Asian Languages and Cultures

Note: The Department Waitlist policy for all courses is 2 Go to the department office to get on a waitlist, and then attend the first class meeting. Policies and procedures for handling the waitlist will be explained there.

Students wanting to begin language study, at a level other than first year, must take a placement exam to be held on September 2, 1-3 p.m. (no registration necessary).

Chinese: MLB Auditorium 4
Japanese: MLB Lec Rm 1
Korean: MLB Lec Rm 2

Placement tests for other Asian Languages are administered on a one-to-one basis. Please call the department at 936-3915 to make arrangements for testing.


Courses in Asian Studies (Division 323)

111/Hist. 151. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

See History 151. (Trautmann)
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121/Hist. 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See History 121. (Murphy)
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230/Buddhist Studies 230/Phil. 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. (4). (HU).

See Buddhist Studies 230. (Lopez)
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316/Buddhist Studies 316/Rel. 316. Religion in Modern Japan. (3). (Excl).

See Buddhist Studies 316. (Sharf)
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428/Pol. Sci. 428/Phil. 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing. Not recommended for Asian Studies concentrators. (4). (Excl).

See Political Science 428. (Lieberthal)
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476/RC Hums. 476/Chinese 476. Writer and Society in Modern China. No knowledge of Chinese is required. (4). (HU).

See Chinese 476. (Feuerwerker)
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499. Independent Study-Directed Readings. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.

Directed readings or research in consultation with a member of the Asian Studies faculty.
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Courses in Buddhist Studies (Division 332)

230/Asian Studies 230/Phil. 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. (4). (HU).

An introduction to the Buddhist religion, with attention to its moral and philosophical teachings, its modes of practice (e.g., meditation, ritual), and its social and institutional contexts. The course takes a historical approach, concentrating on the traditions that developed in India, and the transformations of those traditions in Tibet and East Asia. Students attend three hours of lecture and a one-hour discussion section each week. No previous knowledge of the subject is required. WL:2 (Lopez)
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252/Religion 250/WS 250. Religion and Culture: Feminine and Masculine Images of Religious Experience. (3). (HU).

See Religion 250. (Gómez)
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316/Asian Studies 316/Rel. 316. Religion in Modern Japan. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine a sampling of religious practices and organizations in contemporary Japan, focusing on institutions that arose after the Meiji restoration (1868). Topics to be covered will include the persistence of shamanism, exorcism, and belief in miracles in a modern industrialized society; the rise and success of the "new religions;" religion and abortion (mizuko-kuyô ); and religion and violence (the Aum Shinrikyô affair). While there are no prerequisites, some background in the study of religion and/or Japanese culture is recommended. WL:2 (Sharf)
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401. Beginning Classical Tibetan. (3). (LR).

This course is designed to train students of Buddhist Studies in the basic skills necessary for reading Tibetan literature; it is not a class in spoken (colloquial) Tibetan. The plan of the course assumes that the students' primary interest is in the study of Buddhist literature. Accordingly, much time will be spent in reading Buddhist literature (autochthonous as well as in translation from Indic languages). The course offers explanations and exercises in the phonology of literary Tibetan ("Lhasa Dialect"), nominal derivation, syntax of the nominal particles, verbal conjugation and suffixes, and the standard script (dbu-can ). Exercises and readings in the first semester will be from Hahn, Ikeda, and Jaschke. In the second semester all reading exercises will be taken directly from classical sources (primarily from the works of Bu-ston, Taranatha, and Kamalasila). (Lopez)
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Courses in Chinese (Division 339)

Culture Courses/Literature Courses

250. Undergraduate Seminar in Chinese Culture. No knowledge of Chinese language is required. (3). (HU). May be repeated with department permission.
Section 001 Looking at Traditional China Through its Most Famous Novel: The Story of the Stone.
This course will present an introduction to late imperial China through the acclaimed translation by David Hawkes and John Minford of its most famous and complex novel, The Story of the Stone (5 volumes, Penguin, 1977-1986). The Story of the Stone is simultaneously a tragic love story and the chronicle of the decline of an enormous aristocratic household. With its reputation as a "veritable encyclopedia of traditional Chinese life," it provides an excellent window on a vanished society. This fictional portrait of eighteenth-century China will be supplemented by readings in Naquin and Rawski, Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century (1987) and a variety of visual materials shown in class. Requirements will include two short papers, a midterm take-home, a final exam, and active class participation. WL:2 (Rolston)
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451. Literary Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (4). (Excl).

This is a course primarily for specialists, requiring knowledge of modern Chinese at least through the second-year level. Through the use of Shadick's A First Course in Literary Chinese and selected handouts, the styles of written Chinese of imperial China from prose to poetry are selectively introduced. Class is taught in small recitation groups requiring constant preparation by the student. Quizzes, tests, and hand-in exercises on a weekly basis, plus a final exam, are used to measure progress. Emphasis is on understanding of the texts, as well as the ability to render them clearly into English. This course is the first half of a two-term sequence that is prerequisite to more advanced Chinese courses. In the second term, we continue to read a variety of texts covering all premodern periods. Further practice is aimed at improving understanding of the structure of literary Chinese, introducing the practice of using dictionaries and other aids for interpretation, and increasing familiarity with important grammatical particles. Supplementary areas of concern include policies and problems in using literary Chinese in research, problems of translation, and the general evolution of styles in the literary tradition. WL:2 (An)
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471. Classical Chinese Literature in Translation. No knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

Largely through lectures, this course will examine the highlights of early Chinese literature from antiquity to the 13th century. We will begin with The Book of Changes, The Book of Songs, and a few ancient philosophical texts (which are written in brilliant literary styles) from the millennium before Christ, the millennium in which China made an astonishing "philosophical breakthrough" in its civilization. We will then undertake to follow the development of the various forms of poetry, fiction, and other kinds of prose during the subsequent centuries. The principal aim is to enable students to become familiar with, and also to be able to enjoy, these masterpieces of literature that illustrate the range and depth of the Chinese imagination, the inner life of the individual as well as the outer social and political life of China through the ages. Three 5- page papers and a final exam are required. Sample readings include Cyril Birch, ed., Anthology of Chinese Literature, Vol. I; two major texts in Taoist mysticism: Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching and the "Inner Chapters" of the Chuang Tzu; Burton Watson, The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry; and other materials in a course pack. WL:2 (Rolston)
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476/RC Hums. 476/Asian Studies 476. Writer and Society in Modern China. No knowledge of Chinese is required. (4). (HU).

