Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers two regular introductory courses: Psychology 111 and Psychology 112. Psychology 112 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 111 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may not receive credit for Psychology 111 and Psychology 112. Either of the two courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses. Honors students and others with permission of the instructor may take Psychology 114 or 115. Psychology 115 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 114 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

Department of Psychology disenrollment policy for Psychology 111, 112, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, and 390. Students must attend discussion section by September 12 or contact the GSI, or they may be disenrolled from the course.

Independent Study/Directed Reading

The department of psychology offers several options for independent study/directed reading.

204. Individual Research and 206. Tutorial Reading. Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research or plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

505. Individual Research and 507. Tutorial Reading. Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research or plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Work in 505 must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Work in 507 provides an opportunity for further exploration of a topic of interest in Psychology. Faculty present a proposal for student work to the Department's Committee on Undergraduate Studies, which approves projects prior to registration.

The field practicum courses (Psych 404, 405, and 409) offer an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students make their own arrangements to work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. An override from a Psychology Department faculty member is required to register. Credits do not count for the concentration although courses may be used for experiential labs. PSYCHOLOGY 409 IS RESERVED FOR RESEARCH PRACTICA. Field Practicums and Psych 505, 507 have prerequisites of one of the following: Psychology 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390; and permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 505 and 507 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology.

The following limitations apply to Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study credit:

  1. A maximum 15 credits of Experiential courses may be counted toward a degree; a maximum 8 credits may be earned from one project, and only one such Experiential project may be elected each term.
  2. A combined total 30 credits of Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study courses may be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
  3. Experiential and Independent courses are excluded from area distribution plans.

111. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 111 serves, as do Psych. 112 or 113, as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112, 113, 114, or 115. (4). (SS). Psych. 111 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. Students in Psychology 111 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course provides a broad introduction to the field of psychology. During the term we will cover such topics as perception, development, physiology and behavior, personality, and social psychology. In addition, we will look at some of the metaphors and principles that have guided research and theory within psychology (e.g., the mind as computer; the role of the unconscious; the person as pleasure seeking; the role of nature and nurture). Grades are based on two exams and assignments in discussion sections. Cost:3 (Hilton)
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114. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 111, 112, 113, or 115. (4). (SS). May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. Students in Psychology 114 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This course provides a broad introduction to the field of psychology. We will cover such topics as physiology and behavior, sensory and perceptual processes, states of consciousness, learning and memory, thinking, intelligence, development across the life-span, motivation and emotion, personality, stress and adjustment, abnormal behavior and psychotherapy, and social psychology. The text for the course is Understanding Psychology (3rd ed.); there is also a course pack. Each student will also be expected to select and read a number of books from a master list of recommended popular books in psychology. Grades are based primarily on two exams, a reading log or journal based on the outside readings, and attendance at and participation in class. Cost:3 WL:1 (Morris)

Section 002. This course is designed to help you gain a broad overview of psych, apply psyc concepts to yourself and others and think critically and creatively about the material covered. I will emphasize active learning which includes group activities, class discussion, journals, and films. Final grade will be based on a research paper, a final paper, and 4-5 one page thought papers. This section will be most enjoyable for students who are self-motivated and like to learn concepts in creative ways. (Nagel)
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116. Introduction to Mind and Brain. May not be used as a prerequisite for or in a concentration plan in Psychology. No credit for those who have completed Psych. 112. (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students interested in the relationship between behavior and brain (that is between the functioning of the mind and the functioning of the brain) but who are not interested in being Psychology or Biology concentrators. The course will focus on specific phenomena of the mind and examine the brain mechanisms that underlie those phenomena. The topics to be covered include memory, motor functions, perception, language function, gender differences in cognition, and some pathologies of cognition. (Jonides)
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120. First-Year Seminar in Psychology as a Social Science. Open only to first-year students. (3). (SS). May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Late Life Potential.
Although late life is often viewed as a time of inevitable loss of competence, there is also evidence of great late life potential. This seminar will explore such potential. We will become familiar with relevant theory and research, read biographical material on late life greatness, study examples of late life accomplishments, and talk with vital old people. By the end of the seminar students should understand the nature of late life potential, as well as some of the conditions that facilitate it. From this understanding we will consider appropriate roles for the elders of our society. (Perlmutter)

Section 002 Language and Thought. This first-year seminar will examine the question of how language influences thought and how thought influences language. Through case studies, films, readings, and demonstrations, we will explore current psychological evidence on the issue. Topics include: language universals, variation across languages, bilingualism, communication in apes and other species, atypical language development in children, language disorders, and exceptional language. The goal is for students to obtain a deeper understanding of human language, and to discover how an age-old philosophical issue can be studied scientifically. (Gelman)

Section 003 Stress and Racism. This first-year seminar explores how stress and racism affect the lives of students in general and at the University of Michigan in particular. Part 1 focuses on the effects of stress on students' lives and different approaches to coping with stressors. Part 2 presents research on the causes and consequences of racism, sexism, and other forms of intergroup discrimination. Finally, Part 3 explores how stress affects intergroup relations and how this affects students' lives. (Inglehart)

Section 004 Thinking about Intergroup Relations. This course will serve as an introduction to various frameworks that psychologists and more sociologically oriented researchers use in understanding intergroup perception/relations and the management of conflict between social groups. In addition, this knowledge will be evaluated generally and applied to cross-cultural relations. Concurrently with examining case studies and theory, students will also think about their own perceptions of and interactions with people from different social groups. Students will also reflect on the notions of multiculturalism and social justice. The course format will include lecture and small group discussion sessions, including a considerable degree of interaction and participation. Participation in a dialogue group is required of all students. (Ybarra)

Section 005 Thinking about Self and Identity. This seminar is organized around weekly topics focused on group discussion of assigned reading. Readings concern self organization, origins in early development, developmental disturbances. Brief weekly reactions to the reading topics are required and will be used in class to begin discussions. Attendance is required. Course evaluation will be based on two short papers, two essay tests, and, to a limited extent, on class preparation and participation. (Fast)

Section 007 Dreams. The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be made the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others) the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature, and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class), and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

Section 009 Psychology and Non-ordinary Experience. This seminar will explore the experimental, anecdotal, and theoretical work that suggests that we humans are capable of intuition and knowledge that seriously challenge the prevailing conceptions of human potential and sensory-based reality. Experiences of non-ordinary reality are accepted as valid across a wide range of cultures and under varied conditions. However, it is only recently that such phenomena as remote viewing and holistic mind-body connections have begun to cross the boundary into the scientific community, stimulating both research and strenuous efforts to debunk what has been reported in the literature. We will review this literature and its critics. We will explore the possibility of replicating or extending some of these studies. And we will review efforts to make theoretical sense of what has been found to date. (Mann)

