will include sampling procedures, use of equipment, discussions, and demonstrations of how data are generated. The course grade will be based on written laboratory exercises and a final exam.
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231. Elements of Mineralogy. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 125/130 or 210/211. Those with credit for GS 232 may elect GS 231 for only 2 credits. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to the nature, properties, structures, and modes of occurrence of minerals. The first three-fourths of the course (three lectures per week) considers the general features of minerals and includes topics such as introductory crystallography, crystal chemistry, and introductory phase equilibria. During the last portion of the course, the principal rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, pyroxenes, and olivines are individually reviewed with respect to properties, structures, genesis, and other characteristics. The laboratory (one three-hour laboratory each week) is divided into three sections: (1) three weeks of morphological crystallography, (2) six weeks of systematic mineralogy during which students become familiar with the properties and associations of approximately seventy-five significant minerals, and (3) four weeks of introduction to the use of the polarizing microscope as applied to both crushed mineral fragments and rock thin sections. There is one required field trip. Introductory optical mineralogy is covered in five of the recitation classes. Geology 231 is a prerequisite to the professional concentration program in the Department of Geological Sciences. Cost:3 WL:3 (Peacor)
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232. Earth Materials. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem 125/130 or 210/211. Those with credit for GS 231 may elect GS 232 for only 2 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course is a required part of the Environmental Geology concentration program. It comprises an introduction to the inorganic materials, and processes involving materials, which occur at or near the earth's surface and which therefore are fundamental to processes of environmental significance. The order of major subjects is (1) fluids and their properties, (2) crystal structural and crystal chemical properties of crystalline solid phases, (3) general chemical relationships among phases, (4) systematics of significant mineral groups, especially clay minerals, and (5) minerals and processes among minerals in weathering, diagenetic, sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic systems. There is a laboratory in which students learn the characteristics and properties of the principal mineral and rock systems. There are two hour exams, a final exam, and occasional quizzes. (Stixrude)
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269. Evolution of the Earth. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 135. Those with credit for GS 115 may only elect GS 269 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

This seminar course is intended for first and second year students with no previous knowledge of, or experience in, the earth sciences. The material will introduce students to the history of the earth from its formation in the solar nebula, through the development of the continents, oceans, atmosphere, and life to its present state as an active planet. The course will explain how various features of the earth "work," including continental drift, volcanoes, and the formation of most rocks, how theories are developed in geology and how the magnitude of time has been determined. The course will be divided into two halves. In the first half the basic concepts will be explained. In the second half students will each make a presentation covering a relevant subject which will be followed by discussion. Assessment will be by two one-hour examinations and an oral presentation that will form the basis for a term paper. Course pack. (Halliday)
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271. Natural Hazards. Those with credit for GS 107 or 205 may only elect GS 271 for 2 credits. Those who have credit for both GS 107 and 205 may only elect 271 for 1 credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

This freshman/sophomore seminar examines various types of natural hazard such as earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, and tornadoes. We make case studies, explore geological and geophysical background, and discuss the social aspects of natural hazards. Each student is given a project, which will be presented in a class and reported as an essay. Evaluation is based on an exam, the presentation and essay. No science background is required, but active participation of students is expected. Cost:1 WL:4 (Lange)
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273. Contemporary Dinosaurs. Those with credit for GS 103 may only elect GS 273 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course will examine a current understanding of dinosaurs and other fossil reptiles, and the history and philosophy of their study. (Cox)
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280/Environ. Stud. 360. Mineral Resources, Economics, and the Environment. May not be included in a concentration plan in geology. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

Geology 280 deals with mineral resource-related problems in a complex society. The course discusses the origin, distribution and remaining supplies of oil, coal, uranium, iron, copper, gold, diamonds, potash, sulfur, gravel, water, and other important mineral resources in terms of the economic, engineering, political, and environmental factors that govern their recovery, processing and use. Among topics considered are the origin of oil, mineral exploration methods, strip mining, recycling, smelting methods, transport of oil, money and gold, nuclear waste disposal, and taxation vs. corporate profits. Three lectures and one discussion per week. Evaluation by means of quizzes, exercises, and a final exam. Required text: Mineral Resources, Economics and the Environment (S.E. Kesler). No previous background in geology is necessary for this course. This course cannot be used as part of a concentration plan in Geological Sciences. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kesler)
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283. Evolution of North America. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 411. (3). (NS). (BS).

This is a seminar course that will provide an introduction of the geological history of the earth using North America as an example. An introduction to the geological history of the earth will comprise the first third of the course. The students will then lead discussions on specific topics related to the geological history of the earth through time for two-thirds of the course, and each student will prepare a 9-10 page term paper on their topic. A required four-day field trip will be conducted after the end of classes of the term. It will involve camping out as well as short hikes to examine various rock outcrops. The trip will encircle Lake Huron from Ann Arbor to Sault Ste. Marie to Sudbury to Parry Sound and back to Ann Arbor, examining rocks that range in age from Precambrian to the Pleistocene. (Essene)
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284. Environmental Geology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 272. Those with credit for GS 271 may only elect GS 284 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).
Environmental Geology
deals with interactions between people and Earth. It begins with an introduction to geologic materials and processes and goes on to specific topics such as soil, surface and ground water, natural hazards (volcanism, landslides, earthquakes, floods, coastal processes), geomedicine, and waste disposal. Previous experience in geology is not required. The course includes three lectures and one discussion period (in which homework exercises are explained and discussed) per week. Evaluation is by means of quizzes, exercises, and a final exam. A book and exercise pack are required. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kesler and Nolen-Hoeksema)
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B. Primarily for Concentrators

