Classical Studies

The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisors of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.

Courses in Classical Archaeology (Division 342)

221/Hist. of Art 221. Introduction to Greek Archaeology. (4). (HU).

This course surveys the history and art of Crete and Greece as revealed by archaeology from the third millennium through the 4th century B.C. In the prehistoric period, particular attention is given to architectural and ceramic developments as well as to the crosscurrent of trade and economic contacts among Asia Minor, Crete, and mainland Greece. Emphasis is also given to the impact archaeology has had on views and theories of history: the destructions of the civilizations of Crete and Troy, the end of the bronze age, the volcanic eruption of Thera. In the historic period, major artistic developments in architecture, sculpture, and painting are considered and special attention is given to social interpretations: temples as banks and monasteries; sculpture as dedication, decoration, and commemorative propaganda; architectural sculpture as realized myth. Discussions in the sections will concentrate on the historical background, archaeological field techniques, methods of dating, and stratigraphy. The sections will meet in the Kelsey Museum where it will be possible to work with the actual ancient artifacts recovered in University of Michigan excavations. There are two one-hour examinations and a final, as well as illustrated lectures and assigned readings. Cost:2 /3 WL:4 (Talalay)
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365/Class. Civ. 365. Alexander the Great: The Making of a Legend. (3). (HU).

See Classical Civilization 365. (Cherry)
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422/Hist. of Art 422. Etruscan Art and Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 or 222. (3). (HU).

See History of Art 422. (Gazda)
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424/Hist. of Art 424. Archaeology of the Roman Provinces. Class. Arch. 221 or 222. (3). (HU).

The mighty city of Rome usually dominates courses about the archaeology of the Roman empire. Yet most people in that empire lived far from the imperial capital, in provinces that stretched from modern-day Britain to Egypt, from Germany to Tunisia, from Syria to France. This course will examine the impact of imperial incorporation in a selection of provinces (both in the eastern and western empire), observing change in several spheres: economic, social, military, religious, artistic. Imperial strategies for controlling these provinces will be monitored, and local strategies of acculturation or resistance to Rome explored. Roman frontier policy, and the role of this provincial system in shaping the subsequent history and sense of national identity in the various lands discussed here, will also be considered. Undergraduates will be asked for a midterm, final, and paper; graduate student requirements will be arranged in class. Cost:3 WL:4 (Alcock)
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435/Hist. of Art 435. The Art and Archaeology of Asia Minor. (3). (HU).

The course will examine the art and archaeology of the Lydians, Greeks, and Romans (and, to some degree, that of their predecessors) in Asia Minor. Town planning, urbanization, architecture, sculpture, and vase painting will be followed, with attention to origin, distribution, and social and political use of types and styles. The process of Hellenization will be one focus of attention, and Romanization will be another. An hour exam at midterm, and a 10-20 page paper will be required. (Pedley)
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499. Supervised Reading. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Regular reports and conferences required.
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599. Supervised Study in Classical Archaeology. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Regular reports and conferences required.
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Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

101. Classical Civilization I: The Ancient Greek World (in English). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Great Books 191 or 201. (4). (HU).

This course serves as an introduction to the civilization of ancient Greece from its beginnings to the fourth century BCE. All reading is in English translation. Lectures will trace the development of Greek literature and thought within the context of Greek society, with emphasis on gender relations and the crisis in traditional values during the late fifth century. Literature read includes Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; selected lyric poetry; selected tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides; selected comedies of Aristophanes; selections from the historians Herodotus and Thucydides; and philosophical writings of Plato. The readings average about 90 pages per week. There will be a midterm, two brief papers, and a final examination. Freshmen Honors students in Honors sections will write enough to meet the Introductory Composition requirement. Cost:3 WL:4 (Loomis)
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120. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Humanities). (3). (HU).
Section 001 Sex and Gender in Ancient Greece and Rome, and Beyond.
What do "sex" and "gender" mean? Are they different? What were the attitudes of the Greeks and Romans, and other ancient cultures, towards these issues? How were sex and gender represented in their literature and visual arts? Are our views different from theirs? In this course we will examine different perceptions of gender roles within the family and broader society. We will also investigate constructions of sexuality, cross-cultural standards of the beautiful, varieties of courtship and marriage, and contentions between pornography and erotica. Sources will include epic, lyric, tragic, and comic poetry; philosophy; and oratory; and, where appropriate, inscriptions and papyri, vase painting, the plastic arts, and graffiti will be introduced for discussion. Occasionally, we will watch, contrast, and compare modern films with ancient literary works. Course requirements: to read the assigned materials with attention and to participate actively and inquisitively in the classroom discussions. Grade will be based on written assignments (two papers of 6-8 pages each) and class participation (no exam). (Gagos)
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121. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Composition). (4). (Introductory Composition).