S ections 010 and 016 - Leadership: Theory and Practice. This is a multidisciplinary seminar for first-year students that explores the questions: What is leadership? What are some styles of leadership and traits of effective leaders? How does one lead? We will examine both classical and contemporary views of leadership as well as what contemporary theory and research in the behavioral sciences tells us about leadership. This is not a "how to do it" course in leadership, though students will learn a great deal about how to be an effective leader. Core readings consist of Gardner On Leadership, and Mcfarland et al. 21st Century Leadership. Small groups of students will also prepare an oral and written report on one outstanding leader of their choice. Course grades will be based on attendance at and participation in class discussions, a reading log or journal, several brief position papers, an end-of-class essay, and the oral and written reports. Cost:3 WL:1 (Morris)

Section 011 I, Too, Sing America: Culture and Psychology. Taking its title from the Langston Hughes poem, this seminar will explore psychological aspects of race, ethnicity, and other cultural differences in the United States. What are some of the opportunities and obstacles to our joining with Hughes in affirming, "They'll see how beautiful I am . . I, too, sing America?" Topics will include stereotyping, communication, cooperation, conflict, justice, and discrimination. For example: What are psychological theories about how individuals and groups might most benefit from life in pluralistic societies? What are some psychological dynamics of stereotyping? What are possible connections between various forms of discrimination (for example, racism, sexism, homophobia, and anti-Semitism)?

This course will participate in a nation-wide grant for students to make video diaries of race and racial issues on campus and in their lives, and to share those videos with students around the country. Students do not need video experience to take this course, but they should be prepared to make a two-term commitment: to take the seminar in the fall, and another course (perhaps an independent study) in the winter to finish the projects and make visits to other campuses. Entry is by override only. Contact Professor Behling. WL:1 (Behling)

S ection 012 Psychology and Law. This seminar studies issues in which law and psychology interact. We will examine a number of real cases that have been covered by the popular press (e.g., the Simpson, Bobbit, and Menendez trials), as well as some fictional accounts (e.g., Grisham's A Time to Kill and Dershowitz's The Advocate's Devil). (Pachella)

Section 013 The Psychology of Culture, Power, and Human Relations. We will look at what cultural diversity is and the impact it has on human relations in different environmental contexts. We will review the old adage of American Culture as a "Melting Pot" of a plethora of European cultures and the ensuing criteria for membership. Subsequently, we will examine the new order thinking also known as a paradigm shift (though still not a behavioral shift) encouraging the American culture to become more global, embracing pluralism and forming the "Salad Bowl" approach of multiculturalism. This shift/ change has presented opportunities, challenges, and conflicts within for American Society that warrants some investigation. We will brainstorm, identify, and develop approaches that can empower individuals, groups, and organizations in the change process to act with agency and progress towards a multicultural society. (Beale)

Sections 015- Intergroup Relations. Examinations of cultural differences; the conflicts which sometimes arise from them; and the opportunities for community which they offer.

Section 016 Leadership: Theory and Practice. See Psychology 120.010. (Morris)
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121. First-Year Seminar in Psychology as a Natural Science. Open only to first-year students. (3). (NS). May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 The Evolution of Consciousness and Cognition.
This interdisciplinary seminar will explore the nature of conscious and unconscious mental processes in various types of human cognition and action, including perception, memory, thinking, and behavior broadly construed. We will take an eclectic approach in our exploration, encompassing points of view found in disciplines such as psychology, neurophysiology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, and medical practice. Both normal and altered states of consciousness (e.g., sleep, dreaming, meditation, hypnosis, and hallucination) will be considered from these perspectives. Cost:2 WL:1 (Meyer)

Section 002 Consciousness. This course will examine the topic of consciousness from a variety of perspectives. Current theories and empirical findings in psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy will be considered. Other topics will include hypnosis, dreams, altered states of consciousness, transpersonal psychology, and how consciousness is portrayed in popular culture. The readings will include a number of articles and stories. Classwork will emphasize discussion and written exercises. Cost:2 WL:1 (Gehring)

Section 003 Decisions About Marriage. Decisions about marriage (e.g., concerning whether, when, and whom to marry) are among the most important the typical person ever makes. But there is good evidence (e.g., high rates of divorce and domestic violence) that people often make these decisions badly, with serious, detrimental consequences for everyone involved, including children. This seminar will examine literature concerning the variety of ways marriage decisions are made in practice. It will also explore and critically evaluate proposals for how people could make such decisions more effectively. Cost:3 WL:1 (Yates)
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122/Soc. 122. Intergroup Dialogues. Permission of instructor. Intended primarily for first and second year students. (2). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration in Psychology or Sociology. May be repeated for a total of four credits.
Section 001-007: Dialogues on Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Religion, or Ethnicity.
In a multicultural society, discussion about group conflict, commonalities, and differences can facilitate understanding and interaction between social groups. In this course, students will participate in structured meetings of at least two different social identity groups, discuss readings, and explore each group's experiences in social and institutional contexts. Students will examine psychological, historical, and sociological materials which address each group's experiences, and learn about issues facing the groups in contemporary society. The goal is to create a setting in which students will engage in open and constructive dialogue, learning, and exploration. The second goal is to actively identify alternative resolutions of intergroup conflicts. Different sections of this course focus on different identity groups (for example, white people/people of color; Blacks/Jews; lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and heterosexuals; white women/women of color; Blacks/Latinos/Asians; men/women).
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204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.
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206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.
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211. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, the people whom you will serve, the psychological concepts observed in action, and to provide a genuine community service. Outreach includes approximately 45 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, women, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to criminal institutions, social advocacy organizations concerned with combating racism, helping battered women, and others. All sections are two credits, requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, journal writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Time Schedule for lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Students are invited to stop by the Outreach Office at 1346 East Hall beginning April 2, 1997 to pick up an Outreach Booklet and receive information regarding registration, field work, and general course information for the Fall Term 1997. Two separate sections of Outreach count as an experiential lab for the Psychology concentration; they do not count as a lab for the Psychology as a Natural Science concentration. Outreach Office hours: Monday thru Friday 7:30 AM til 4:00 PM, 764-9179. Cost:1 , not including $15 lab fee. WL:1 (Miller)

Section 001 Infancy to Adolescence: Growing Up in America (formerly Life Span Development). (2 credits). Work with infants, toddlers, preschool children, elementary school students, middle school students, high school students, or adult women. The individuals with whom you work will come from a variety of backgrounds with some "at risk" due to factors such as living in single-parent or low income households or experiencing special educational or emotional needs.