This is an invitation to study examples of twentieth-century Chinese literature, a literature produced during a period of historical upheaval and itself a battleground for political, cultural, and aesthetic issues. But we also want to understand and appreciate the artistry and diversity of these literary works. We will examine: external "reality" as projected by our texts; ideological pressures of a shifting political context; the influx of Western influences and the breakdown of tradition; changing views of gender and sexuality; the role and self-conception of the writer as avant-garde rebel, historical witness, social critic, or political martyr, particularly in confronting the oppressed "other" as woman or peasant. What is the purpose or meaning of writing? Given the often fatal risks involved, why write? Readings will include stories by Lu Xun, Family (Ba Jin), Rickshaw (Lao She), "Miss Sophie's Diary" (Ding Ling), etc., examples of Communist "revolutionary literature," some stories from Taiwan. The second half of the term will deal with post-Mao works, as writers "rethink" themselves and the Communist revolution, search for cultural roots, explore issues of sexuality and subjectivity, experiment with new techniques. We will look at parallel developments in the visual arts and in the "new cinema" through such films as Yellow Earth, Red Sorghum, etc. Class format: lecture/discussion. Requirements: three short papers, a final exam. No knowledge of Chinese required. WL:2 (Feuerwerker)
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480. Upperclass Seminar in Chinese Humanities. Two of Chinese 471, 472, 473. Knowledge of Chinese is not required. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Culture, Gender, and Representation.
The representation and construction of women in the distinctive and enduring civilization of China has been a complex matter and undergone many changes. Through selected examples from past to present of Chinese fiction, autobiography, and also of art and film, this course will examine such issues as the place of women in the male-dominated Confucian system, the femme fatale in the master narrative, women as projections of male desire in tales of transgression, as erotic objects in the love lyric, and poetic conventions of female impersonation. In the 20th century women are first "discovered" as prime victims of oppression for writers to make their case for reform, then appropriated as "liberated" subjects by the Communist revolution. But women have also struggled to represent themselves within and against the constraints of the system; their search for subjectivity and identity are posing powerful challenges to the dominating discourse today. In the critical "reading" of our verbal, visual, and cinematic texts, we will pay close attention to the sociocultural context and formal conventions of each, making comparisons when the same "story" is told in fiction and film. We will also look at cross-cultural issues of gender and representation in some works by Chinese-American woman writers. Readings will include traditional poetry and fiction, including the first book of The Story of the Stone (or Dream of the Red Chamber), modern works by Jung Chang ( The Wild Swan), fiction by Ding Ling, Wang Anyi, Ding Xiaoqi, Maxine Hong Kingston, Amy Tan, and others. Films will most likely include Raise the Red Lantern, Ju Dou, Army Nurse, and The Joy Luck Club. Requirements: two short papers, class reports, and a final 8-10 page paper. No prerequisites, but a China-related course is highly recommended. WL:2 (Feuerwerker)
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588. Sinological Tools and Methods. Chinese 452. (3). (Excl).

This course covers skills and materials necessary for scholarship in premodern Chinese literature, history, art history, and thought. It is intended to serve as a bridge from general elementary classical language study to proseminars and seminars in specialized fields. The first section of the course provides an introduction to and practice with a range of lexical and technical aids, including Western language, Chinese, and Japanese dictionaries, encyclopedia, concordances, indices, atlases, and conversion charts. Practice in locating and understanding classical texts is a key part of the course, and, when possible, students' current research interests are indulged. Emphasis is always on the systematic, accurate, and efficient culling of information from the research library. Briefer sections are devoted to the utilization of modern scholarship on China in books and periodicals and access to such scholarship through bibliographies, comprehensive studies, and library catalogs. Some attention is devoted to the acquisition of materials, the interpretation and presentation of publication data, and other style sheet issues. There are weekly projects to exercise developing skills, assigned with the goal of improving reading levels in tandem with other research skills. Three or four brief (2-3 page) research papers are required, one on a topic, one on the history of a text, one on a historical figure, and one critical review of a piece of modern scholarship. WL:2 (DeWoskin)
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Language Courses

101. Beginning Chinese. (5). (LR).

Chinese 101 is an introductory course in speaking, understanding, reading, and writing Chinese. The student is expected to achieve control of the sound system, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary of Standard Mandarin Chinese. Starting the fifth week, we will learn to read and write the characters. In Chinese 101, the major emphasis is on speaking and aural comprehension. In Chinese 102, we do longer readings and question-answer sheets twice a week. Students are also required to memorize short dialogues. Toward the end of the term students have to write a skit together with other students and their performance will be video-taped and their pronunciation will be graded. We have a test or quiz each week on Thursdays. In general the workload in Chinese 102 is much heavier than in Chinese 101. For both courses, we recommend that students listen to tapes one hour per day. We meet one hour each day. Tuesdays and Thursdays are lectures; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays are recitations. Students are required to register for both a lecture section and a recitation section. Attendance is taken everyday and no audits are allowed. Textbooks: (a) John DeFrancis, Beginning Chinese (Yale Univ. Press), (b) John DeFrancis, Beginning Chinese Reader, Part I and II (Yale Univ. Press). Materials covered: Beginning Chinese, Lessons 1-13; Beginning Chinese Reader, Lessons 1-12. WL:2 (Tao)
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201. Second-Year Chinese. Chinese 102. (5). (LR).

