Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

Through a study of the classic texts in political theory such as Plato, Machiavelli, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, Tocqueville we will consider the questions and answers that have been raised in over the centuries in the search for the best political regime. Consideration of the meaning of familiar concepts such as justice, equality, liberty, community, democracy are part of this investigation. (Saxonhouse)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States which explores a wide range of topics including elections, interest groups, the presidency, Congress, and the courts. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? How do members of Congress decide how to vote? In what ways do presidents and bureaucrats affect public policies? This is not a comprehensive list but suggests the kinds of issues that are discussed in this course. There are two lectures and two discussion section meetings each week. There is generally a midterm, a final examination, and some other written work. Cost:2 WL:1 (Kingdon)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course examines how democracy evolves and functions in different settings around the world. We start with the emergence of democracy in Western Europe, examining the factors that give rise to it and help it survive. We then examine the origins of fascism in Germany and Japan; and the rise of communism in Russia and China, attempting to understand why these alternatives to democracy flourished in those settings and why they later collapsed. This leads to an analysis of the current struggle between reformers and hardliners over the move to market economies and liberal democracy in Russia, China, and Eastern Europe, and an assessment of the prospects for democracy in Mexico and Nigeria. Finally, we examine the probable evolution of democracy in advanced industrial societies. In addition to two lectures, there are two meetings a week in relatively small discussion sections, designed to encourage active discussion of these topics. Cost:3 (Inglehart)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

The primary purpose of this beginning course is to expose the student to the core questions that should be asked at any beginning of the study of international politics. Who are the major actors in international affairs? What kind of order exists in relations among nations? What mechanisms exist for change? What regularities exist in the behavior of actors toward one another that give shape and direction to the system? We shall try to get at some of the questions raised by using three of the major approaches students in the field utilize to select the behaviors they wish to study. One approach is to study the process of decision-making in foreign policy. Another approach is to study the effects that differences in national growth have on the politics among nations. A third way is to study the way the international system constrains the actions of individuals and groups. The major elements of the course are contained in four sets of lectures. (1) The decision-making approach; (2) effects of national growth on international politics; (3) problems and consequences of different types of international systems; (4) global trends in contemporary world politics including such topics as imperialism, neocolonialism, international economics and interdependence, developed-developing world relations, international organizations, and the limits to growth. There will be one, possibly two, exams during the term, plus a final. Other requirements may include a 12-15 page essay and such additional assignments as may be made by individual section leaders. Cost:3 WL:1 and 4 (Organski)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

305/Ling. 305/Comm. 305. Political and Advertising Discourse. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 305. (Heath)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

312. Freedom of Speech and Press. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the constitutional right of freedom of speech and press in the United States. Various areas of law are examined in depth, including extremist or seditious speech, obscenity, libel, fighting words, the public forum doctrine and public access to the mass media. Classes are conducted according to the law school model, with readings focused on actual judicial decisions and students expected to participate in discussions. (Bollinger)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

390. Practicum for the Michigan Journal of Political Science. (1). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for credit with permission of the chair.

This course allows students to gain experience working on the journal under the direction of the chair or other appropriate faculty member. This experience involves editing the Michigan Journal of Political Science. In addition to taking part in working on the year's issue, students wishing credit for working on the journal would do readings and write book reviews and research notes.
Check Times, Location, and Availability

395/REES 395/Slavic 395/Hist. 332/Soc. 392. Survey of Russia: The Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Successor States. (4). (SS). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

See Russian and East European Studies 395. (Rosenberg)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

400. Development of Political Thought: To Modern Period. Junior standing or two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

The aim of this course is two-fold: (1) to give the student a sense of the history of political philosophy from the ancient Greek period to the end of the sixteenth century, and (2) to help the student become aware of the complexities and assumptions entailed in the articulation of a coherent political theory. We will be reading the works of such major political philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Machiavelli. We will be concerned with such issues as the relation between nature and convention, the sources of legitimacy, the role of the individual in the political community and the value and purpose of political life. Readings will be from primary sources. Class meetings will include both lectures and discussions. Course requirements will include two exams during the term and a final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Mckee)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the creation and implementation of public programs in the United States. Lectures and readings focus on the major institutions of American government, how those institutions work together, the effects of federalism on public policy, and how we go about paying for all of this. (Khademian)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Public Opinion and National Elections.
This course views outcomes in American elections presidential, and congressional as expressions of public opinion. While frequent references will be made to recent elections, our central purpose wil be to understand American elections in general. For example, How well do citizens choose a president?, senator?, or member of congress? Readings will focus primarily around a course pack (not yet finished). Grades likely will depend on a mid-term, a final exam and a 10-page paper. (Hutchings)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