Section 002 Big Sibs: Community and Opportunity. (2 credits). Be a Big Sib; develop a meaningful individual relationship with a child in need of the companionship of a consistent, caring adult; share in activities and enjoy being with a young person in the community. Some students might also have the opportunity to be a Big Sib to a physically or mentally handicapped child.

Section 003 Juvenile Delinquency and Criminal Justice (formerly Juvenile Justice). (2 credits). Establish meaningful friendships with, and serve as a role model for, teenagers whose behavior is in conflict with the laws and rules of our society; help plan and carry out social and educational activities for teens at residential placements for juvenile delinquents; or tutor teens at a local alternative school; provide important social interaction for incarcerated adults. Learn about juvenile criminal behavior, gang violence, the criminal justice system and the law, institutionalization and rehabilitation.

Section 004 Current Affairs: Issues in Social Justice. (2 credits). Learn about contemporary social problems, such as poverty, sexism, racism, heterosexism, and sexual violence, as they occur around us here on campus and in the world. As you examine the value systems which shape our current society, you can develop supportive and helping relationships with young and old persons as they attempt to work and survive within our society.

Section 005 Health, Illness, and Society. (2 credits). Serve as a non-medical liaison between staff, family, and patients, offering empathy and emotional support in waiting rooms, at bedside, in community health clinics and in other settings; learn how people cope with stress; provide supervised occupational, physical, rehabilitative, educational, and recreational therapy, and support for people with special physical or health needs: senior citizens, children who are physically impaired, or people who are HIV positive, or work with groups trying to prevent particular health problems, promote health education or those that are advocating for improved health services.

Section 006 Exploring Careers. (2 credits). Learn about your own abilities and needs and investigate college majors and careers that best fit these; explore graduate school options; write a resume and cover letter; improve your job search strategies; talk with professionals in various fields; increase your awareness of social issues that affect people's career decisions and work lives.
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255. Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program. Inteflex students electing a concentration in psychology may use Psych. 255 as the introductory prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 350. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended for students in the Inteflex program. It is a combination of an introduction to psychology and a life span human development course. This course will introduce basic concepts and research in psychology and survey the lifespan from birth to death, providing theoretical and empirical material on physical, perceptual, cognitive, social/emotional development. The course is geared to Inteflex students, and they have first priority. (Merriwether)
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305. Practicum in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (1-4). (Excl). A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Mentoring High School Students. (3 credits).
This experiential learning course is designed to provide mentoring experiences for high school students who are regarded at risk for low achievement. We will pair college students with 9th-12th graders at a local high school in order to help students with homework, to encourage effective learning strategies, and to help them develop appropriate coping strategies. College students who can relate to adolescents' concerns are a tremendous resource for their learning and motivation. Conversely, college students can learn a great deal from adolescents as they work together. The course will provide a personal relationship and useful academic information in order to help high school students become more successful and more motivated in school. University students will be expected to participate in mentoring a minimum of 4 hours per week, read related background information, keep a weekly journal, and write a 5-10 page paper. Students will meet in seminar, weekly (Tues. evening) to discuss relevant issues. Cost:1 WL:3 (Quart)

Section 002 Alcoholism and Other Behavior Disorders in Community Settings, II. (3 credits). Prerequisite: Psychology 372.002. The University of Michigan Alcohol Research Center (UMARC) provides a continuing opportunity for students to gain valuable research experience in a community setting as part of the Health Profile Project. The project will focus on the nature and extent of alcohol problems among patients 60 years of age and older, and assess specifically the effectiveness of a brief intervention designed to help older adults with drinking problems. The project provides students the opportunity to obtain research experience in the social and health sciences fields. Students will administer brief questionnaires to elderly persons in primary care offices, and they also may have the opportunity to conduct telephone follow-up interviews with participants in the brief intervention study. Other requirements include: interest in social sciences or health sciences; the ability to travel to project sites (car preferred); excellent interpersonal skills; and experience interacting with the public. Furthermore, students will gain valuable research experience in the areas of geriatrics and alcohol problems. This course is the second term of a two-term practicum sequence. The sequence meets both lab requirements for psychology concentrators. Those who register for the course will be required to attend a research meeting, a one-hour lecture, and 7.5 hours of field work each week during the academic term. Students also are required to write a research paper. (Zucker)

Section 003 Field Work in Multicultural Communities. (3 credits). This course is an experiential field course involving two visits per week to an African-American, Arab-American or Latino community in Detroit. Students will be assigned to work with community-based organizations on projects to improve the well being of children and families. Projects involve such activities as tutoring, developing outreach activities, assisting in child care settings, and working in community education projects. Internships will be supervised by the instructor and program staff. Transportation will be provided. Students will also attend a seminar meeting once a week to integrate theory with practice. That seminar time will be arranged at a time convenient to the students and the instructor.

Section 004 Practicum in Child Development and Child Care. (2-4 credits). This course allows students to acquire experience working in a child care setting with preschool age children. Students will be assigned to specific classrooms and work under the direct supervision of the head teacher and director of the Pound House Children's Center. Students are required to keep a weekly journal summarizing their experiences in the child care setting as well as integrating these experiences with literature on children's development. Students will be required to read the Staff Handbook for information on Center policies as well as independent readings on child development. All students must show evidence of a negative TB tine test and have a physical exam from a doctor stating that there is no reason why they cannot work with young children. Contact Carolyn Tyson at Pound House 998-8399. (Volling)

Section 005 Community Issues in Latino/Latina Schools. (3 credits). The purpose of the proposed course is first, to expose students to Latino youth and their Southwest Detroit community (a poor multi-ethnic neighborhood); second, to educate students about cultural aspects of human development, mental health and contrasting theoretical approaches to social change; finally, to help the students analyze their practical experience using this theoretical framework. The overall goals of the course are to educate students to be able to envision themselves working in an urban community setting and to become motivated to work for social change in their academic and professional careers. This course will be a field course involving two visits per week to Southwest Detroit community. A neighborhood school, Earhart Middle School, will be used as the site for tutoring and working with the children. In this course, the instructors themselves will supervise the field experience. Neighborhood walks will be planned and led by the instructors to make students aware of the cultural diversity of the neighborhood, its economic base, and its interesting history. (Jose)
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307. Directed Experiences with Children. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. (3-4). (Excl). A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 7 credits.
Section 001 Working with Children.
Directed experience with children aged eighteen months to five years at the University of Michigan's Children Center and Children's Center for Working Families for approximately eight to twelve hours per week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a child care setting. Cost:1 WL:5, Permission of instructor required for all students. (Sternberg)
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308. Peer Advising Practicum in Psychology. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. (2-3). (Excl). A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course is a supervised practicum for psychology concentrators who wish to learn to help other psychology students through academic advising/counseling. Students are selected by application and interview for the training and supervised practicum. Twelve hours of weekend training in peer facilitation psychology concentration requirements precede the weekly practicum and supervision sessions. A two-hour, faculty-supervised weekly class and an additional half hour meeting with undergraduate office staff is required. Required also are weekly journals and a final research paper. The purchase of two paperback texts and a course pack are necessary. In addition to experience with individual academic advising, students in this course may elect to help run "focus groups" on subjects of interest to psychology concentrators. The class is limited to about 20 students in order to facilitate discussion, training, and supervision of the practicum. For further information please call Dr. Sherry Hatcher at 747-3920. Cost:3 WL:3, Application, interview, and override required from Dr. Hatcher. (Hatcher)
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310/Soc. 320. Training in Processes of Intergroup Dialogues. Permission of Instructor. Open to Juniors and Seniors. (3). (Excl). May be used as an experiential lab in the Psychology concentration. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL).

