Near Eastern Studies


Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies (ACABS) (Division 314)

100(GNE 100/101)/APTIS 100/HJCS 100/Hist 132. Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

See Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies 100. (Babayan)
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101(ABS 201). Elementary Biblical Hebrew I. (3). (LR).

The purpose of this and the complementary course, 102 Elementary Biblical Hebrew II (Winter Term), is to equip the beginning student with the tools necessary for reading the Hebrew Bible. The course will introduce the student to the grammar of biblical Hebrew; its phonology (the study of speech sounds), morphology (the study of word formation), and syntax (the study of phrase and sentence formation). In addition to mastering the grammar, the student will need to acquire a sizable working vocabulary of the language, for competency in grammar and lexicon best facilitates the goal of reading the biblical text. The grading will be based on corrected daily assignments (i.e., the exercises), 13-14 announced quizzes (one class day advance notice), a final comprehensive exam, as well as attendance and participation. The daily assignments will comprise 25% of the grade, the ten-best quizzes 25%, the final exam 25%, and attendance and participation 25%.
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121(ABS 120)/Rel. 121. Introduction to the Tanakh/Old Testament. (4). (HU).

ACABS 121 is designed to introduce the student to the modern study of the Old Testament or Tanakh (no prerequisites). Lectures and readings will focus on ancient Israel's religion, literature, and history and their contribution to modern Western civilization. The approach will be literary, historical, and critical, using methods employed by scholars of different religious persuasions. ACABS 121 is designed to challenge the student with a series of questions and issues often ignored or neglected in spite of the widespread use of the Bible today. The course grade will be based upon daily assignments, attendance, and quizzes (20%), two major examinations (a midterm 30%, and a final, 30%; the exams are NOT cumulative), and an introductory essay (8-10 pages) on a topic of choice in consultation with the instructor (20%). The required texts are the "Revised Standard Version" of the Old Testament or the Jewish Publication Society's "Tanakh," and a course pack. Cost:2 WL:1 (Schmidt)
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200(ABS 200/GNE 201)/Rel. 201/APTIS 200/HJCS 200. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Williams, Jackson, Schramm)
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201(ABS 401). Intermediate Biblical Hebrew, I. ACABS 102. (3). (LR).

This course is an introduction to the literature of the Hebrew Bible. Texts representing different literary genres and dating from different periods will be read in the original. Students will be introduced to the history of the text of the Hebrew Bible and the problems of its translation and interpretation. Special emphasis will be placed on refining the student's knowledge of Biblical Hebrew through the study of Hebrew syntax. Required books are (1) a copy of the Biblica Hebraica, and (2) a proper dictionary of classical Hebrew. (Krahmalkov)
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221(ABS 280)/Rel. 280. Jesus and the Gospels. (4). (HU).

The course will probe the gospels, including some non-canonical versions (e.g., the Gospel of Thomas), as sources to the life and teaching of Jesus. How reliable are the portraits of Jesus in the gospels, the oldest of which having been written some forty-five years after his execution? Through an acquirement of the different critical methods applied to the gospel texts by New Testament scholars, the students will be enabled to form a defensible answer to this question. Conjointly with the methodological instruction and exercises, there will be an impartation of the necessary knowledge about the religious, historical, and social world of Jesus, so that a correct interpretation of the texts can be obtained. The format of the course will consist of lectures by the instructor and mandatory discussion sessions conducted by a GSI. There will be two or three exams and one paper. Cost:3 WL:3 (Fossum)
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266. Before the Bible: Religion and Culture of Ancient Phoenicia and Palestine. (3). (Excl).

Introduction to the religion of the Canaanites (Phoenicians) and their culture, the ancestral religion and culture of Biblical Israel. Topics: the mythology of the Phoenicians and the Bible; the invention and spread of the alphabet; the "the peculiar institution" of child sacrifice; and others. (Krahmalkov)
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281(GNE 260). Ancient Egypt and its World. (4). (HU).