This course is a continuation of work begun in Chinese 101-102. Students electing the course should have mastered the spoken language material presented in DeFrancis' Beginning Chinese or a similar introductory text and should be able to recognize and write about 400 characters and 1200 combinations. The primary goal of the course is achievement of a basic level of reading competence within a vocabulary of 900 characters and accompanying combinations. A closely integrated secondary goal is continued improvement of aural understanding and speaking competence. These goals are approached through classroom drill, out-of-class exercises, and work in the language laboratory. Daily class attendance is required. Students are graded on the basis of daily classroom attendance, and weekly quizzes or tests. The texts are Intermediate Reader of Modern Chinese (Princeton University Press, 1992) and the movie script The Great Wall. Students who are native or near-native Mandarin Chinese speakers are not eligible for this course. They should enroll in Chinese 302 which covers all of the material presented in Chinese 201/202 and is offered in the Winter Term. Students who did not take First-Year Chinese at the University of Michigan must take a placement exam before courses begin. No visitors are allowed. WL:2
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225. Calligraphy. Chinese 101. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of three credits.

To explore the richness of Chinese calligraphy, this class is designed to include a series of fundamental introductions to the history of Chinese calligraphy and a brief theoretical framework for evaluation and appreciation; in addition, a practice session will be held in each class to facilitate a hands-on learning process. WL:2
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301. Reading and Writing Chinese. Permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Chinese 101, 102, or 361. (4). (LR).

This course is designed for students with native or near-native speaking ability in Chinese, but little or no reading and writing ability. Chinese 301 meets four hours per week; it focuses on reading and writing Chinese and will cover the regular 101-102 reading materials. Students will be graded on the basis of daily classroom performance, daily quizzes, periodic tests, and homework assignments. The basic text is Beginning Chinese Reader by John DeFrancis. WL:2 (An)
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378. Advanced Spoken Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of four credits.

This course is designed as a spoken language supplement to the post-second year Chinese reading courses. The purpose of Chinese 378 is to continue building on the foundation of spoken competence laid down in first- and second-year Chinese by providing two hours a week for students to talk, talk, and talk. This is accomplished through presentation of brief speeches and discussions on topics selected by the class. The role of the instructor, who serves as a coordinator for the class, is not to teach students how to speak Chinese, but to encourage and coach them in speaking Chinese. Vocabulary lists will be provided before and after each discussion session. The grade will be determined by students' attendance, participation in discussion, oral presentations, and vocabulary quizzes. This course is not for native speakers, auditors, or sit-ins. WL:2 (Liang)
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391. Honors Course in Chinese. Permission of the department. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Directed readings aimed at the writing of analytical papers and/or the Honors thesis.
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393. Honors Course in Chinese. Permission of the department. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Directed readings aimed at the writing of analytical papers and/or the Honors thesis.
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399. Directed Readings. Permission of the Department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

Individual work and directed readings for undergraduate concentrators. Must be arranged with an instructor.
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405. Third-Year Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (5). (Excl).

Chinese 405 and 406 comprise a two-term sequence that makes up the third year of study in the Chinese program. All four basic skills reading, writing, listening, and speaking are stressed. In Chinese 405, along with structured grammatical patterns, students primarily learn the strategies and skills required for reading Chinese newspapers. The textbook in 405 is A Chinese Text for a Changing China. In Chinese 406, students learn to read various styles and genres of modern Chinese, including fiction, essays, and occasionally poetry. Course readings are selected from a large variety of genuine Chinese materials; there is no textbook. On completing third-year Chinese, students should (with the aid of a dictionary) be able to read and discuss most non-technical subjects in modern Chinese. Both 405 and 406 meet five hours per week. Of these, three hours are devoted to understanding and discussing the reading material. The fourth hour is reserved for oral presentations, discussions, and skits. The fifth hour is used for taking quizzes or tests. Student work is evaluated on the basis of daily attendance, exercises, one dictation every second day, and one quiz or test per week. The class is conducted mainly in Chinese. WL:2 (Liang)
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416. Chinese for the Professions. Chinese 406. (3). (Excl).

Chinese for the Professions (Business Chinese) focuses on practical language skills that are most helpful in actual business interactions with Chinese-speaking communities. Classroom activities, largely in the form of real world simulation, will be based on authentic documents and correspondence as well as a textbook. Some highlights are: business negotiation in international trade, business letter writing, business documents comprehension/translation, business oral presentation, commercial language, Chinese Internet, and word processing. Through intensive practice in the listening, speaking, reading, and writing of the Chinese language for business purposes, students will enhance their cultural awareness and acquire vocabulary, phrases, and sentence patterns commonly used in typical Chinese business contexts. WL:2 (Chen)
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418. Oral Mandarin for Cantonese Speakers. Chinese 406. (2). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 4 credits.

The course is specifically designed to help Cantonese-speaking students who have advanced Chinese reading and writing skills but lack oral Mandarin (Putonghua) competence. Classroom activities, based on intensive pinyin drills, are exclusively guided oral practice and corrections. Cantonese native speakers without an advanced level in reading and writing are encouraged to attend Chinese core courses or, if qualified, Chinese 378. WL:2 (Chen)
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461. Readings in Modern Chinese. Chinese 406. (5). (Excl).