Section 001 Ancient Greek Historical Writing: Herodotus and Thucydides. This course will focus on two major ancient Greek historians, Herodotus and Thucydides. By comparing these historians in terms of the themes of their histories, their narrative style, and their political, philosophical and religious views, we shall gain insight not only into the ancients' perception of themselves and their past, but also into how each of these historians conceived of historical change and the task of historical writing. We shall also explore the idea of cultural difference both between the Greeks and other cultures and between Greeks within the Greek world in the works of these historians. Readings from the historians will be supplemented with readings from other contemporary writers including the tragic and comic poets. Sample Reading List (approximately 100-200 pages of reading per meeting): Herodotus, Histories; Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War; Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus; Aristophanes, Knights; J.Gould, Herodotus; S.Hornblower, Thucydides. Requirements: three short papers and one class report. (Forsdyke)

Section 002 Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean. Women and Society will view the lives of Greek-speaking women from the middle ranks of society in the Eastern Mediterranean over the nearly 1000 years from the conquests of Alexander the Great to the Arab invasions. Available to us are not only historical and literary accounts written by the men of antiquity for a male audience, but also the dry climates of Egypt and adjacent desert regions have preserved the ancient writing material, papyrus, to provide us with an immediate and intimate view of women's words in the letters they wrote and of women's affairs in the documents that concerned them. Inscriptions, remains of public and private buildings, and artifacts will also play a part in drawing the picture of the daily life women lived some 2000 years ago in the villages, towns, and cities of the region. Family archives and letters document a woman's position in her household; private and public transactions, her status before the law, in the marketplace, and in religious celebrations. This was a multi-cultural world in which Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Jews, and other groups lived in close proximity. Evaluation through six short papers with rewrites (two papers will also be rewritten into 6-8 page versions), a take-home midterm, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites beyond a curiosity about women's documents. Cost:1 (Hanson)
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357/WS 357. Greek Medical Writers in English Translation. (3). (Excl).

Greek Medical Writers is a course in the history of ideas. It concentrates on the medical literature from Greek and Roman antiquity, spanning 1000 years, from the Hippocratic Corpus to Oribasius, doctor at the court of the Roman emperor Julian. Major focus will be on eliciting from the texts the habits of reasoning employed by ancient doctors and the unenunciated assumptions upon which they depended as the common property of their society. The physicians of the Hippocratic Corpus created an anatomy and physiology that looked to both theory and clinical practice, and while knowledgeable about the human skeleton, their internal anatomy is derived from external observations and the summoning of analogies; their physiology complements this anatomy and explains why human bodies respond to medicaments long in use in folk medicine. The Hellenistic anatomists, associated with the Museum in Ptolemaic Alexandria, practiced dissection and vivisection on human bodies, gaining thereby considerable knowledge of internal anatomy. Soranus and Galen, practicing at Rome in the High Empire, are sophisticated by comparison with their predecessors. Gynecological treatises play a prominent role in the undertaking, since these reveal the changing habits in thinking about the female body from the V century BCE to the IV century CE. Evaluation through five short papers, a take-home midterm, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites beyond a curiosity about ancient medicine. Cost:1 (Hanson)
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365/Class. Arch. 365. Alexander the Great: The Making of a Legend. (3). (HU).

Alexander's world-conquering exploits and early death in 323 B.C. made him a legend not only in his own time, but for posterity. This course employs historical, literary, archaeological, artistic, and other forms of evidence to focus critically on the 'reality' and 'image' of Alexander in antiquity. Its scope, however, extends far beyond Alexander's own world, to examine his legacy and how knowledge about him has been transmitted and distorted, used and abused: what the Romans made of him, the Medieval Alexander tradition, even his relevance in contemporary politics. There are illustrated lectures, supplemented where possible by the occasional use of film and museum resources. Students will read about Alexander in selections from two ancient lives, a medieval romance-legend, modern scholarly study, and a novel about Alexander. A midterm, final, and short paper are expected. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cherry)
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372. Sports and Daily Life in Ancient Rome. (4). (HU).