This course is designed to give students a foundation in the skills and knowledge needed to facilitate multicultural group interactions, including structured intergroup dialogues. Topics include: basic group facilitation skills and their applications to multicultural settings; social identity group development; prejudice and stereotyping and their effects on groups; the nature of social oppression; facilitation of intergroup communication; conflict intervention skills; techniques of community building; and surveys of some contemporary intergroup topic areas (e.g., affirmative action, sexual assault, separation/self-segregation). Students who successfully complete this training may apply to act as peer facilitators for the course Psychology 122, "Intergroup Dialogues." Recent trainees have facilitated dialogues with groups such as Blacks/Jews; lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and heterosexuals; white women/women of color; Blacks/Latinos/as; men/women. (Beale)
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311/Soc. 321. Practicum in Facilitating Intergroup Dialogues. Psychology 310 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL).

This practicum is open to students who have completed Psychology 310, and requires applied work in facilitating intergroup dialogues. Students serve each week as peer facilitators in Psych. 122, "Intergroup Dialogues." Additionally, students also participate in weekly supervision seminars to discuss their work in the dialogue groups, and to discuss theory and practice of group observation, in-outgroup conflict intervention skills, intergroup communication and community building, methods of attending to personal issues when facilitating. (Behling)
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330. Introduction to Biopsychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course surveys the field of Biopsychology. It introduces the kinds of questions traditionally addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Biopsychology is the study of how psychological processes relate to the brain and to evolution. A major focus is on how brain processes cause psychological events and behavior, and how psychological events are encoded in the brain (physiological psychology or behavioral neuroscience). Another focus is on how psychological processes (e.g., perception, cognition) differ across different species, and on how psychological processes have been shaped by evolutionary pressures (comparative or evolutionary psychology). Topics will include: principles of behavioral evolution that have shaped current behavior and physiological processes; the anatomy and operation of brain systems relevant to mind and behavior, and their relation to psychoactive drugs; neural mechanisms of normal action, perception, motivation, learning, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and for one discussion/practicum section. NOTE: This course is intended primarily for sophomores and second-term freshmen who have ALREADY taken a course in introductory psychology. This course is a prerequisite for many upper-level courses in Biopsychology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Berridge)
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331. Laboratories in Biopsychology. Psych. 330. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

The purpose of this course is three-fold: (1) to provide students with opportunities to gain practical laboratory experience by assisting an individual faculty member in the Biopsychology Program with his/her on-going research; (2) to introduce students to selected general methods used in the field of biopsychology (brain and behavior and animal behavior); (3) to provide practical knowledge about research design, quantification of behavior, scientific writing, the use of animals in research, and miscellaneous techniques used by biopsychologists in laboratory research. Grades are based on a student's (1) performance in an individual faculty member's lab; (2) an oral presentation; and (3) term paper that describes the student's research experience. Students must register in two sections; a general lecture section (001) and an individual faculty member's section (faculty identification number). To be admitted, students must first get permission from an individual faculty member to work in his/her lab. Specific instructions and an application form (which must be completed) are available in the Psych. Undergraduate Office or the Biopsychology Program Office. Students concentrating in 'Biopsychology and Cognitive Science' will receive priority. Cost:1 WL:3 (Maren)
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335(430). Introduction to Animal Behavior. Introductory psychology or introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology. The prerequisite for this class is an introductory course in Psychology or Biology and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. Introductory lectures present the basic principles of organic evolution so that all students have the same knowledge foundation from which other course topics can be examined. Course topics include, among others, the relationship between genes and behavior, inclusive-fitness thinking and social interactions between close genetic relatives, the evolution of sex differences, mating systems and their ecological correlates, and sexual selection. Terms such as nepotism, altruism, aggression, and reproductive behavior are considered in light of how they have evolved by natural selection and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on a multiple-choice quiz, two in-class essay exams, and a term paper. The primary text is An Introduction to Behavioral Ecology by J.R. Krebs and N.B. Davies. A course pack will also be required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lee)
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340. Introduction to Cognitive Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The topics to be covered include various aspects of the psychology of human perception, attention, memory, thinking (including problem solving and reasoning), and consciousness. The material will include data and theory about the relationship between cognition and brain function. The course will emphasize not only the content material represented by these topics, but also the process by which researchers develop theories and collect evidence about relevant issues. Students are required to have taken an introductory psychology course that included material on psychological experimentation. Performance will be evaluated via objective examinations that will stress knowledge of the material and understanding of the relationship between theory and data. Readings will be drawn from a text and several primary sources. The course will include lecture, discussion, demonstrations, in-class experiments, and practice on problem-solving exercises. In addition to the regularly scheduled final exam, two evening exams will be given from 6-8 pm on October 14 and November 11. Cost:2 WL:1 (Polk)
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341. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psych. 330 or 340. (4). (NS). (BS). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This course satisfies one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with the methods applicable to the scientific study of behavior, with the primary focus on methods used in cognitive psychology. The general objectives of the course are to learn the logic of experimentation, to gain experience with experimentation, and to learn to critically evaluate research findings. The performance objectives of the course are to construct and carry out an experiment to test a given hypothesis, to analyze data from experiments, to present an experiment and its results in a clear and concise manner, and to write research reports following the standard format for psychology research. Experimental methods are demonstrated using examples from vision and perception, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and reasoning. Grading is based on exams, reports of three research projects conducted by the students, and participation during in-class laboratory exercises. Cost:2 WL:1 (Seifert)
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345(434). Introduction to Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Psych. 634. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course surveys current knowledge of the human brain and its role in mental processes, such as perception, attention, thought, language and memory, and learned behavior skills. Special topics include left vs. right-brain functions, sex differences in brain function and rehabilitation of cognitively impaired individuals with brain damage. Evaluation based on hour exams and final exam. Lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:1 (Butter)
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350. Introduction to Developmental Psychology. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 255. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the milestones of human development from conception to death. We describe physical, cognitive, and social growth of normal children with special attention to various cultural contexts of development and the rich diversity of individuals. The content is primarily drawn from research and theories in developmental psychology. We hope that students can integrate their knowledge of psychology and their observations of human development with the content of this course. In addition, we will discuss implications for child-rearing, education, and social policy-making so that you can apply the knowledge to meaningful problems. WL:1 (Paris)
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351. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 and Psych. 350. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This course is designed to provide students with training in the skills necessary for designing, conducting, evaluating, and communicating about research on human development. The class is a combination of lecture and discussion of research issues and methodology, activity-based laboratory sessions, and the implementation of individual and class research projects. Students are provided with "hands-on" research opportunities, interviewing school-age children and conducting observational studies. The class meets the Psychology Laboratory course requirement. (Myers)
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361. Advanced Laboratory in Organizational Psychology. Psych. 360. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This is a project-oriented advanced laboratory in organizational psychology. The lab is designed (1) to provide students with opportunities to gain practical organizational research experience, (2) to introduce students to selected general research methods in organizational psychology (e.g., field experiments, experimental simulations, survey research), and (3) to provide practical knowledge about research design, analysis, and scientific writing. Student research teams will engage in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of organizational research projects. Instruction will be delivered by lecture, workshops, and discussions. Readings will focus on theories, research issues, and methods. Evaluation will be based on contributions to the research team (peer evaluations), on collaborative written reports, and on exams reflecting course readings. Energetic and thoughtful participation in research projects is an absolute requirement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Saavedra)
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370. Introduction to Psychopathology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is an introduction to the clinical, theoretical, and empirical literature on psychopathology. We will explore the concept of "mental illness." To what extent do psychiatric disturbances reflect medical conditions? Should they be thought of as social constructions or metaphors? During the term, we will discuss behavior that is deemed by the helping professions to be dysfunctional and methods typically employed to treat forms of psychological suffering. We will use case studies, autobiographical materials, and films to understand psychopathology at the level of the individual and look to the theoretical and empirical literatures to understand existing norms of illness and health in order to understand what they tell us about human culture at the present time. Grading will be based on exams, assigned papers, and class exercises. This is a lecture class only. Students should be prepared for independent work as there are no discussion sections. (Hansell)