Chinese 461-462 is a two-term Chinese language course sequence with graded readings at an advanced level. Texts chosen from a variety of sources in both Mainland China and Taiwan include 20th century fiction and essays on various topics. While students are helped to further improve command of structure and vocabulary in a range of language styles, the primary emphasis of the sequence is on reading comprehension with the aim of enabling students to read original materials with less reliance on a dictionary. Development of speaking and writing skills will also be stressed through discussions on the readings. In the second term, more longer texts will be used, and efforts will be made to improve reading skills and speed. At times when Chinese 431-432 (Contemporary Social Science Text) is not offered simultaneously, a social science component may be arranged to accommodate to the wider interest and demand of students. Daily attendance, weekly assignments, and vocabulary quizzes as well as unit tests are required. There is no final exam. Classes are conducted largely in Chinese. WL:2 (Chen)
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Courses in Japanese (Division 401)

Culture Courses/Literature Courses

250. Undergraduate Seminar in Japanese Culture. No knowledge of Japanese language is required. (3). (HU). May be repeated with department permission.
Section 001 Reiterations: Filming Fiction in Japan.
Well before Merchant and Ivory came on the scene, Japanese film directors made a living turning well-loved novels into movies. Name a classic Japanese film, and you are likely to be dealing with an adaptation. This course examines the dynamics of reiteration in a culture known for its repeated adaptations of cultural materials. What are we saying when we designate one version as "original" and another as "adaptation"? What does "originality" mean in a culture that seems to be constantly rehashing old material? How does the change in medium affect the nature of what is told? In what ways do versions of a story reflect the ideologies of the times in which they are produced? These are the questions we will be asking in reference to the prior texts appropriated by such well-known directors as Kurosawa and Mizoguchi, and the films that resulted. WL:2 (Ito)
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401. Japanese Literature in Translation: Classical Periods to 1600. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (HU).

A survey of Japanese literature from the eighth century through the sixteenth. All assigned readings are in English translation, and no previous knowledge of Japan or the Japanese language is required. Special attention is given to the great works of the Japanese literary tradition, including the Man'yoshu, the eighth century anthology of native poetry; The Tale of Genji, the novel of court life from the early eleventh century; diaries and essays from the Heian period (ca. 800-1200); the epic war tales of the thirteenth century; and some of the major plays of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. This course, together with its sequel (Japanese 402), is recommended to all students with a general interest in literature or in Japanese culture. Classes are in a lecture and discussion format, with ample opportunity for questions from students. The course has a midterm and final examination, emphasizing essay questions. Also, one short paper of some 8 to 10 pages is required. WL:2 (Childs)
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407. Advanced Readings in Modern Japanese Literature. Japanese 406. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces the student to modern Japanese fiction (largely short stories) and other materials written by outstanding writers for a mature Japanese audience. The emphasis is upon a literary approach, using close reading and translation, in class, of Japanese texts. Occasional papers and written translations are required. The pace of reading is intended to help the student build up reading speed and comprehension. The course will also teach the student how to use dictionaries and other basic research aids effectively. WL:2 (Ito)
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450. Undergraduate Seminar in Japanese Literature. Japanese 401 or 402. Knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits with permission of the instructor.

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461. Social Science Readings in Japanese. Japanese 406. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course helps students to develop reading skills necessary to conduct research in Japanese social science topics. Readings are assigned from newspapers, books, and journals in a variety of fields. The emphasis is on the acquisition of "kango" vocabulary which arise in understanding these readings. Class attendance is mandatory. Homework includes a minimum of two hours of preparation per class hour. Students are expected to prepare for the readings and for frequent quizzes so that they can participate actively in discussion in Japanese in class. Japanese essays will be assigned. WL:2 (Emori)
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475. Japanese Cinema. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (Excl). Special fee ($50) required.
Section 001 Out of Asia: Asian Cinema.
Come explore the rich variety and exciting films of Asia, from India to Korea, from anime to the Chinese 5th generation. WL:2 (Nornes)
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Language Courses

101. Beginning Japanese. (5). (LR).

This course is designed for students who have less than the equivalent of one year's study of Japanese at the University of Michigan. The goal of the course is the simultaneous progression of four skills (speaking, listening, writing, and reading) as well as becoming familiar with aspects of Japanese culture which are necessary for language competency. Recitation sessions are conducted in Japanese emphasizing speaking/reading in Japanese contexts at normal speeds. Analyses, explanations, and discussions involving the use of English are specifically reserved for lectures. It is expected that, by the end of the year, students will have basic speaking and listening comprehension skills, a solid grasp of basic grammar, reading and writing skills in Hiragana and Katakana, and will be able to recognize and produce approximately 140 Kanji in context. Texts: Situational Functional Japanese Vol.1-2. Tokyo: Tsukuba Language Group, 1991. WL:2 (Johnson)
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201. Second-Year Japanese. Japanese 102. (5). (LR).

Further training is given in all four language skills (speaking, reading, listening, and writing) for students who have acquired a basic language proficiency. The introduction to basic Japanese grammar items will be completed around the fourth week of the second term of second year Japanese. The aim of the oral component is to provide the student with the speaking and comprehension skills necessary to function effectively in more advanced practical situations in a Japanese-speaking environment. In the reading and writing component, emphasis is on reading elementary texts, developing an expository style, and writing short answers/essays in response to questions about these texts. Approximately 500 of the essential characters are covered. Discussions on the social and cultural use of language are provided through various video tapes. Students are required to attend five hours of class per week: two hours of lecture and three hours of recitation. Recitation sessions emphasize speaking/reading in Japanese at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, accent, and appropriate body language and are conducted entirely in Japanese. Analyses, explanations, and discussions involving the use of English are reserved for lectures. Students who did not take First-Year Japanese at the University of Michigan must take a placement exam before courses begin. Texts: Situational Functional Japanese Vol.2-3. Tokyo: Tsukuba Language Group, 1991. WL:2
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225(250). Calligraphy. Japanese 101. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of three credits.