What was the world of the ancient Egyptians? This course is an undergraduate survey of ancient Egyptian culture and history. Through lectures, films and demonstrations, the student will gain an overview of the main periods and trends in Egyptian political history and material culture, as well as an understanding of the society, religion and literature of this African civilization. Other topics will include notions of kingship; the status of women; attitudes toward death and strategies for denying it; contacts and relationships with the `outside' world; principal types of archaeological sties; and hieroglyphs, the sacred script of the ancient Egyptian writing system. Also considered will be the perception and representation of Egypt in modern film, fiction, and the press. We will visit the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, to see the material remains of Egyptian culture firsthand. Two exams and an essay; required reading will include a textbook, a collection of ancient literature, a popular history and a novel. Cost:2 WL:1 (Richards)
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411(ABS 521). Introduction to Akkadian. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Introduction to the Semitic language of ancient Babylonia and to the cuneiform writing system. The first term (this course) concentrates on a basic presentation of grammar, and the second term on the reading of several ancient texts in cuneiform. Grammatical lectures, student recitation, homework assignments. Weekly quizzes, midterm, and final examinations. Cost:2 WL:3 (Yoffee)
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414(ABS 442)/Rel. 442. Mythology and Literature of Ancient Mesopotamia. (3). (Excl).

The oldest literary texts in the world come from ancient Mesopotamia, from the lands of Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria. In this course we will read translations of many of these ancient texts, which were written on clay tablets thousands of years ago. The lectures will provide the historical and social information necessary for the understanding of this very old literature. Because most of the literary texts were religious in nature, much attention will be focused on the mythology and religion of ancient Sumerians and Babylonians. We will concentrate on the problems of understanding myths and poems from a culture that was very different from ours. This will provide the opportunity to discuss issues of literary analysis, theories of myth, sociolinguistics, and literary history. No prior knowledge of the area is required; curiosity, a willingness to work hard, and an open mind will suffice. Grading will be based on two examinations: a midterm and a final. WL:3 (Michalowski)
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485(ABS 523). Introduction to Middle Egyptian, I. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A basic introduction to Egyptian hieroglyphics and Middle Egyptian, the classical form of the ancient Egyptian language. We Will use Alan Gardiner's Egyptian Grammar (3rd edition). (Richards)
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511(ABS 527). Introduction to Sumerian. (3). (Excl).

This course will provide an introduction to Sumerian, the earliest written language in the world. The main focus will be on the grammar, primarily morphology, and on the structure of the cuneiform writing system. Simple texts will be read in class and analyzed. In addition, the course will provide basic information on the history and culture of early Mesopotamia. A basic knowledge of the cuneiform script is required, but interested beginners should contact the instructor. The one book that students will need is Marie-Louise Thomsen, The Sumerian Language. (Michalowski)
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521(ABS 723). Coptic, I. (3). (Excl).

In this course you will learn to read Coptic, the latest form of the Egyptian language. Coptic has recently become very important because it is the language in which the Nag Hammadi texts are written. These texts, discovered in 1945, reveal information about the schisms which divided early Judaism and Christianity. No prerequisites. (Fossum)
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544(Hebrew 541)/HJCS 544. Tannaitic Literature. HJCS 302. (3). (Excl).

See Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies 544. (Schramm)
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Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies (APTIS) (Division 325)

100(GNE 100/101)/ACABS 100/HJCS 100/Hist. 132. Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

This course will survey Middle Eastern political, social, and cultural history from Sumer (~ 3000 BCE) to Khomeini's Iran (1979 CE). The lectures, the readings, the visuals are all geared towards providing the student with a sense of the nature of authority, political and cultural styles, the fabric of society, attitudes and behaviors, heroes and villains, that are and were part of the heritage of peoples who throughout history lived in the lands between the Nile and Oxus rivers, a region generally referred to as the Middle East. Cost:2 WL:3 (Babayan)
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101(Arabic 101). Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, I. (4). (LR). Laboratory fee ($12) required.