Section 010. This course is an introduction to the clinical, theoretical, and research literature on psychopathology. We will explore the concept of "mental illness," existing systems of classifying behavior deemed to be dysfunctional (i.e., DSM-IV) and methods typically employed to treat forms of psychological suffering. The emphasis will be on understanding what psychopathology is at the level of the individual struggling with it as well as exploring what existing norms of illness and health tell us about human culture at the present time. Students are expected to attend lecture and discussion section regularly and will be evaluated on examinations, short papers, and class participation. (Leary)
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372. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 370. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.
Section 001.
Using readings, lectures, and projects, this course introduces students to methods of research in psychopathology. Students will gain skills in the use and critical evaluation of current techniques with the goal of becoming more effective consumers and producers of research. Class format: A weekly lecture and a weekly "lab" meeting. Some weeks the different lab sections will meet as a whole; most weeks the lab sections will meet individually the total class time in any week will be three hours. (Peterson)

Section 010 Alcoholism and Other Behavior Disorders in Community Settings, I. This course offers undergraduates the opportunity to participate in an ongoing community-based research program. The project involves detailed screening for alcohol problems among older adults attending primary health care clinics throughout southeast Michigan. The study hopes to provide a better understanding of whether brief interventions for elderly patients with alcohol problems are effective. Also, we will attempt to determine which specific characteristics of individuals predict who will change their drinking behavior as a result of this intervention. In addition to 1.5 hours of class time each week, work involves participation in several aspects of the data collection phases of the project. The project requires approximately nine hours of time commitment per week. Ideally, students involved in this work should be able to enroll for a two-term sequence, taking Psychology 372 in Fall and Psychology 305 in Winter. Completion of both 372 and 305 will satisfy the Psychology Lab requirement. For further information, contact Dr. Zucker at 998-7952. (Zucker)
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380. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism and aggression; emotions and attitudes; stereotypes and prejudice; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams and classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. There will be three evening exams given from 7-9 pm on Sept. 30, Nov. 4 and Dec. 9. Cost:3 WL:1 (Fredrickson)
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381/Soc. 472. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 and Psych. 380. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

Students design and implement two studies using survey and/or laboratory methodologies on a standard social psychological topic such as personality, culture and social beliefs, cooperation and competition, group discussion and attitude change, bargaining and negotiation, etc. Instruction is carried out via discussion and demonstration plus a small number of lectures. Grades are based primarily on papers in which students analyze and write-up the results of their research projects. Quality of participation in class and in research teams is also taken into account. Cost:2 WL:1 (Burnstein)
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390. Introduction to the Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

A selective overview of major theories of personality. The orientation is systematic rather than critical. The goal of instruction is to provide students with a mastery of the various concepts and their interrelationships within each theory as well as with an appreciation of their empirical bases and their heuristic values and limitations. The work of Skinner, Jung, Freud, Erikson, and Lewin is presented in lectures and readings. The major applications of each theory are presented and discussed.
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391. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 390. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

Personality research methods will be explored in detail in this course. Techniques involved in assessing personality will be introduced, including attention to social and ethical issues. These may include scale construction, content analysis, interviewing and observation. Issues of experimental design will be discussed, and students will gain experience administering, coding, and evaluating personality measures. In addition, individually and in groups, students will plan and execute analyses of data drawn from one or more of ten different samples (of students, midlife adults, Presidents of the U.S., survivors of an earthquake, musicians, etc.) contained in the Personality Data Archive at the University of Michigan. Cost:2 WL:1 (Stewart)
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400. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory psychology. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Biopsychology of Eating and Eating Disorders. (3 credits).
The course is intended for sophomores, juniors, or seniors concentrating in psychology, anthropology, or the biomedical sciences (e.g., pre-med). To enroll a student must satisfy the following three prerequisites. (1) The student must have taken one of the following courses: Psychology 330 (Introduction to Biopsychology), or Psychology 335 (Comparative Animal Behavior), or Anthropology 161 (Introduction to Biological Anthropology); (2) The student should be a concentrator in Biopsychology and Cognitive Science; (3) The student should have a genuine interest in biological approaches to the study of normal and pathological behavior. Alternatively, the student can obtain an override from the instructor, following an interview. Two aspects of this course must be emphasized. First, eating behavior and its disorders are analyzed from a biopsychological (not clinical) perspective. Second, considerable emphasis is placed on evolutionary psychology approaches to the study of normal and pathological eating behavior. The course is organized into four series of lectures. The first series of lectures analyzes the role of food as a source of energy. These lectures cover fundamental topics in the physiology of nutrition, digestion, and metabolism. The second series of lectures focuses on the biopsychology of normal eating. Topics include: neural substrates of ingestive behavior; sensory-hedonic aspects of ingestive behavior; the biopsychology of satiation; the biopsychology of appetite; and the psychopharmacology of ingestive behavior. The third series of lectures is concerned with the role of food as a powerful organizing agent of individual and social behavior. Topics include: evolution of ingestive behavior; relationship between ingestive behavior, body weight regulation, and reproductive behavior; history and development of the concept of fitness. The fourth series of lectures covers major aspects of eating disorders (history, classification, and assessment; psychiatric and medical profile; epidemiology and etiology; psychopharmacology). (Becker)
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404. Field Practicum. One of the following: Psychology 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390; and permission of instructor. (1-12). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. May be used as an experiential lab in psychology. Credits may not be used toward either psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