The goals of the course are to help you learn how to practice Japanese calligraphy and cultivate your mind through the practice. Six subjects, including Kanji and Hiragana will be introduced with the focus on basic skills such as the manner of using brushes, balancing characters, etc. Throughout the course, students will work on clarity of thought through the writing of characters in a tranquil setting, concentrating on maintaining correct posture and behavior throughout the writing process. WL:2
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391. Honors Course in Japanese. Permission of the department. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Directed readings aimed at the writing of analytical papers and/or the Honors thesis.
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393. Honors Course in Japanese. Permission of the department. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Directed readings aimed at the writing of analytical papers and/or the Honors thesis.
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399. Directed Reading. Permission of the department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

Individual work and directed readings for undergraduate concentrators. Must be arranged with an instructor.
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405. Third-Year Japanese. Japanese 202. (5). (Excl).

Advanced training is given in all four language skills. Practice in the use of spoken Japanese is contextualized within simulated Japanese social settings. A variety of selected modern texts (essays, fiction, and newspapers) are read, with emphasis on expository style. The goal is to produce self-sufficient readers who can read and discuss most texts with the aid of a dictionary. Recitation sessions are conducted entirely in Japanese with an emphasis on speaking and reading Japanese at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, accent, intonation, and appropriate body language. Lectures will also be conducted in Japanese, with occasional English explanation if necessary, and will focus on Japanese grammar and culture. Texts: Selected reading materials. WL:2
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413. Accelerated Readings in Japanese. Japanese 102 or 361. (5). (Excl).

This course will be devoted to reading articles by Japanese scholars. In order to do so, students will first be introduced to most of the grammatical structures. The instructor will check your understanding of the grammar and reading samples. Finally, we will, if possible, go over Chinese materials. Cost:2 WL:3 (Unedaya)
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416. Communicative Competence for Japan-Oriented Careers. Japanese 406, 411; and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course stresses the effective use of the Japanese spoken language in contexts likely to be encountered by a career-oriented professional in Japan. Topics include: Organization, Business Travel, Meetings, Bureaucracy, Distribution, Expansion, Annual Reports, Business Ritual, and Socializing. In addition, the course will include practice in rapid reading and transcription/dictation of moderately difficult texts, newspaper articles, and news broadcasts. Students are expected to practice with audio tapes for a minimum of two hours for each class hour. WL:2
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Courses in Korean (Division 409)

101. Beginning Korean. (5). (LR).

This first-year course is for those who have no or minimal proficiency in Korean. This course will introduce the basic structure of Korean while focusing on the development of reading, writing, and speaking skills. Class regularly meets five times a week two hours of lecture and three hours of aural/oral practice and daily attendance is expected. In addition, students are required to do additional hours of work for practice on their own in the computer lab. Through lectures, students will learn Korean characters, be able to read sentences with considerable fluency, and understand the basic grammatical structures of Korean. Based on the knowledge obtained through lectures, recitation classes will help the students develop an ability to use basic conversational expressions freely. The checkpoints for evaluation include homework assignments, weekly quizzes, reading aloud, and oral interviews. The textbook for the course is College Korean by Clare You (University of California Press). Those who successfully finish the course will gain sustained control of basic conversation. WL:2 (Kim)
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201. Second Year Korean. Korean 102. (5). (LR).

This is an intermediate course in spoken and written Korean. It will emphasize the aural/oral skill, but attention will also be given to grammatical structure. Class regularly meets five times a week two hours of lectures and three hours of aural/oral practice and daily attendance is expected. Through lectures, students will learn relatively complex structural patterns of Korean, build up their vocabulary, and get acquainted with various aspects of Korean culture and society. Based on the knowledge obtained through lectures, recitation classes will help the students develop an ability to carry on survival-level conversation. In evaluation, weight will be placed on homework assignments, biweekly quizzes, and oral interviews. Students who did not take First-Year Korean at the University of Michigan must take a placement exam before courses begin. WL:2 (Lee)
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401. Third Year Korean. Korean 202. (5). (Excl).

Third-year Korean will help students improve their skills, both spoken and written, up to intermediate-high level. Class meets five hours per week two hours of lecture and three hours of recitation. In lecture classes, the students will learn Chinese characters, and thereby build up their vocabulary and heighten reading ability. The reading materials will inform the students of various cultural aspects of Korea. Through weekly writing assignments, the students will also learn more accurate syntax, pragmatic ways of expression, and logical ways of thinking in Korean. In recitation classes, strengthened aural/oral training will be given. The students will tell a short story, have free group-discussion, and learn songs. Evaluation will be based on attendance, homework assignments, exams, class activities, and various oral performances. WL:2
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461. Readings in Modern Korean. Korean 402. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This is a reading course designed to introduce selected contemporary articles on various subjects in the Korean Studies field to students who have advanced knowledge of Korean language and culture and want to know the state-of-the-art of Korean Studies in contemporary Korea. The selected readings include major articles in Korean history, literature, thought, and religion. The course will be conducted in Korean, and emphasis will be placed on developing reading skills for Korean scholarly materials and academic writing skills as well. Student participation in the classroom discussion is crucial for the effectiveness of the course. There will be a midterm, final, and writing assignments. A course pack will be used as a main textbook. WL:2 (Cho)
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491. Individual Study of Korean Language. Korean 402 and permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits with permission of instructor.

This course is designed to develop advanced reading and writing skills in modern Korean for future academic work (with stress on Sino-Korean).
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Courses in South and Southeast Asia (S&SEA) (Division 483)

Culture Courses

225/Rel. 225. Hinduism. (3). (HU).