This is the first course of a two-term sequence in elementary Arabic. It is designed for non-concentrators and those who need Arabic to satisfy the language requirement. It provides an introduction to the phonology and script of Modern Standard Arabic and its basic vocabulary and fundamental structures. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. There will be a focus on simple interactive communicative tasks involving teacher-student, student-student, and group interactions. Reading and cultural skills are developed through simple short texts and situational dialogues. There will be daily written assignments involving supplying answers to certain drills and questions on reading comprehension passages, filling out forms, and writing short messages and paragraphs. Evaluation will be based on class participation, weekly achievement tests, monthly comprehensive tests, and a final exam. Regular use of the language laboratory or recorded tapes for home use is required to reinforce class work and also to do the recorded assignments. Textbooks: (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Standard Arabic Phonology and Script by McCarus-Rammuny, (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part One by Abboud et al. (Lessons 1-10), (3) Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to accompany EMSA by R. Rammuny, and (4) Standard Achievement Tests to accompany EMSA by R. Rammuny. Cost:2 WL:3
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103(Arabic 221/201). Intensive Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, I. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($16) required.

The sequence of Arabic 103 and 104 is designed for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic at an accelerated rate. It is primarily intended for highly-motivated students who want to study Arabic for academic purposes. Arabic 103 starts with an intensive introduction to Arabic phonology and script combined with oral basic communication practice. This is followed by short reading selections and situational dialogues including basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical structures. The course offers combined training in the four language skills, plus practice in using the Arabic dictionary. Course requirements include daily preparation of the basic texts and grammatical explanations, extensive oral and written practice utilizing newly learned vocabulary and structures, and written assignments. These assignments involve answers to certain drills and reading comprehension questions, filling out short forms, and supplying short messages and biographical information. Course evaluation is based on class participation, daily written assignments, weekly achievement tests, monthly comprehensive tests, and a final examination. Textbooks: (1) Programmed Course in Modern Standard Arabic Phonology and Script by McCarus-Rammuny, (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part One by Abboud et al. (Lessons 1-15), (3) Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to Accompany EMSA, and (4) Standard Achievement Tests to Accompany EMSA. Cost:2 WL:3 (Farghaly)
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141(Iranian 201). Elementary Persian, I. (4). (LR).

Persian has been called the French of the Near/Middle East. Certainly, Persia/Iran has been in the news. Persian is an Indo-European language, related to English, etc. Its literature, as in other arts, is a major part of Near/Middle Eastern and Muslim tradition. Persian 141 is the first term of a four-term sequence. It takes the student through to the basic mastery of the skills of reading and writing, and of comprehension and speaking. Cultural as well as communicative skills are emphasized. By the end of the term the student should be well versed in these skills. Individual students work with the instructor to polish and improve the student's Persian language skills. The objective is language use. Students who have special needs, such as those acquiring the knowledge of Persian for reading purposes only, or for communicative skills only, will be given special attention, and special sessions. Similarly, students of Iranian heritage, who may know some Persian in its colloquial form, will find the linguistic and cultural content of this course stimulating.
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151(Turkish 201). Elementary Turkish, I. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish Language, this course aims at introducing and providing the opportunity to practice the basic structures of Turkish. Although it specifically focuses on enhancing spoken proficiency, reading and writing skills are taught and practiced through special readings and written assignments. Students are evaluated in accordance with the provisional Proficiency Guidelines prepared by the American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages, class participation, achievements in weekly quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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200(Arabic 200/GNE 201)/Rel. 201/ACABS 200/HJCS 200. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Williams, Jackson, Schramm)
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201(Arabic 201/231). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic, I. APTIS 102. (4). (LR). Laboratory fee ($16) required.