Students may make arrangements to work in field settings where psychological principles may be observed and utilized. Information about procedures for electing Psychology 404, 405, and 409 is obtained at 1044 East Hall (764-2580).
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405. Field Practicum. One of the following: Psychology 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390; and permission of instructor. (1-12). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. May be used as an experiential lab in psychology. Credits may not be used toward either psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

Students may make arrangements to work in field settings where psychological principles may be observed and utilized. Information about procedures for electing Psychology 404, 405, and 409 is obtained at 1044 East Hall (764-2580).
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408. Field Practicum in Research Techniques/Natural Science. Psychology 330 or 340 or 350 or 360 or 370 or 380 or 390. (1-4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. This course may be used as an experiential lab in psychology. Credits may not be used toward either psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits of Psychology 404, 405, 408 and 409, and for a maximum of 15 credits for Psychology 211, 404, 405, 408 and 409. This course may be taken for a maximum of two terms and/or four credits with the same instructor.

***waccess.umich.edu/cgi-bin/public/crispinfo/div=455/course=408/closed=n/term=Fall">Check Times, Location, and Availability

409. Field Practicum in Research Techniques. One of the following: Psychology 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390; and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. This course may be used as an experiential lab in psychology. Credits may not be used toward the psychology or psychology as a natural science concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits of Psychology 404, 405, 408 and 409, and for a maximum of 15 credits of Psychology 211, 404, 405, 408, and 409. May be elected for a maximum of two terms and/or four credits with the same instructor.

The course provides experience and education in research techniques. The student works with the instructor on various aspects of psychological research, completes readings, keeps a journal and completes a paper which integrates the readings and experiences in the research setting.
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411/WS 419. Gender and Group Process in a Multicultural Context. One course in women's studies or psychology. (3). (SS).

See Women's Studies 419. (Tirado)
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412. Peer Counseling. Introductory psychology. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Peer Counseling Skills.
This course, which is open to freshmen through seniors, is designed to explore the basic principles, techniques, and developmental issues involved in peer counseling. The class size will be limited to 30 in each of two sections in this course so as to encourage discussion and participation in role play exercises. Appropriate readings and class discussion will address such issues as confidentiality, empathy, listening and communication skills. While there will be no examinations, there will be weekly writing assignments, a midterm role play and critique, and a longer final paper. These written assignments and in-class exercises will give an opportunity to apply the theory and technique of peer counseling. Some of the readings and discussion will focus on issues of self understanding in adolescence and adulthood, and on research issues in the field. While there are not required prerequisites for this class, it would be helpful for students to be curious about peer counseling and have a capacity for empathy and self understanding. Both sections of this course will meet with guest speakers on campus whose programs offer opportunities to apply peer counseling skills and illustrations of how such skills are applied. Some of the class sessions may be videotaped for teaching purposes. Grades will be based on the quality of participation and written assignments. A course pack with readings and textbooks will be available, and additional materials will be distributed by the instructor and teaching assistants during the course. Cost:3 WL:1 (Hatcher)
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418/Religion 448. Psychology and Spiritual Development. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the stages of spiritual development, beginning with awakening and initiation, through the deepening of direct experience and the formulation of a coherent spiritual path, including the notion of an ultimate attainment. It explores the function of spiritual groups and teachers in facilitating this development. Of particular interest are: (1) the spiritual seeker's experience of "little death," the mode of apparent discontinuity when the "old life" is supplanted by a new identity and mode of living; (2) times of crisis, adaptation, and "the dark night"; and (3) the experience of "physical death," as seen from the perspective of a lifetime of encountering both relative and absolute reality. By means of personal narratives and fictional accounts this course explores how diverse traditions create and value these moments of surrender and transformation. Lectures and readings by Hesse, Jung, Hillesum, Feild, Lessing, Soygal Rimpoche, Wilber, and others will form the basis of three short papers and one long final paper. There will be no final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)
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437/Anthro. 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS). (BS).

See Biological Anthropology 368. (Pepper)
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442. Perception, Science, and Reality. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course carries concentration credit for Psychology concentrators and natural science credit for non-Psychology concentrators. The course focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories. It also examines the general relationship between perception and scientific observation. Topics include: sensory transduction and psychophysics, Gestalt organization, constancy and contrast effects, expectation, selective attention, perceptual learning, and symbolic representation. While the course is oriented toward the natural sciences, it also considers social, philosophical, and aesthetic perspectives, since at its most general level, human perception concerns the questions of how and why human beings use sensory information to conceive of, and experience immediate reality the way they do. The instructor assumes no particular psychology background, and non-psychology concentrators are welcome. Grades will be determined on the basis of two short papers (each worth 30% of the grade) and one longer paper (worth 40% of the grade). Questions concerning this class can be e-mailed to Robert Pachella. Cost:2 WL:5, Get on waitlist. At beginning of term be sure that your telephone number at CRISP is correct: If not call 764-9440 to correct it. As places in the course open up, we will call people IN ORDER from the waitlist. (Pachella)
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444. Perception. Psych. 340. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course will focus on the brain mechanisms that underlie human perception. We will emphasize studies of the structures and functions of the visual system, drawing upon studies of animals, neuroimaging in humans, and disorders of perception due to brain damage. The course will be primarily lecture format with occasional meetings designated as labs and open discussion periods. A text and course pack will be required. A background that includes 345, 330 and/or 340 would be beneficial for students in this course. Evaluation will be based on exams and written assignments. (Reuter-Lorenz)
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451/Ling. 451. Development of Language and Thought. Psych. 350. (3). (SS).