Readings include selections from ancient writers in translation and from recent scholarship on topics in Roman history and society available in a course pack obtainable from AccuCopy at the corner of Maynard and East William, and books available from Shaman Drum. In the lectures we begin with some background on Roman religion and history and then consider the different social classes and their lifestyles; the second half of the course deals with the athletic events of chariot racing, gladiator fights, and wild beast hunts. Grades will be based upon midterm and final examinations and upon computer assignments and participation in class. WL:4 (Potter)
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388/Phil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 388. (Everson)
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466/Rel. 468. Greek Religion. (3). (HU).

We shall understand Greek religion as a traditional language, narrated in myth and performed in rituals, in which from prehistory to the cities of the fourth century Greeks understood their world and negotiated the realities, fears, and hopes of their lives and communities. The course will not offer a survey but, in comparative approaches, explore basic human concepts as they appear in selected topics (such as progressive and cyclic time, transcendence of sacred time and space in ritual performance, cosmogony, death and rebirth, chaos and renewal of social order, sacrifices, civic religion, the ecstatic body and mind, initiations) and a few paradigmatic gods, including Dionysos, the god of boundless contradictions. We shall confront the otherness of Greek culture as well as common humane experiences still relevant for the understanding of ourselves and modern societies. Lectures and regular discussions. Students will be graded on papers (several short and one of 8-10 pages) as well as on their participation in discussions. Cost:1 -2 WL:4 (Koenen)
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Classical Linguistics (Division 345)

599. Directed Reading. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Regular reports and conferences required.
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Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

101. Elementary Greek. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 502. (4). (LR).

In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and Hellenistic periods as well as the koine Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue. Cost:2 WL:4 (Dobrov)
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301. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102. The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion of Greek 301 and 302. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 507. (4). (LR).

This course is the first half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. Emphasis will be put upon reading Greek prose texts (Lysias, Plato); upon linguistic and grammatical skills; and upon translation and comprehension. Its sequel is Greek 302 (Winter term), in which poetry is read (Homer). Cost:2 WL:4
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Intermediate Courses

401. Readings in Classical Greek Prose. Greek 302. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

We will concentrate on translation, comprehension, and explication of Herodotus or Thucydides. Course requirements: an hour exam at midterm, a final exam, and a paper some 5-10 pp. in length. Cost:1 WL:4 (Pedley)
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Advanced Courses

436. Herodotus. Greek 301 and 302. (3). (Excl).

By connecting Herodotus, Histories, and several treatises from the Hippocratic Corpus, this course will consider several topics which these early writers of Ionic prose share in common, such as madness (manie ) and sudden attacks (e.g., aphonie), noting the differences between 'political' madness, as it appears in Herodotus, and 'medical' madness, as presented by the Hippocratics; current theories to explain intergenerational resemblances; interests in the anthropology of foreign peoples. Close attention will be paid to the Greek texts, with analysis of vocabulary, style, form, and modes of thought. Special emphasis will be placed on Books I and III of Herodotus and the Hippocratic treatises Sacred disease and Diseases of young girls; Generation and Nature of the child; Airs, Waters, Places. Herodotus' Histories will be read in entirety in English, as well as other relevant treatises from the Corpus. Evaluation will take the form of weekly written assignments; a take-home midterm, and a final exam. Cost:1 (Hanson)
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499. Supervised Reading. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in Greek Language and Literature or Classical Languages and Literatures. (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Regular reports and conferences required.
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506. Advanced Greek Composition. Greek 410. (3). (Excl).

The writing of continuous Greek prose: includes the writing of versions i.e. rendering of original English passages into classical Greek, and free compositions in Greek. Not open to undergraduates. Cost:4 (Garbrah)
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519. Aeschylus. Greek 301 and 302. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended as a general introduction to Aeschylus, and as an advanced reading course on the Oresteia. Issues to be covered will depend greatly on interest, but the range will include literary evolution (e.g., Homer, the Catologue of Women, Stesichorus' Oresteia), poetic versus dramatic technique, and archaic conceptions of ethics. The course requirements will consist in a presentation, a brief text-analysis, a translation exam, and a final paper (which may be based on the oral report). It is also recommended that all seven plays of Aeschylus be read in translation before the first class. Anyone interested in further information, or in getting a head start over the summer, is encouraged to talk with the instructor. (Dobrov)
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599. Supervised Reading in Greek. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Regular reports and conferences required.
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Modern Greek (Division 433)