412. The Legal Process. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

Examines the role of the legal process in political systems. (Morang-Levine)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

419/CAAS 418. Black Americans and the Political System. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses upon the evolution, nature and role of African American politics within the American Political System. The concern is with African Americans as actors and creators and initiators in the political process. And the course will focus upon the inputs, the responses of the decision makers and the outputs in terms of public policies. And finally the various controversies will be explored and analyzed in regard to African American politics. There are no prerequisites for the course. Student evaluation will be based on exams, a book review, and one short paper. Of course, participation in each seminar is expected. The course will have three to four texts that will be selected later this summer. Finally, the methods of instruction will include lectures, a film presentation, and class room discussions. Cost:5 (Walton)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

420/Comm. 484. Mass Media and Political Behavior. Comm. Studies 361 or 381 strongly recommended. (4). (Excl).

See Communication Studies 484.
Check Times, Location, and Availability

422/WS 422. Feminist Political Theory. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the politics of gender, as analyzed and articulated by various feminist theorists. Although readings are drawn from several disciplines (e.g., philosophy, psychology, as well as political theory), the primary focus of this course is on the political implications and/or consequences of different feminist frameworks. This entails both a consideration of how feminist analyses complicate and enhance the study of politics, and how political assumptions shape the study of gender. The class will be structured as a seminar, supplemented by occasional lectures. Students will be evaluated on contributions to class discussion and three short (5-7 page) essays. Cost:2 WL:1 (Wingrove)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

428/Asian Studies 428/Phil. 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing. (4). (Excl).

This course seeks to convey an overall understanding of the evolution of China during the tumultuous twentieth century, with a strong focus on the current period. While concerned primarily with domestic developments, the course also considers the impact of the global arena on China and the issues China poses in international politics. The course presumes no prior knowledge of China. Three hours of lecture and one of discussion per week. Term paper and two exams. Does not require permission of the instructor. (Lieberthal)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

436. Bureaucracy and Policy Making. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Organizational Theory and Behavior.
Social science research has developed many intriguing ideas about how organizations and the people in them behave. This course presents an overview of the areas of organization theory and behavior by highlighting such ideas. The topics covered included organizational goals and effectiveness, human relations, organizational structure, decision-making, politics, and innovation. A mixture or lecture, discussion, and class exercises will be employed. In addition, the course will heavily emphasize learning the skill of analytical thinking. The primary means of learning this skill will be practice in picking out the major ideas of articles, articulating them in writing, and critiquing them, with feedback from the professor and GSI. Two prior courses in social science are required, which may have been taken as any mix of political science, sociology, social psychology, cultural anthropology, or geography. Grades will be based on a midterm and final, seven one-page writing exercises, and two 3-page critiques. (Mohr)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

441. Comparative Politics of Advanced Industrial Democracies. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the politics of developed democracies: i.e., those where commitment to relatively free-market capitalism and to relatively liberal democracy are no longer the subject of any serious political debate or conflict. Currently, that corresponds empirically, least ambiguously, to Western Europe, North America, Australasia, and Japan who therefore are the geographic focus of the course. Substantively, the focus is on political parties, elections, patterns of participation and of political conflict, public policy, and political economy. (Franzese)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

442. Governments and Politics in Western Europe. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (3). (Excl).

This course examines politics in all Western European countries, but focuses primarily on the largest nations: Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. We will also consider the significant changes that are brought to European politics by the growth in importance of the European Union. The primary theoretical issue will be the impact of institutional arrangements on political performance in parliamentary democracies. To this end, we will often use formal, deductive theories of political institutions to gain insight into the tradeoffs that different institutional arrangements create on different dimensions of political performance. The method of instruction is primarily lecture, although considerable class discussion will also take place. Students' grades will be based on several short papers and two exams. Political Science 185 is recommended but not required. Cost:3 WL:2 (Huber)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