Arabic 201 continues the process of acquiring proficiency in Modern Standard Arabic. Reading, listening, writing, and speaking skills are developed through short texts, drill practice and interactive exercise and activities. Required outside homework includes daily written assignments and regular use of the tapes that accompany the course text. Evaluation is based on class participation, quizzes, tests, and a final examination. Textbooks: (1) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic (EMSA), Part One (Lessons 21-30), (2) Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to Accompany EMSA, and (3) Standard Achievement Tests to Accompany EMSA. Cost:2 WL:3
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241(Iranian 401). Intermediate Persian, I. APTIS 142. (4). (LR).

Persian has been called the French of the Near/Middle East. It is an Indo-European language, related to English. Lack, or partial lack, of the knowledge of the monumental historical achievements of Iran is not only due to inadequate coverage by the media, but also to some first and second generation Iranians' failure to inform their children. This course invites students with an interest in world affairs, and those children, and emphasizes not only language, but culture. APTIS 241 continues 141/142. Its objective is to lead the student to the improved mastery of the four language skills comprehension, reading, speaking, and writing. During the course, the student will learn higher levels of language registers, will be exposed to samples of Persian patterns of communicative skills via dialog, samples of expository prose, and of literature. Emphasis is on the use of Persian in these four skills. In addition, multi-media exposure, including video and news material via SCOLA and other means are utilized. Persian is the language of the class, with occasional discussions of linguistic matters in English. Cost:1 WL:1 (Windfuhr)
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251(Turkish 401). Intermediate Turkish, I. APTIS 152. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish. Those who enroll in the class should have completed APTIS 152 or its equivalent. All participants are tested to ascertain their levels of proficiency in the language and results determine the strategy to be followed by the instructor. Normally the first few weeks are devoted to structures and syntax not covered in the first year. The text used for this is G. Lewis' Teach Yourself Turkish and M. Galin's Turkish Sampler is used for reading. The learning is done through exercises, compositions, reading, translation, and conversation. Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and final, as well as a text to determine level of proficiency. (Stewart-Robinson)
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332. Introduction to Persian Culture and Language. (3). (HU).

This course is designed for undergraduate students, and aims at providing basic knowledge about a vital linguistic-cultural area which has had a decisive impact on the world throughout history, but about which more misinformation, if any, than facts are commonly known. It introduces the geographic, social, historical, literary, and linguistic aspects of Persian culture, and their sources in the pre-Islamic Iranian world empires, and the Zoroastrian and Manichaean religions. The emphasis will be on the country of Iran, with sections of Afghanistan and the Republic of Tajikistan. The linguistic component comprises practical basic oral and written communication and polite behavior, as well as the study of lexicon, etymology, and loan words, both in Persian, and from Persian in other languages, as a reflection of Iranian cultural achievement, and impact. The format of the course is lecture and discussion, and language practice, with extensive use of supporting audio-visual and electronic material. (Windfuhr)
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381(Arabic 440). Introduction to Arab Literature in Translation. Taught in English. (3). (HU).

Materials in English translation will illustrate the progression of Arabic literary culture from the earliest recorded sources to the present. Lectures and discussion, along with audio-visual materials, will introduce the essentials of the history of the Arabs and the cultural context expressed in their writings. Examination of pre-Islamic poetry will lead to discussion of the religious and historical texts of Islam. The literary legacy of the Caliphal period will be presented. The Arabian Nights will be seen to illustrate the popular culture of the times. Bell-lettrist works and those of the Arab explorers, scientists, and philosophers will be sampled. The contacts between the Arab world and the West in the modern era will be seen to have resulted in new departures in Arabic Literature, with the rise of the play, the short story, and the novel. Particular attention will be given to the works of Naguib Mahfouz, the Egyptian winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. Students will write a series of short papers commenting upon aspects of the works assigned. Credit will also be given for attendance and for class discussion. A professor of Arabic literature, the instructor is a much-published translator and commentator on Arabic literature. (LeGassick)
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403(Arabic 421/401). Advanced Intensive Modern Standard Arabic, I. APTIS 104 or 202. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($7) required.