101. Elementary Modern Greek. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 501. (4). (LR).

An introductory course in language with special emphasis on developing speaking skills. Most of the classroom time is spent on drills and on elementary dialogues among the students and between the students and the instructor. A creative approach to language learning is followed, whereby the class simulates everyday life situations and the students are asked to improvise responses to those situations. Instruction also focuses on elementary grammar and syntax. Homework involves preparation for the dialogues and drills. Additional exercises at home and in the classroom include descriptions of objects and contexts, problem-solving, interviews among students, and conversion of dialogues into narratives. There are weekly quizzes or tests, a midterm, and a final examination.
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201. Second Year Modern Greek I. Modern Greek 102. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 503. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, reading and writing, as well as listening skills of students. The course begins with a thorough review of materials taught in the first year and continues with the completion of grammar and syntax and writing. Besides the familiar drills, homework includes a greater amount of creative writing. Journalistic prose, short stories, literary excerpts, as well as films and television materials are included in the course. There are weekly quizzes or tests, a midterm, and a final examination.
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Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

See Special Departmental Policies statement above

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential facts of morphology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, history and culture are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English vocabulary improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 193, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with little or no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit Professor Knudsvig in 2147 Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar and the development of basic reading skills. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:4
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102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3
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193. Intensive Elementary Latin I. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101, 102, 103 or 502. (4). (Excl).

This course is a rapid introduction to Latin and is intended for students with little or no prior Latin. Upperclass undergraduates in such fields as history, medieval or renaissance literature, or linguistics and who need to acquire a reading competence in Latin as quickly and as efficiently as possible should elect this course. So should other undergraduates who intend to continue the study of Latin and want a rapid introduction that enables them to take upper-level Latin courses as soon as possible. (Note: completion of 193-194 alone does not satisfy the undergraduate language requirement). This first term course covers elementary grammar and syntax. Cost:1 WL:4 (D.O. Ross)
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231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from several authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D., but primarily from Pliny the Younger. Class discussions center upon the readings. Some course materials require the use of a computer. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:4
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232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of the greatest work of Latin literature, Vergil's Aeneid, with comprehension and enjoyment. This course will ask you to bring together and apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired up to this point and to build on these as you learn to read poetry. There will be some grammar review as necessary. You will also study Vergil's epic poem in English translation. By term's end you should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the Aeneid is all about and an ability to handle a Latin passage of the poem with control and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour exams, and a final. Cost:2 WL:4
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Intermediate Courses

301. Intermediate Latin I. Latin 194, 222, or 232. (3). (HU).

The primary goal of this course is to serve as an introduction to the study of Latin literature, and, through the literature, of Roman culture. Texts by a major poet and a major prose author will be read with a view to their literary, historical, and political contexts. Reading strategies, and review of morphology and syntax as needed, will be stressed. There will be quizzes, a midterm, and final exam. Cost:2 WL:3,4 (Knudsvig)
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401. Republican Prose. Latin 301 or 302. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Readings in Sallust and Caesar.
Particular attention will be paid to acquiring a strong foundation for reading in Republican prose, but we will also consider the historical context of these writings. Midterm and final exams. (Loomis)
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409. Augustan Poetry. Latin 301 or 302. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

Readings in Augustan poetry with attention paid especially to language and poetic context (specific texts to be announced). Midterm and final exams. (Markus)
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Advanced Courses

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)
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426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)
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451. Early Latin Prose.
(3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to develop an understanding of and sensitivity to early Latin prose style, and to do so we will both read and write. The principle text will be Livy, Book I, but we will spend an equal amount of time reading other texts, both literary (of various genres) and epigraphic, which served as his occasional models. We will write one short composition each week, in imitation of different styles. Cost:1
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499. Latin: Supervised Reading. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in Greek Language and Literature or Classical Languages and Literatures. (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Regular reports and conferences required.
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511. Letters of Cicero. (3). (Excl).

Reading of a selection of Cicero's Letters both for their intrinsic literary value in a continuing convention of epistolography and as unique documents for Roman social and political history. A paper, midterm, and final exam. (Potter)
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591. History of Roman Literature, Beginnings to Cicero. Approximately eight credits in advanced Latin reading courses. (3). (Excl).

A survey of the development of Roman literature from the beginnings of the Augustan age, including epic, drama, lyric, oratory, and the beginnings of philosophy. Lectures, assigned readings, and reports. (D.O. Ross)
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599. Supervised Reading in Latin Literature. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Regular reports and conferences required.
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