453. Government and Politics of the Middle East. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

The Middle East is characterised as a region of numerous conflicts which influence both regional as well as international politics. The purpose of this course is: (i) examine the origins and evolution of selected numbers of regional conflicts; (ii)to study the involvement of a wide range of national, regional and international political actors in these conflicts; (iii) to review efforts at managing and/or resolving these conflicts; (iv) to analyze the role that domestic politics play in the dynamics that surround international politics of the Middle East. Following a general historical overview of the origins of the modern Middle Eastern state system, the course will focus on such regional conflicts as the Arab-Israeli, the Israeli-Palestinian, intra-Arab, the Iran-Iraqi conflicts. The course will also focus on Middle Eastern conflicts to do with ethnicity, religion and scarcity of water in the region. Course requirements will include: (i) one midterm plus an optional make-up exam; (ii) a short paper based on a review (from the printed media and the Internet, a list of relevant web sites on the inter-net will be provided and students will be encouraged to discover additional ones) and brief analysis of events surrounding a selected issue or conflict; (iii) a final exam, however the students who have done previous work on Middle East politics may elect to substitute a research paper (15-20 pages) in place of the final exam; (iv) participation in class discussions and quizzes on assigned readings. (Kirisci)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

454. Governments and Politics of Southeast Asia. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic and complex regions, and is of growing importance on the global stage. This course offers an introduction to the region for advanced undergraduates; it is also an introduction to some of the broader political, economic, and environmental issues in the developing world. The course has three parts. The first is an introduction to the history and politics of the region; the second is a country-by-country study of nine of Southeast Asia's states: Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Burma. The final section looks at the five central problems facing the region economic development, environmental protection, international security, human rights, and democratization. Grading will be based on two midterms, a final exam, and in-class discussions. (Ross)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

457. Governments and Politics of India and South Asia. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

This course, which is primarily intended for undergraduates, will acquaint students with the government and politics of India the world's largest democracy. The first part of the course will provide students with a brief overview of the historical legacies, institutional structures, and social framework within which Indian politics operates. The second segment of the course focuses on a discussion of post-1947 Indian politics and will seek to develop an analytic framework to understand Indian politics thematically rather than as a mere enumeration of events. In the final two weeks students will be expected to use the framework developed in the first two segments of the course to address issues of contemporary relevance such as the separatist movements in Kashmir and Punjab, increasing sectarian violence, such as Hindu-Muslim and inter-caste violence and threats to Indian secularism. Students may also choose to focus their attention on the problems of economic development in India, especially the slow alleviation of poverty, the stagnant industrial development or the lack of effort in developing an infrastructure. Students will be expected to read extensively, do some original library research, and take an active role in class discussion. There will be three short exams and a class presentation which will form the basis of a long term paper. (Chhibber)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

459/CAAS 449. African Politics. Prior or concurrent study of the Third World; Pol. Sci. 465 is recommended but not required. (3). (Excl).

Examines the institutions that shape political life in Africa. The first part of course is historical and considers the effects of environment on political structure, the differences between segmentary societies and kingships, literacy and political communication, secret societies and diasporas. The second part covers the politics of the colonial era and the nationalist period. The third section explores some of the bold initiatives of independence leaders. The course concludes with a discussion of contemporary struggles for democracy. No prerequisites. (Widner)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.
Section 001.
This course will address a range of issues which confront state leaders as they seek to ensure their country's military security and economic development in a competitive international system. Special attention will be given to foreign policy problems confronting the U.S. in the post-Cold War era. The course will be conducted largely as a lecture with some opportunity for discussion. Students will be graded on the basis of three in-class exams. Cost:3 WL:1 (Huth)

Section 002. This course stresses the importance of theoretical approaches to the study of World Politics. Students will receive exposure to a wide range of theories of World Politics. More importantly, we will stress theoretical methods, hypothesis testing, and the philosophy of science. We will emphasize hands-on learning of both theory and methods in problem sets. (Pahre)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

463. International Organization and Integration. Pol. Sci. 160. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with ways of managing issues arising from increasing interdependence among nation-states. It examines the role of international organizations in the contemporary global political system. It considers the historical development of international organizations, their political processes, and their activities. It explores the consequences of the growth of international organizations for the global political system, particularly the extent to which international integration is being achieved. Primary attention is devoted to international governmental organizations such as the agencies of the United Nations system and the European Union, but international non-governmental organizations are also considered. Responsibilities of students taking the course for credit include: (1) studying the assigned readings and participation in class discussions; (2) writing four papers of no more than 2,500 words in length; (3) writing a midterm examination; and (4) writing a final examination. Cost:2 or 3 WL:1 (Jacobson)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