305. Sedimentary Geology. An introductory geological sciences laboratory course. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Sedimentary Geology is one of several geology core courses required of all concentrators. The course format consists of two lectures, one evening discussion session, and one scheduled two-hour laboratory each week. In addition, three one-day field trips, scheduled from September to November, are required. The lectures will examine the principles and processes of sedimentation, and survey modern surficial environments, aspects of sediment diagenesis, and the tectono-sedimentological evolution of the Phanerozoic North American continent. The laboratory will provide an in-depth familiarization with terrigenous clastic and non-clastic rocks, in hand sample and thin section, and focus on identification of constituent grains, their fabric and classification. Evaluation is based on two lecture examinations, laboratory quizzes and assignments, and field trip projects. Cost:3 WL:3 (Wilkinson)
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418. Paleontology. GS 117, or Biol. 154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is an introduction to the principles, methods of analysis, and major controversies within paleontology. It will familiarize the student with the fossil record (primarily, but not exclusively, of multicellular organisms) and its use in dealing with problems in evolutionary biology, paleoecology, and general earth history. Three lectures weekly; midterm, final examination, and term paper. Required text: Raup and Stanley, Principles of Paleontology. Cost:2 WL:4 (Fisher)
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419. Paleontology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in GS 418. (1). (Excl). (BS).

This course is an introductory laboratory in paleontology. It will involve observation, analysis, and interpretation of fossil specimens (primarily invertebrates) and relevant material of living organisms. Its goal is to give the student experience in dealing with paleontological problems and to develop a familiarity with the systematics and morphology of important groups of fossil organisms. Students should be registered concurrently or previously in GS 418. One 3-hour lab weekly; lab exercises, midterm, and final examination. Recommended text: Clarkson, Invertebrate Paleontology and Evolution (3rd ed.). Cost:2 WL:4
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437. Evolution of Vertebrates. A course in general biology or historical geology. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course provides students with a detailed interaction with the facts and hypotheses regarding the origin and evolution of all the groups of vertebrate animals (except mammals see Geol. Sci. 438). Lectures and labs explore the fossil record and history through time of sharks, bony fishes, ancient armored fishes, amphibians, turtles, dinosaurs, pterodactyls, crocodilians, lizards, and birds. Adaptations and extinctions are studied in the context of earth history, paleoecology, and evolution. Three lectures and one lab per week; prerequisites: introductory biology or geology. Graded on the basis of two exams and one term paper. (Smith)
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455. Determinative Methods in Mineralogical and Inorganic Materials. One term of elementary chemistry and physics. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Determinative methods is a course in techniques of analysis of inorganic materials with lectures aimed at providing theoretical background for understanding of the techniques as practiced in laboratory exercises. The major emphasis is placed on X- ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, X- ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption. Although silicate and mineralogical analysis is emphasized, no background in geology is required. Entrance to the course is by permission of the instructors. The grade is determined by laboratory grades, three midterms, and a final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Peacor, Essene, Owen, and Lange)
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465/AOSS 467/Chem. 467. Biogeochemical Cycles. Math. 116, Chem. 210, and Phys. 240. (3). (Excl). (BS).

See Chemistry 465. (Carroll, Groves)
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467. Stratigraphy. GS 305, 310, and 351. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Stratigraphy is an intermediate level course which evaluates the framework for determining the time-space-rock relationship present within the sedimentary record of Earth history. It will provide an understanding of the principles and terminology of stratigraphy (including lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy). These principles will be applied directly to real geological sequences through problem oriented exercises, including exercises in seismic stratigraphic and seismic facies interpretation. Synthesis of tectonic, sedimentologic, and paleontologic data within this context will provide the basis for resolving the environmental and physical evolution of the Earth as a dynamic, interactive system. Prerequisites: an introductory geology course and Sedimentology (GS 305). Recommended background: Structural Geology (GS 351) and Paleontology. Evaluation of student performance will be based on two examinations and ongoing class projects and exercises. This course will satisfy the 400-level requirement. Cost:2 WL:3 (Moore and Wilkinson)
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477. Hydrogeology. Phys. 140/141, Chem. 125/130, and Math 116; Math 215 and 216 are recommended. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course provides an introduction to physical and chemical hydrogeology. Emphasis is on process and direct application to geological settings. The hydrologic cycle, physical rock framework, and properties of aquifer systems will be described and quantified. We will develop and apply transport equations and examples of fluid, energy, and chemical transport in porous and fractured geologic media. In addition to stated prerequisites, Math 216 is also strongly recommended. Evaluation is based on weekly practicum/problem sets. Cost:2 WL:2 (Pollack)
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489. Geological Sciences Honors. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Readings, discussions, and special work in geological sciences for undergraduate Honors students. May be taken as a one-term or two-term sequence with Geol. Sci. 490.
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490. Geological Sciences Honors. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Readings, discussions, and special work in geological sciences for undergraduate Honors students. May be taken as a one-term or two-term sequence with Geol. Sci. 489.
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498. Research or Special Work. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Research or special work in geological sciences for undergraduate or graduate students. May be taken as a one-term or two-term sequence with Geol. Sci. 499.
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499. Research or Special Work. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Research or special work in geological sciences for undergraduate or graduate students. May be taken as a one-term or two-term sequence with Geol. Sci. 498.
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