This course will examine how children acquire their first language, from babbling and first words through complex grammar. Topics include: word meanings, syntactic development, pragmatics, relations between language and thought, influence of parental input, second-language acquisition, critical periods in development, and more. We will discuss major theoretical approaches as well as a variety of current research evidence. The course is a lecture format, but with the small class size discussion will be encouraged. Requirements: three exams and a term project. (Gelman)
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453. Socialization of the Child. Psych. 350. (3). (SS).

This course will focus on the social and emotional development of children with particular emphasis on the various influences on children's socialization such as family, peers, schools, and the society at large. A partial list of topics includes: biological influences on development, infant-caregiver attachments, the development of children's friendships, parental beliefs and behaviors, the role of fathers in child development, sex-role development, the development of prosocial behavior, the development of the self, the development of achievement motivation, schools as socialization agents, day care and maternal employment, and divorce and single-parenthood. The class will be a combination of lecture and discussion. (Myers)
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455. Cognitive Development. Psych. 350. (3). (SS).

This upper-level undergraduate course provides an examination of children's thinking and intellectual growth, from infancy through adolescence. Topics covered include: concepts, language, problem-solving, memory, spatial skills, individual differences, and more. We will consider different theoretical accounts of how mental abilities develop, devoting particular attention to recent psychological research (both experimental and observational). The course will include lectures and opportunity for in-class discussion. Students will be evaluated by exams and one term paper. Cost:2 (Wellman)
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456. Human Infancy. Psych. 350. (3). (Excl).

This course will cover the social, emotional, and cognitive development of infants over the first three years of life, with an emphasis on children's development in context. We will also focus on the interface between social policy and issues relevant to infant development. Student's performance on exams, a research paper, and class presentations will serve as the means for evaluation. The class will meet twice weekly for lecture and discussion sessions. Cost:2 WL:1
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459. Psychology of Aging. Psych. 350. (3). (SS).
Section 002.
This undergraduate course is designed to familiarize students with current knowledge about the constancies and changes that occur in adult behavior and thought, as well as to acquaint them with likely causes of stability, growth, and decline across adulthood, and provide them with an enriched understanding of development and aging. By the end of the course, students should be able to characterize the range and variety of possible adult developmental trajectories, and interpret research addressing development and aging. The knowledge gained in the course should provide students with an understanding of the needs of older adults in our present society, as well an appreciation of the tremendous resource the older population offers. In addition, the course should provide students with insights about the changes they should expect as they get older, and things they can do to affect these changes. The course also should expand students' thinking about the implications of development and aging for individuals and societies. The course will cover theory, methods, and data relevant to age differences in adulthood. We will begin with a brief overview of theoretical and methodological issues. Then we will consider age differences in specific areas, and the implications of these age differences for individual and societal functioning. Areas to be covered are biological function (including physical and mental health); basic cognitive processes (e.g., sensation, perception, attention, speed of processing, learning, and memory); higher mental processes (e.g., problem solving, intelligence, creativity, and wisdom); personality; emotionality; motivation; stress; coping; social interaction (both within and between generations); social roles (e.g., family, work, and community responsibilities, and leisure activities); gender differences; and ethnic, cultural, and historical diversity. Student grades will be based on exams and papers. A text and supplemental readings will be assigned. Classes will involve lecture and discussion. (Perlmutter)
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464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 360. (3). (Excl).

The course is designed to help students understand the nature of behavior in groups within organizational settings. Topics include the nature of groups, group roles, leadership, group effectiveness, and other related areas. Emphasis is on the application of group concepts to organizational environments.
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471. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion. (S.Olson)
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474. Introduction to Behavior Therapy. Psych. 370. (3). (Excl).

The course will review the major theoretical models, assessment strategies, and treatment modalities of behavior therapy. The syllabus will initially introduce behavior modification within the context of traditional psychology and review its underlying assumptions. Basic principles of classical and operant conditioning and social learning theory will be described, and the respective paradigms will be extended to explain the mechanisms and remediation of childhood and adult psychopathology including marital and family dysfunction. Recent trends in behavior therapy, including the growth of cognitive schools of behavior change and the application of learning principles in the investigation and treatment of a wide variety of medical disorders, will follow. Finally, a critical evaluation of behavior therapy and relevant ethical concerns will be discussed. Student evaluation will be based on three examinations and a behavior modification project. Cost:2 WL:1 (Roth)
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488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)
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490. Political Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Gender in Leadership, War, and Nationalism.
This course surveys different ways in which psychological factors affect political behavior, and vice versa, frequently using gender as an interpretive lens. After an initial discussion of the underlying dimensions of political and social behavior, we begin by considering, from a psychological point of view, two major phenomena leadership and war. Next we examine ways of measuring "at a distance" the psychological characteristics of political leaders and groups, who cannot be studied directly. Then we examine psychological perspectives on several political processes: socialization (or learning about politics), ideology, political cognition, the mass media, and political commitment and voting. Finally, we consider psychological aspects of rebellion, violence and terrorism, nationalism and ethnic conflict (threats to the political systems), and negotiation and mediation (restoring the political system). Prerequisites are: Introductory Psychology, and an interest in history and politics. Evaluation by exams and papers. Lectures and discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Winter)
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500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology. (2-4). (Excl). (BS). Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology. May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Sex, Gender, and Sexual Orientation. (3 credits).
Why do humans and other species reproduce in pairs? Why should females and males differ? How much do they differ, and must they differ as much as they do? What factors influence our choice of the gender with whom we choose to pair? We will consider these and other questions from a broad range of perspectives evolutionary, developmental, neurobiological, sociobiological, physiological, etc. current in psychological and biological thought about sex, gender, and sexual orientation. We will also examine critiques of these explanations from disciplines outside of the sciences. Students from areas outside of psychology are welcome, but all will be expected to grapple with the relevant scientific concepts. Some background in development, biopsychology, or behavioral/evolutionary biology is helpful but not necessary. Grading will be based on a combination of exams and papers, with some choice available to students. Required reading will be assembled in a course pack that includes textbook chapters, scientific papers, and reviews. Cost:1 WL:1 (Gorman)
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501. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science. Introductory Psychology. (1-4). (Excl). Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology. May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.
Section 002 Dreams as Problem-Solving Strategies. (3 credits).
The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving; hence clinical data will be made the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others) the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature, and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class), and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content, and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

Section 004 Language, Thought, and Affect. (3 credits). People use language in their interactions with each other for a variety of purposes. Language can convey information, elicit emotional reactions, assert social positions, and establish interpersonal connections. These various kinds of communication are accomplished by the interaction of many different kinds of psychological processing. The purpose of this course is to explore the biological, cognitive, social, emotional, and developmental factors that contribute to language communication. We will examine how language processing occurs within a social and interpersonal context which can enhance understanding or lead to miscommunications. Course topics will include non-verbal aspects of communication, cognitive and emotional language impairments, and language in psychotherapy (the talking cure). The class format will include lecture and discussion, and students will be expected to participate in discussions as part of the course requirement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Slowiaczek)