469. Politics of International Economic Relations. Pol. Sci. 160. (3). (Excl).

This course compares political and economic ways to understand international economic relations, as well as the connections between international and domestic politics in explaining the international political economy. Substantive topics include a brief overview of the history of the international political economy in the 19th and 20th centuries, institutions in the contemporary world, including the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs, the International Monetary Fund, and the European Economic Community, development strategies, multinational corporations, foreign aid, and the debt crisis. We conclude with an overview of some contemporary issues, such as the new protectionism and the North American Free Trade Area. I assume that all students in the class have already taken at least one course each in World Politics and Introductory Economics. Cost:3 WL:4 (Pahre)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

471. The American Foreign Policy Process. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 U.S. Foreign Policy: Process and Substance.
This course has several objectives: to provide the advanced undergraduate student with: (a) an understanding of the global and domestic context within which U.S. foreign policy is formulated, executed, evaluated, and modified; (b) alternative interpretations of the policy process and context; (c) methods by which these interpretations can be compared and tested against the empirical evidence; and (d) the ability to evaluate past policy decisions and propose future ones. We also hope to enhance the student's ability to read, analyze, and write in a manner that is conceptually precise, analytically rigorous, and semantically clear. There will be a few short abstracts, memos, and analyses, plus one larger written assignment. There will be assigned reading in: (a) two or three required texts; and (b) in the scholarly journals. This is not an "oral textbook" course; therefore lectures will be minimal and informal, but rigorous and interactive. This is not the best course for students who are passive, or excessively concerned with admission to law school. Prerequisites: Political Science 160 and one 400-level social science course with grades of B+. Cost: 1-2 WL:1. To get an override, the student must be a graduating senior and bring writing samples and a copy of transcript. (Singer)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

472. International Security Affairs. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl). Laboratory fee ($30) required.

The course concerns the changing nature of East-West and North-South relations, focuses on the process by which American national security decisions are made, and treats alternative explanations of national security affairs. A special focus will be on the Arab-Israeli Conflict and the Persian Gulf War. The course uses a computer-assisted simulation of national security decision-making to provide participants first-hand experience on constraints to rational action. Students should have taken an introductory course in international politics, such as PS 160. There will be two exams, a midterm and a final. Students will be evaluated regarding the quality and quantity of their participation in the simulation. Methods of instruction include lecture, discussion, and the simulation. Cost:3 WL:1 (Tanter)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

483. American Political Parties and Electoral Problems. Poli. Sci. 111, 140, 410, or 411. (3). (Excl).

In this class we seek a broad understanding of what the American political parties are, how they operate and how they evolved, and how they compare to parties in other countries. We will study them mainly in the context of presidential and congressional elections, although we will also consider local parties, party organization, and parties in legislatures. There will be two exams (short answer and essay), and one short paper. Students will be expected to read assigned books and articles and be prepared to discuss the material. Lecture and discussion will be the format. Cost:3 WL:1 (Kollman)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

486. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Pressure Groups. One course in political science. (3). (Excl).

This course will cover the history of the American party system, with a special emphasis on the state of Michigan. Beginning with the pre-Civil War period, the readings and lectures will treat the shifts in public opinion that give rise to new popular movements and pressure groups, which them modify or destroy the contemporary party system. If university support is received beforehand to create historical datasets, the course will be taught as an undergraduate research experience. Students will then work with original Michigan election returns and Census information to evaluate competing historical explanations for themselves, using personal computers. The prerequisite is Political Science 111; there is no quantitative prerequisite. (Achen)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

487. Psychological Perspectives on Politics. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

Explanations of political phenomena often rest on psychological assumptions. Studies of leadership, decision-making, socialization, public opinion and voting, violence and revolution, propaganda and persuasion all have a psychological base. The purpose of this lecture course is to survey major currents of theoretical and empirical work in the psychological analysis of politics. Extensive background in political science and psychology courses is NOT required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. Grades will be based on examinations and at least one paper. Cost:2 WL:1 (Kinder)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

491. Directed Studies. Two courses in political science and permission of instructor and the Director of Undergraduate Studies. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). Political Science 491 and 492 may be elected for a total of eight credits. No more than four credits of directed study credit may be elected as part of a concentration program in Political Science.