This course emphasizes the use of Arabic language. That is, students will develop the ability to: (1) communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic; (2) understand spoken Arabic; (3) read and understand selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and non-fiction as well as Arabic newspapers and magazines; and (4) enhance writing skills. Use of Arabic is emphasized throughout the whole course based on communicative approaches to learning. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, weekly quizzes and tests, and a final exam. Required text: Peter Abboud, et al., Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Part II (lessons 30-45), Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to Accompany EMSA, and Standard Achievement Tests to Accompany EMSA. Successful completion of Arabic 403 will satisfy the LS&A language requirement. (Farghaly)
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431(Arabic 430). Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

Arabic 431 is designed to provide a clear understanding of the goals of linguistic theory and training in linguistic analysis at the phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic levels. Differences and similarities between traditional treatments of Arabic and recent analyses of Arabic within the generative paradigm will be highlighted. The diverse and dynamic linguistic situation in the Arabic World will be examined. Since the structure of Arabic presents a challenge to most contemporary linguistic formalisms, there will be frequent references and discussions of relevant theoretical questions and controversial issues. Students will gain insights into the structure of Arabic which will help those who wish to acquire the language for communicative purposes. Students who are more interested in applied or theoretical work in Arabic or linguistics will find the theoretical part particularly useful. Course requirements include class participation, readings, presentations, quizzes and writing a term paper on an aspect of the structure of Arabic. Cost:1 WL:3 (Farghaly)
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434(Arabic 434). Arabic Historical Linguistics and Dialectology. Permission of instructor. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

"Arabic," in addition to a literary language standardized in the early classical period, covers a far-flung array of spoken vernaculars. They are usually called "dialects," but they show the same amount of structural diversity as do so-called "language families" like Romance. This course presents material from several vernaculars and analyses their linguistic structures. It then attempts reconstructions of their early formation (in some cases possibly as creoles), follows their subsequent development, and considers their current sociolinguistic status. Designed for students with prior training in literary Arabic or knowledge of one vernacular. (Heath)
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440(Turkish 440). The Literature of the Turks. (3). (Excl).

The objective of the course is to share information on the literary activities of the Turkish people from about 600 A.D. when they were in Central Asia to their present home in Asia Minor. Taught in English with English translations of prose and poetry, it will serve Near Eastern concentrators, undergraduates, graduates and other interested students, to savor a literature that began with a few "quatrains" and is, today, on a par with the best of literatures, both in quality and quantity. Meeting three times a week, the course will consist of lectures and discussions focusing on background, historical contexts, and critical appraisals of literary material. Students will be expected to prepare short essays on works read and have a final examination. (Stewart-Robinson)
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451(Turkish 411). Introductory Ottoman Turkish, I. APTIS 152. (3). (Excl).

Part of the sequence of courses required of concentrators, MA and PHD candidates. The objective is to have speedy access to the printed word in Ottoman Turkish in the Arabic script. Method of instruction is through the study of texts while reviewing the Arabic and Persian elements in the language. It is intended for those studying Turkish for the purpose of reading Ottoman texts and archives. Cost:1 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)
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461(GNE 442)/Hist. 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior standing. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Bonner (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1700. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk," including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. WL:4 (Bonner/Lindner)
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469(GNE 489). Islamic Intellectual History. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