Hinduism is a major world religion practiced by over a billion people, primarily in South Asia, but it also was the precursor of Buddhism, and along with Buddhism it had a major impact on the civilizations in East and Southeast Asia. This class will cover its origins and development, its literature, its belief and practices, its unique social structures and doctrines, its interactions with other religions, and finally its confrontation with and accommodation of "modernity." We will use reading materials, lectures, discussions, and audio and video resources. WL:2 (Deshpande)
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250. Undergraduate Seminar in South and Southeast Asian Culture. No knowledge of any Asian language required. (3). (HU). May be repeated with department permission.
Section 002 Traditions of Poetry in India.
Throughout readings and discussions SSEA 250 introduces the student to six traditions of poetry in India: (1) Vedic-Upanishadic mystic poetry; (2) Tamil Sangam love poetry; (3) classical Sanskrit and Prakrit court poetry; (4) medieval devotional poetry; (5) Urdu metaphysical poetry; and (6) modern secular poetry. We will read translations of selections from each of these six traditions, appraise them as sources of aesthetic enjoyment from our own points of view and where possible evaluate them in the context of their own place and time. The student will come to know something of Indian aesthetic theories and the continually re-negotiated role of the poet in forming and transforming the ways in which people interpret their own life experience. Each student will introduce one of the poets whose work we will read. The course will require several short papers, at least two of which will be close readings and explanations of individual poems, and at least one other will compare notions of what makes poetry in India and the West. Translation and/or transcreation is an option for some of these assignments. WL:2 (Hook)

Section 004 Text, Performance, and Politics in Island Southeast Asia. Island Southeast Asia comprises a mosaic of cultures that have developed through centuries of multicultural interaction. In the unique literary and artistic productions of modern Indonesia and the Philippines are traces of the Indian classics, Islamic mystical texts, and Christian passion plays. Literary art in the islands is often self-consciously political; that is, it is concerned with social criticism and transformation. Many of these Southeast Asian literary texts are brought to life as performance art. In this seminar we will consider how art and life mutually inform one another in Southeast Asian social and political contexts. We will do this by exploring a variety of Southeast Asian literary and artistic productions (literature, theater, film). Our perspective will be historical and interdisciplinary. We will reflect upon the spectacular wayang shadow plays of Java, exploring the form both as theater art and as historical-cultural formation. We will venture into the prophetic and poetic world of an exiled 19th-century Javanese king. And we will explore the modern literary works of a 20th-century Indonesian exile (the award-winning novelist, Pramoedya Ananta Toer). We will consider the revolutionary anti-colonial literary works of Jose Rizal, father of the of the Philippine nation. We will explore several contemporary Southeast Asian films, especially noting the cultural and sexual politics that inform them. Finally we will work intensively with the writings of a contemporary Balinese director-playwright, producing one of his plays as our final class project. Course requirements include active engagement in class discussion, several short papers critically studying individual texts or problems, and participation in the class play. WL:2 (Florida)
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320. Sikh History I (18th-19th Centuries). (3). (HU).

The aim of this course is to study the historical context of North India which provided the basic impetus for the emergence of a new religious tradition in the beginning of the sixteenth century. The emphasis will be on religio-cultural innovations of Guru Nanak (1469-1539) and his nine successors. We will examine the scripture, the Adi Granth, and other Sikh texts to understand the Sikh religious beliefs, practices, and institutions. Particular attention will be paid to understand the evolution of the Sikh community (Panth) in tension with Mughals and Afghans. We will also examine the influence of Banda Bahadur and the Misals on the Khalsa as established by Guru Gobind Singh. The course ends with the analysis of the historical and social processes through which the Khalsa Panth was consolidated in the eighteenth century. WL:2 (Singh)
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S&SEA Language Courses

101. Beginning Thai. (5). (LR).

Standard Thai, the language of Thailand, is typical of several Asian languages in its grammar and tonal pronunciation. Focus of the course is the use of language in everyday situations. Upon successful completion of the two-term sequence, students will be able to conduct conversation dealing with several survival concerns, e.g., introduction, ordering food, transportation, banking, post-office trip, shopping, etc. From the first day of class, students will learn Thai scripts and will be able to read course materials and short passages in Thai at the end of the term. Writing assignments are also assigned. Thai cultures, history, geography, etc. will be offered both in the content of the language lessons and supplementary presentations. Placement test required before registration. WL:2 (Krishnamra)
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103. Beginning Indonesian. (5). (LR).

Indonesian is the national language of Indonesia, a country noted for its rich and deep cultural heritage as well as for its remarkable cultural diversity. With its 200 million speakers, Indonesian is the sixth most prevalently spoken of the world languages. The relatively simple syntactic and grammatical structures which characterize Indonesian make it an accessible language for native speakers of English. The elementary course comprises a two-term sequence designed to provide the student with a basic working knowledge of the Indonesian language. The course aims at the acquisition of the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing in modern Indonesian. The class emphasizes aural-oral exercises and practice and the learning of culture throughout the course. The text used is keyed to a set of tapes for use in the language lab and concentrates on practical knowledge of the language. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. WL:2 (Sudarsih)
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105. Elementary Hindi-Urdu. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 315 or 365. (4). (LR).

South and Southeast Asia 105-106 is the first year in the sequence of Hindi-Urdu courses offered by the Department of Asian Languages and Cultures. Hindi and Urdu are the respective national languages of India and Pakistan. The course meets four hours per week in four sessions. If enrollments warrant, there will be a separate two credit course during the Fall Term intended for students who have some knowledge of the spoken language but do not know the writing system. Only the Devanagari writing system is introduced. The course concentrates on developing skills in reading, writing, speaking, and aural comprehension. Evaluation is based on attendance, written homework assignments, quizzes, dictations, and examinations. There are no prerequisites (no previous knowledge of Hindi is required). WL:2 (Siddiqi)
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107. Beginning Tagalog. (4). (LR).