A directed study on any subject agreed upon by a student and an advising instructor that does not duplicate a regular course offering. Students wishing to enroll for a directed study course are urged to work out the details of the course before the start of the term.
Check Times, Location, and Availability

493. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to senior Honors concentrators. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). No more than four hours of Honors credit may be elected as part of a concentration plan in Political Science.

This is a seminar for seniors who are working on Honors theses. Students must be admitted to the Honors program before enrolling.
Check Times, Location, and Availability

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Senior standing, primarily for seniors concentrating in political science. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Power and Legitimacy.
This seminar intends to introduce to political theory by reading modern concepts on power and legitimacy. In addition, a strong focus on reading in class should give experience in understanding and interpreting demanding theoretical texts. Three different theoretical perspectives will mainly shape the course: theory of action, critical theory, and poststructuralism. Although this curriculum includes a historical perspective starting with the early twentieth century, the focus of the course will be more systematic than historical. Reading different concepts from, among others, Weber, Arendt, Habermas, and Foucault, should teach the main changes in the understanding of power and legitimacy as key terms of theoretical political thoughts, and should enable students to interpret the implicit assumptions on power and legitimacy in current discussions on political theory. Classes will be hold on Wednesday from 3 to 5 p.m. The main work for the course will be an oral mid-term and a written final exam. Students will also have several short written assignments. Regular attendance, reading of the texts and participation in the discussion are requested. Professor Ritter is a visiting faculty member from Germany. She received her doctorate from the University of Hamburg and is interested in social philosophy. (Ritter)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Senior standing, primarily for seniors concentrating in political science. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Ethnicity and Politics in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
This seminar is designed for those with some background in Soviet or East European politics. It examines the nationalities of the former USSR, policies which affect them, the ideology which informs those policies, and the reactions of the nationalities to state policies. We examine the historical and ideological development of Soviet nationality policy and then analyze several aspects of ethnopolitics: language and personnel policies, resource allocation, ethnicity and religion, ethnic relations, and demography. The seminar concludes with an examination of the current crisis in post-Soviet ethnopolitics. The course emphasizes reading and the writing of papers, including a major research paper. There are no examinations. Cost:2 WL:1 (Gitelman)

Section 002 The Politics of Economic Change. This undergraduate seminar is designed to present an overview of the field of the political economy of development. Readings will be conceptually organized around political variable that have been known to influence economic change. As such, readings will be taken from a wide variety of geographical areas and time periods. In addition to examining the impact of the State, interest groups, institutions, and politicians on economic activity the course will focus in some detail on the gendered nature of the economic development. Formal course requirements are weekly papers (2 to 3 pages each). These papers, to be circulated to the entire class via e-mail, will form the basis of class discussion. The weekly assignments will provide three quarters of the grade with evaluations on contributions to class discussion providing the remaining 25 percent. Students should be prepared to read across geographical areas and social science disciplines. (Chhibber)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Senior standing, primarily for seniors concentrating in political science. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Political Development.
This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture. Cost:4 WL:4 (Organski)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

Section 002 International Conflict. This course will involve a detailed investigation of leading arguments about the causes and consequences of conflict in world politics. We will evaluate contending arguments by analyzing whether they tell a logically consistent story about international conflict, and by whether they provide expectations which are supported by the history of international conflict. This is not a "current events" course, but we might consider how well specific instances of international conflict fit patterns contending arguments suggest exist around the world. Students considering graduate studies in political science will be especially interested in this course. The class will be a weekly seminar in which student participation will be a critical element of success. There will be two essay exams, and one longish term paper. Cost:2 WL:3 (Lemke)
Check Times, Location, and Availability

591. Advanced Internship in Political Science. Two courses in political science at the 400-level or above and concentration in political science; or graduate standing. Permission of supervising instructor and review by the Department's internship advisor. (2-6). (Excl). No more than 4 credits of internship may be included as part of a concentration plan in political science. (EXPERIENTIAL). All internship courses may be elected for a maximum total of 8 credits.

Advanced Internship requires careful, individual planning between senior students in Political Science and individual faculty members who approve the internship and provide instruction. To register for the course, the student must complete the internship form and obtain an override to enter the course. The form is available in 5619 Haven Hall.
Check Times, Location, and Availability

lsa logo

University of Michigan | College of LS&A | Student Academic Affairs | LS&A Bulletin Index

This page maintained by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, 1228 Angell Hall

The Regents of the University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA +1 734 764-1817

Trademarks of the University of Michigan may not be electronically or otherwise altered or separated from this document or used for any non-University purpose.