The course will examine the major fields of Islamic intellectual endeavor including Qur'anic interpretation, Islamic law, dialectical theology, mysticism, philosophy, and scholarly polemics. They will be explored on the basis on of the works of their principal representative such as al-Tabari, al-Shafi'i, al-Ash'ari, Ibn al-'Arabi, Ibn Rushd, al-Shahrastani, Muhammad Abduh, etc. We will focus on how these diverse fields have conceived of God and the relationship between Him and His creatures. The course will be taught in English. There are no prerequisites but students are expected to have some familiarity with Islam as a religious tradition. The method of instruction is lectures and discussions. Evaluation will be based on two or three take home papers, a midterm exam, an in-class presentation, and a term research paper. Cost:3 (Jackson)
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486(GNE 446). Modern Middle Eastern Literature. Taught in English. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Rise of the Arabic Novel.
The emergence of the novel as a literary genre in modern Arabic literature has always been a very controversial issue, in point of origin and possible influences, both intrinsic and foreign. This course will attempt to subvert some of the prevalent, mainly Egyptian-oriented notions about the emergence of the Arabic novel, and re-examine some of the counter-arguments that are mostly Northern-, Shami-oriented. The course will deal, among other questions, with some of the highly ignored events that were played down by the historians of the Arabic Nahda (Renaissance) in the nineteenth century (e.g., the 1865 Protestant translation of the Bible into Arabic), and examine the relationship between orality and literacy within the history of narrative art in Arabic literature. Readings will include a course-pack and a selection (in English translation) of modern Arabic novels. Students will be evaluated through an oral presentation and a term paper. WL:3 (Shammas)
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501(Arabic 501). Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. APTIS 404. (3). (Excl).

The objectives of this course are to develop fluency and accuracy in understanding, speaking, and writing modern standard Arabic, and to expand students' awareness of Arab-Islamic culture and civilization. The course is based on a variety of literary texts and authentic cultural audio-visual materials including slides, video cassettes, and films. The course materials reflect not only the literary but also the cultural, social, and political trends of contemporary Arab society. Occasionally, students are required to read outside topics and give brief presentations. Requirements include daily preparations, weekly written compositions, and monthly tests. The course meets three hours per week for three credits. The course grade is based on classroom preparation and performance, written reports, and monthly tests. Textbook is Advanced Standard Arabic by Raji Rammuny, Parts One and Two. (Rammuny)
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551(Turkish 511). Readings in Ottoman Turkish. APTIS 252 and 452. (2). (Excl).

This course is the next stage in the acquisition of proficiency in the reading and interpretation of Ottoman printed or archival material in the Arabic script dealing with the literature and administration of the Ottoman Empire until the early nineteenth century. The texts that are read in this course are photocopied and distributed in class. Evaluation varies. (Stewart-Robinson)
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553(Turkish 501). Modern Turkish Readings. APTIS 252. (2). (Excl).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of APTIS 252 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style, and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm, and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of photocopied materials. Cost:1 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)
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561(Arabic 551). Modern Arabic Fiction, I. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (2). (Excl).

Selected examples of contemporary imaginative prose writing, such as short and long fiction and drama, will be studied. Readings will be in Arabic, and class discussion will be in English. (LeGassick)
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563(Arabic 553). Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (2). (Excl).

This course introduces the work of major Arab writers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Variable in focus according to the interests of the class, readings are selected for translation, analysis, and commentary. The course explores the historical progression in the development of political and societal theories in modern times in the Arab world. (LeGassick)
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568(Arabic 546). Ancient Arabic Poetry. APTIS 403. (3). (Excl).

Selected mu'allaqat, and other poems by ash-Shanfara, Ka'b b. Zuhayr, 'Umar b. Abi Rabi'ah, Jarir, and al-Farazdaq.
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581(Arabic 521). Medieval Arabic, I. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who wish to learn Arabic for academic purposes. We will begin with the sound and writing system of Arabic, paying attention to accurate pronunciation of sounds and writing Arabic words and phrases with a pleasing hand. Then, we will move to reading, translating and discussing short passages selected from the Qur'an, Hadith, and medieval Islamic literature. There will be daily reading and written assignments. Evaluation will be based on class participation and performance, monthly tests, and a final exam. (Aziz)
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583. Medieval Arabic Historical and Geographical Texts. APTIS 404. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Introduction to Medieval Arabic Geographical Literature.
By calling this literature "geographical," we are only using a kind of shorthand, since this was a complex tradition fed by several different sources. We begin with scientific geography, by examining the Ptolemaic tradition and reading some cosmological texts. Then come accounts of travel and adventure, on land and at sea. Then we turn to the tradition of al-masa lik wal-mama lik ("roads and reigns") which had its origins in imperial administration as well as in the scientific and travel traditions. We read selections from Ibn Khurrad adhbih, al-Istakhri, Ibn Hawqal, and al-Muqaddasi. By the end, students should understand that this literature is one of the great expression of Arabic humanism, and an important tool for research into many aspects of medieval Islamic civilization. The main requirement is a good reading knowledge of Arabic. French is useful but not required. The bulk of the work will be careful, accurate reading and translation of the original Arabic texts. There will also be assignments on the history of the genre, the lives of the writers, etc. There will be a midterm exam and final. Students will also provide a short presentation and paper (8 pages) on a writer or place. (Bonner)
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584. Persianate History Through Political and Cultural Texts. Advanced reading knowledge of Persian. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