Tagalog/Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. Beginning Tagalog is a two-term sequence designed to give the student who has little or no knowledge of Tagalog the necessary basis for learning to speak it and to have an acquaintance with the cultural context in which it functions. Tagalog is particularly interesting in the way it has integrated the broad influences of both Spanish and English into its own syntactic and semantic systems. The oral approach is greatly emphasized in the classroom, using questions and answers and short dialogues to develop active use of the language in the most natural way possible. This is complemented by the use of taped lessons. There are frequent short quizzes, short dialogues, and a final examination. At the end of the first year, the student should be able to handle brief exchanges in common social situations and to read and write simple dialogues and essays in Tagalog. Text is Conversational Tagalog: A Functional-Situational Approach by Teresita Ramos. Supplementary readings and audio-visual presentations will be provided when appropriate. WL:2 (Agas-Weller)
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109. Beginning Sanskrit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 369. (3). (LR).

This course will work toward developing a proficiency with the basic tools necessary to read and write Sanskrit, the classical language of India. Lessons will include study of the script (Devanagari), elementary grammar, and vocabulary. The grade will be based on completion of regular homework assignments, weekly quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. WL:2 (Deshpande)
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111. Beginning Punjabi. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 371. (4). (LR).

This course offers an introduction to spoken and written Punjabi, a major language of northern India and of Pakistan, with some 80 million speakers. The course will include reading and writing (Gurmukhi script) as well as the spoken language. Students will be encouraged to begin basic conversation in class. The written aspects of language will be introduced through graded readings and written exercises. The emphasis will be on basic constructions, composition, vocabulary development, and conversational skills. Particular attention will be paid toward developing a basic practical proficiency in the language. Students will be introduced to the rich cultural heritage of the Punjab. A video film will be shown to examine the spoken language of the Punjab. Throughout the course the students will be encouraged to communicate in Punjabi. WL:2 (Singh)
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113. Elementary Tamil. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 373. (4). (LR).

This course offers an introduction to spoken and written Tamil, the major Dravidian language spoken in Tamil Nadu, the largest state in southern India, and by the largest minority in Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Malaysia. It is one of the oldest languages of the world with a literary tradition beginning in 3 BC. All major language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing are covered. The aim of achieving proficiency in speaking comprehension is to enable the student to function effectively in different everyday situations in a native environment. Class meets in a computer lab once or twice a week to practice listening and reading using a multimedia HyperCard software implemented for Tamil. Public access to a section of this software is possible in the computers at the Modern Language Building. A standard textbook is used, supplemented by reference grammars and additional materials selected or specially prepared by the instructor. Recitation sections emphasize speaking and listening in native contexts at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, intonation, rhythm, and appropriate body language. Students learn to handle the script in which Tamil is written. Reading materials introduce the students to the culture and the religion of Tamil speaking people. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. WL:2 (Manickam)
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115. Beginning Vietnamese. (5). (LR).

Vietnamese 115-116 is the introductory course in reading, listening, speaking, and writing the only language of more than 74 million speakers, from the South to the utmost northern part of Vietnam. This country now adopts the free market economy and needs foreign capital and know-how. With the normalization of U.S.-Vietnamese relations, a knowledge of the Vietnamese language and culture will be a crucial asset in enabling one to participate in many opportunities. This first half of the two-term sequence course is designed to accommodate students with no knowledge of the Vietnamese language, as well those with some knowledge who want to develop the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and to improve their knowledge in Vietnamese history and culture. The format will be as follows: four class hours a week will be focused on the aural-oral approach in reading, dialoguing, translating, and responding to the content of the texts using a question-and-answer format. One class hour a week will be devoted to quizzes and tests. In addition, there will be written assignments and works in the language lab. Throughout the course, students will be encouraged to communicate in Vietnamese, and classes will be largely conducted in Vietnamese to develop the students' ability to acquire sufficient automatic fluency in spoken Vietnamese. Students will be graded on classroom performance, class attendance, homework assignments, and a final examination. WL:2 (Nguyen)
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201. Intermediate Thai. S&SEA 102. (4). (LR).

This course continues and extends the four skills students developed in Thai 101-102. Reading and discussion as well as written assignments from authentic materials will be covered. Also, discussions on topics interesting to students will be covered in order to increase speaking fluency. Class is conducted largely in Thai. Students are required to actively participate in class. WL:2 (Krishnamra)
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203. Intermediate Indonesian. S&SEA 104. (4). (LR).

The course is the first half of a two-term sequence aimed at increasing the student's proficiency in the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing in modern Indonesian. Although increasing emphasis is given to the development of reading and writing skills, listening and speaking constitute an integral part of the course which is conducted entirely in Indonesian. Vocabulary building and instruction in matters of cross-cultural sensitivity are of great importance. The primary text used is keyed to a set of tapes for use in the language lab and concentrates on practical knowledge of the language. Supplementary materials introduce the student to reading modern Indonesian literature. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. WL:2 (Sudarsih)
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205. Intermediate Hindi-Urdu. S&SEA 106. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 316 or 366. (4). (LR).

This course is intended to increase students' skills and proficiency in speaking, comprehending, reading, and writing the Devanagari (Hindi) script. Evaluation is based on attendance, written homework assignments, quizzes, dictations, and examinations. Students with a background in Hindi-Urdu may also enter the sequence at this point. See the instructor for placement examination. WL:2
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207. Intermediate Tagalog. S&SEA 108. (3). (LR).