Section 005 African-American Women in Context. (3 credits). For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with Women's Studies 346.001. (Hunter)
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505(504). Faculty Directed Advanced Research. Permission of instructor and one of the following: Psychology 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390. (1-6). (Excl). May be used as an experiential lab by faculty petition to the Committee on Undergraduate Studies. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 505 and 507 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research of their own design under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report, a copy of which must be given to the undergraduate office. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course.
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507(506). Faculty Directed Advanced Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and approval of the Department of Psychology Committee on Undergraduate Studies; and one of the following: Psychology 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390. (1-6). (Excl). A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 505 and 507 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to further explore a topic of interest in Psychology under the direction of a member of the staff. The course requires a final paper, a copy of which must be given to the undergraduate office. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.
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510. Senior Honors Research, I. Psych. 312 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

The primary focus in Senior Honors is implementation of your research design culminating in your final, acceptable thesis and poster preparation for our year-end poster session. (Previously summarized as Get thee to your tutor, Progress steadily, and Conclude well). The goal is a thesis that makes one justifiably proud, and enhanced grounded understanding of research methods. Early on, each student will present the scholarly background and specific research design of their study to the class, and we will sporadically return to brief design and implementation presentations by each student. Drafts of segments of ongoing work that can later be incorporated into the final thesis are to be submitted periodically. Other class session topics will include: special current issues and models of research, e.g., meta-analyses, risk/resilience research, integration of quantitative and qualitative data, etc.; graduate/ professional school or job decisions and application strategies, basics of statistical reasoning, and more. Our primary focus, again, will be the conduct and successful completion of your thesis and the enrichment of your research competence. Note: designated statistical consultants and consultant time will be specifically dedicated to Senior Honors students' thesis guidance. Cost:1 WL:1 (Cain)
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531. Advanced Topics in Biopsychology. Psych. 330. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Biopsychology of Learning and Memory.
One of the prominent features of the nervous system is its remarkable plasticity over the lifespan. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in identifying the mechanisms by which the adult nervous system acquires and stores information. In this course, the molecular, synaptic, and neural mechanisms of learning and memory will be examined in a variety of preparations. Topics will include both associative and non-associative learning in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Levels of analysis will range from molecular (e.g., cellular mechanisms of long-term potentiation and long-term depression; learning and memory in transgenic animals) to molar (e.g., systems neurobiology of aversive learning; functional imaging in humans). An attempt will be made to integrate current conceptions of learning derived from the behavioral literature with underlying neural events. (Maren)
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551. Advanced Topics in Developmental Psychology. Psych. 350. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 002 Childhood poverty: Developmental and policy issues.
This course will examine current research on the effects of poverty on children's development, parenting, and family. It will also consider the ways in which child development research has influenced policy and practices that target the poor, the nature of the debate among scholars and policy analysts about how to reduce childhood poverty in America, and the viability of various policies, including the Welfare Reform Law of 1996. The content of the course is organized around three broad issues: (a) The Economics and Demographics of Childhood Poverty; (b) The Human Costs of Poverty; (c) Poverty, Public Policy, and Practice. Course readings are comprised of journal articles and book chapters. Course requirements include one paper, participation in a formal debate during a class session, leading a discussion of selected readings, and participation in class discussion. Grade will be based on performance on each of these requirements. (McLoyd)
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558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 350. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. Cost:2 WL:1 (Adelson)
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565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 360. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of the course is to introduce students to systems level concepts of behavior in organizations, with emphasis on integrating individual and group level concepts into systematic models. Topics include organizational structure and design, adaptation, systems models of organization, and organizational change.
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571. Advanced Topics in Clinical Psychology. Psych. 370. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Divorce, Remarriage, and Child Development.
This course is intended to review the short-term, intermediate, and long-term effects of parental divorce on the social, emotional, and cognitive development of youngsters, from birth to eighteen years of age. A review of clinical, developmental, and sociological literatures pertaining to the effects of divorce on the trajectory of child development will be integrated. Findings from these literatures will be viewed from family systems, psychodynamic and stress/coping/resiliency frameworks. The results of this review and conceptual understanding of published clinical and research findings will be used to assess alternative clinical, legal, and social policy interventions on behalf of youngsters whose parents divorce. (Kalter)

Section 002 Trauma: Experience, Repression, and Meaning. This course will examine the phenomena of trauma and post-traumatic stress (PTSD) using multidisciplinary, multicultural, and multimedia perspectives and methods. We will explore the experiences of traumatized individuals, groups, and communities who have suffered victimization through exposure to human violence and stigmatization or by means of natural disaster. The relationship of repression and social control to trauma will be studied in an effort to understand how we come to label and contextualize traumatic response, and the impact of gender, race, ethnicity, and social class on the creation of traumatized groups. Cost:2 WL:1 (Hassinger)
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572. Development and Structure of the Self. Psych 370 and junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course examines major psychological conceptions of the self. It is organized around such topics as the self as meaning-maker, identity achievement in young adulthood, the emerging self of infancy, the integration of self, the gendered self, the moral self, the self and social institutions. It is designed for a group of 25-30 students who have a general background in psychology. It will emphasize the critical examination of a relatively small number of texts. The class format will be centered in discussions of assigned readings, and will regularly require brief prepared reactions to them to open class discussion. Student evaluation will be based on class participation, a paper, a midterm, and a final examination. Attendance is required. (Fast)
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573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 350 or 390, and Psych. 370. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes, relevant research data, and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of exams, plus written exercises. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cain)
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574. Clinical Psychology. Psych. 370 and psychology concentration. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an overview of the scientific and professional issues within the field of clinical psychology. General areas to be covered include: (a) psychological assessment; (b) forms of clinical intervention; (c) research on psychotherapy process and outcome; and (d) current professional issues. In addition, the roles of culture and gender within each of these areas will be explored, and specialty areas within the field (e.g., child clinical, clinical neuropsychology, health psychology) will be examined. (Nagata)
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575. Perspectives in Advanced Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 350, 370, 390, 443, 444, 451, and 558. (3). (Excl).

The evolution of conceptualization of psychopathology as repressed trauma, conflict regarding forbidden desire vs. guilt and anxiety; internalized "bad objects" vs. "good objects" and narcissistic abuse or deprivation is the focus of clinical case readings and discussion based on psychotherapy observations and interactions. Evaluation is based on an exam, final, and class participation. Cost:4 WL:1 (Wolowitz)
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