A textual study of Medieval and Early Modern political and cultural history through a variety of genres (chronicles, Bios of poets, hagiographies, "mirrors of princes," local histories, religious poetry, disputations and epics) shared by Persianate cultural spheres from Anatolia through the Iranian plateau into Central Asia and India. Primary texts are all in Persian. (Babayan)
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593. Mini Course Topics in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies. (1). (Excl).
Section 001 The Early History of the Translation and Interpretation of the Qur'an into English. This course will meet for 1 week duration in September. TBA.
This mini course provides a general introduction to the Holy Qur'an, its position among religious revelations, its subject matter and divisions, the major Arab commentaries on it, and the history of the numerous translations made of it into English. Selected texts from such translations will be examined in order to show the different attitudes of the translations towards Islam and its Holy Book. It is hoped that students will gain a better understanding of the basic teachings of the Muslim tradition, especially these days when communication and interactions between Muslim and the Western worlds become ever closer. (Ibrahim)
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Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies (HJCS) (Division 389)

100(GNE 100/101)/APTIS 100/ACABS 100/Hist. 132. Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

See Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies 100. (Babayan)
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101(Hebrew 201). Elementary Modern Hebrew, I. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction is on the development of basic communication skills in standard modern Hebrew. Speaking, writing, reading, and listening comprehension are emphasized in classroom activities in an appropriate cultural context. Class discussions and activities are exclusively in Hebrew.
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200(Hebrew 200/GNE 201)/Rel. 201/ACABS 200/APTIS 200. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Williams, Jackson, Schramm)
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201(Hebrew 301). Intermediate Modern Hebrew, I. HJCS 102. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 311. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction is on the four basic communication skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. A greater emphasis is put on the acquisition of a rich vocabulary in several language domains. In addition to reading texts, there is an extensive use of authentic video materials. Class discussions and activities are exclusively in Hebrew. (Sacerdoti)
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202(Hebrew 302). Intermediate Modern Hebrew, II. HJCS 201. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In addition to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. Cost:1 WL:3
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291. Topics in Hebrew and Judaic Cultural Studies. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Women in Talmudic Law and Lore.
Selected sources dealing with the Ktuba document. Tannaitic and Amoraic sources from Tractate Ketubot shall be studied to ascertain its nature and trace its development. Attention shall be paid to the factors - legal, social, historical which prompted changes in its nature and formulation. Status of women in Talmudic society as reflected in selected Aggadic sources from Tractate Ketubot. Particular attention shall be given to the contrasts between the legal status of women to its social status. (Steinfeld)
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296/Judaic Studies 296/Rel. 296. Perspectives on the Holocaust. (4). (HU).

A study of the Holocaust as a historical event and its impact on Jewish thought and culture. We first survey the historical context: the European Jewish community on the eve of the destruction, and the events leading up to and culminating in that destruction. We will then focus on inner Jewish (and Gentile) reactions to the Holocaust, and broader philosophical and ethical implications. We ask: What are the problems (moral, emotional, conceptual) in reading and writing about the Holocaust? What are its implications for those of us who come "after"? The course is also a meditation on visions of the Other, on ethnic-religious hatred, tolerance, and healing. Memoirs, poetry, fiction, psychological literature, as well as theology, music, film, and architecture will be explored; as well as conversations with survivors. Take-home midterm; final exam; 5-8 page paper; journal option. Cost:3 -4 WL:1 (Ginsburg)
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301(Hebrew 401). Advanced Hebrew, I. HJCS 202. (3). (Excl).