This course is designed for the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog and who wishes to develop some fluency in spoken Tagalog and to be acquainted with Tagalog literature. It is a two-term sequence which is essentially a continuation of what has been learned in the first year, but there will be more emphasis on reading and writing. Students who have not taken Beginning Tagalog (South and Southeast Asian 107/108) may take this course if they pass an evaluation test to be given by the instructor. The format will be as follows: two class hours a week will be devoted to reading and writing, one class hour a week will be devoted to guided conversation. Readings will be assigned and these will provide the framework for the discussion of Tagalog grammar and conversations in Tagalog on the content of the texts. There will be written assignments, frequent quizzes, and a final examination. By the end of the second year, students should have acquired sufficient competence to handle longer conversations, write letters and brief essays, read certain plays, and (with the aid of a dictionary) newspapers and magazines. Course text is Intermediate Tagalog, Developing Cultural Awareness Through Language by Teresita Ramos and Rosalina Morales Goulet. Supplementary readings and visual aids will be provided when appropriate. WL:2 (Agas-Weller)
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213(435). Intermediate Tamil. S&SEA 114 or 373. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 374. (3). (LR).

This course is a continuation of Elementary Tamil 114. Students with prior knowledge of Tamil may also join this course. See the instructor for placement. This course is designed to further students skills in speaking and writing as well as increase their proficiency in reading and comprehension. A standard textbook is used, supplemented by HyperCard Tamil software consisting of a sequence of graded dialogues chosen from daily conversations and Tamil movies. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. WL:2 (Manickam)
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215. Intermediate Vietnamese. S&SEA 116. (4). (LR).

This course is a continuation of Beginning Vietnamese 115-116. It is designed for the students who have some knowledge of spoken and written Vietnamese and who wish to develop the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) learned in the two-term Beginning Vietnamese course. The format will be as follows: four class hours a week will be focused on the aural-oral approach in reading, dialoguing, translating, and answering questions on the content of the texts. In addition, there will be homework assignments and quizzes or tests. Throughout the course, the students will be encouraged to communicate in Vietnamese, and classes will be largely conducted in Vietnamese. Course grades will be based on classroom performance, class attendance, weekly assignments, and a final examination. WL:2 (Nguyen)
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401. Advanced Thai. S&SEA 202. (3). (Excl).

In this course students will complete the move from material written specifically for foreign language-learners to "real" Thai, including such genres as newspaper articles, essays, and fiction. Class discussion of the reading selections and other topics will be in Thai, giving students the chance to acquire more sophisticated oral skills such as those of advancing and supporting opinions and interpretations. Written assignments will advance students' facility at writing Thai. WL:2 (Krishnamra)
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403. Advanced Indonesian. S&SEA 204. (3). (Excl).

The course aims at further development of the student's proficiency in the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) in modern Indonesian. The course work is designed to improve the student's command of basic grammatical structures as well as to build advanced vocabulary. Sociocultural orientation will increase the student's familiarity with the important socio-linguistic aspects of Indonesian language use and production. The texts used for the course stress active manipulation of a practical vocabulary for both formal and informal language situations. The materials selected are meant to further the student's knowledge of modern Indonesian literary and political cultures. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam or project. WL:2 (Florida/Sudarsih)
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409(509). Advanced Readings in Sanskrit. S&SEA 210. (3). (Excl).

This course will include the reading of dramas, classical epics, and philosophical literature in Sanskrit. The exact content will vary depending on the interest of the students. Students interested in taking this course should contact Prof. Deshpande directly. WL:2 (Deshpande)
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413(535). Advanced Tamil. S&SEA 214 or 374. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop students' skills in speaking and writing contemporary Tamil, as well as providing an exposure to Tamil poetry from sangam to the modern period. The skill of understanding and using idiomatic expressions and proverbs in Tamil is developed using selected texts from Tamil short stories, novels, radio plays, and movie dialogues. Attempts are made to let the students acquire near native competence. Throughout the course, the students will be encouraged to listen to audio tapes, use the multimedia HyperCard Tamil software, and speak Tamil in the class as frequently as possible. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, writing short letters and essays in a given topic, and an oral interview. Students who have not taken the sequence of Tamil courses offered by this department may be able to join this course, provided they have prior knowledge of the language by some other means. See the instructor for placement. WL:2 (Renganathan)
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415(597). Advanced Vietnamese. S&SEA 216 or 302. (3). (Excl).

This course emphasizes composition writing and discussion on selected reading materials. This selection of materials, ranging from literary books to newspapers, folk stories, and other cultural materials, will provide the students opportunities to get acquainted with various socio-cultural aspects of Vietnam. The class meets three hours a week. Evaluation is based on the written assignments, classroom attendance, and performance. WL:2 (Nguyen)
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463. Advanced Readings of Modern Indonesian Texts I. S&SEA 404. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

The course is a two-term sequence designed to introduce the student to critical readings of modern Indonesian texts. A reading and speaking knowledge of modern Indonesian is prerequisite. With an emphasis on text analysis, the student is required to produce critical commentaries on (and sometimes translations of) selected passages from a variety of assigned texts. The course is run as a seminar with discussion conducted in Indonesian. Evaluation is based on the written assignments and classroom performance. WL:2 (Sudarsih)
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487. South Asian Languages. A course in phonology and a course in syntax. (3). (Excl).

This is a "directed readings" course, designed for students who have a specific need for individualized language instruction in a South Asian Language. Permission of the instructor is required. Cost:1 WL:3
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491. Individual Study of South and Southeast Asian Language. Permission of instructor. (1-5). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of ten credits.

This course is for students who wish to do individual directed study of a Southeast Asian language. Interested students must make arrangements directly with the instructor.
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