This is the third-year course within the Hebrew language sequence at the University of Michigan. As such, it constitutes a transitional stage from the lower levels in which the concern is with learning the introductory grammar and acquisition of functional vocabulary to the more advanced levels in which we will focus on the more complex linguistic structures. At this level we will treat original texts which will serve as the jumping-off point for in-class discussion and the basis for composition of essays at home. The goal is to expose the student to a wide range of texts as a window unto "the Israeli Experience." The course will incorporate other communications media, e.g., material recorded on audio tape, video clips, and multi-media. (Bernstein)
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401(Hebrew 403). Hebrew of the Communications Media, I. HJCS 202. (3). (Excl).

The social genre of the communications media (newspaper and television) serve as the basis for discussion of current events, readings and writing tasks. Unedited newspaper selections are read and television news broadcasts will be used in the classroom. Students' special projects, in the form of debates and individual papers, constitute an important part of the course assignments. Class discussions and activities are exclusively in Hebrew. (Coffin)
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471(Hebrew 451). Introduction to Modern Hebrew Literature, I. HJCS 302. (3). (HU).

This course offers students the opportunity to read a wide range of unabridged literary texts from a variety of genres children's literature, poetry, drama, short stories, journalism. Students will acquire the vocabulary necessary for analysis of the texts. The course will be run on a seminar basis with student participation comprising an important component. There will be short assignments in which students will work on improving their written and oral communication skills. The course will incorporate other communications media, and guest lecturers. An advanced knowledge of Hebrew required (completion of Hebrew 302 or Hebrew 402 or equivalent). (Bernstein)
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477(GNE 478)/Judaic Studies 478/Rel. 478. Modern Jewish Thought. (3). (Excl).

An exploration of selected 20th century Jewish thinkers and their response to the crisis of modernity (and post-modernity): the breakdown of traditional Jewish culture and its system of meaning; the encounter with, and assimilation of, Western culture; the impact of the traumas of World War I and the Holocaust; and the contemporary quest for intimacy and tikkun, or "healing." Authors studied include Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, AJ Heschel, and the radical theologian Richard Rubenstein; the Hebrew authors Bialik and Agnon; the feminist theologian Judith Plaskow; and the mystically inflected work of Arthur Green. Lecture and discussion; take-home midterm; 10-15 page paper; final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Ginsburg)
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544(Hebrew 541)/ACABS 544. Tannaitic Literature. HJCS 302. (3). (Excl).

Readings in the Oral Traditions of the Sages (roughly 200 BCE-200 CE), in either the narrative literature (midrash aggada ) or legal procedures (halakha ). The texts will be read in conjunction with the biblical sources and medieval and modern commentaries. Students will be required to give a class presentation and a term paper. Cost:1 WL:3 (Schramm)
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545(Hebrew 543). Medieval Jewish Literature. HJCS 302. (3). (Excl).

Readings of medieval genres, including secular and liturgical poetry, the romance and prose narratives. Discussions will center on literacy innovations and the role of medieval Hebrew literature within the context of the history of Western European literature. A term paper and/or seminar report as a course requirement. Cost:1 WL:3 (Schramm)
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571(Hebrew 551). Israeli Literature, I. HJCS 302. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Selection of prose, poetry, theater, and film. Special emphasis on the emerging generation of young writers. (Coffin)
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592. Seminar in Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Jewish Legal System-Structure and Functions Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin.
Study of relevant sources in Tractate Sanhedrin as the structure and functions of the Jewish legal system aided by the classical commentators and modern critical methodology, e.g. variant reading, parallel sources, literary history and redactional problems of Talmudic courses. (Steinfeld)
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