Romance Languages and Literatures

French, Italian, and Spanish Placement Tests

If you are planning to take an elementary French, Italian, or Spanish class and you are a new student, freshman or transfer student, or you have not yet begun the elementary language sequence on the Ann Arbor campus, you must take the placement test in order to register for the correct course. You must register for the class into which you have been placed.

If you have registered for a class prior to taking the test, you will still be required to take the test in order to verify that you are in the appropriate level class.

If you have already taken French, Italian, or Spanish 101-232 on the Ann Arbor campus, or if you have already taken the placement test once, you are not eligible to take the test again. For questions regarding the LS&A language requirement, please see a general academic advisor or call POINT-10 (764-6810).

Please Note: With the reduction in the number of classrooms throughout LS&A, departments must limit the number of classes offered between 10 am and 4 pm. There will be more classes open before 10 am and after 4 pm. Please take advantage of the opportunity to register for these classes and avoid the "Lottery" (see 2b below).

Instructions for students requesting overrides for French or Spanish 101, 103, 231, or 232.

1. Try to find a section that will fit into your schedule, since the Department cannot guarantee every student a space in a section of his/her own choice.

However, do not register for a class that you cannot attend. You will not be eligible to override into the section of your choice if you are registered for any section of 101-232, even if you cannot attend that section.

2. As it states in the Time Schedule any registered student who misses one of the first four class meetings will be dropped from the course, thereby leaving some open spaces for those students who have been closed out.

If there is absolutely no section open which will fit your schedule, you should follow this procedure:

(a) Start attending the section you would like to get into on the first day of class. You will receive a Proof of Attendance form which must be signed by your instructor every day. You must attend a class every day, but it does not need to be the same section. All students must take action through T-T Registration to make sure their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are taking.

(b) On Wednesday, September 10 at 7:00 p.m., there will be a meeting in the basement of the MLB, rooms to be announced later, for each of the above courses. At these meetings, students will be assigned to remaining vacated spaces in the most fair and equitable manner possible, using a lottery system. At no time, however, will any class be allowed to exceed 25 students. Students must bring their printout of classes and the Proof of Attendance form to the meeting!

3. Please note that you will not be allowed to change sections at these meetings. Beginning Thursday, September 11, Elementary French Language Supervisors will hear requests for section changes and fill those requests to whatever degree is possible.

4. Please ensure when adding with the override that you also add modifiers for pass/fail, etc.

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test. Students must check with the Course Coordinator for any exceptions to the Placement Test level.

101. Elementary French. Students with any prior study of French must take the Placement Test. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (LR).

The sequence of French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar, vocabulary, and culture which are needed in everyday life to understand French spoken at a moderate speed and to be understood by sympathetic native speakers. Vocabulary and structures are practiced in class primarily through communicative activities stressing listening and speaking. Authentic documents are used to develop reading skills and culture. Cultural awareness and listening skills are further developed through listening and video materials. Classes meet four hours per week in sections of 20-25 students. Daily homework assignments involve studying vocabulary and grammar, writing exercises or short compositions, and practice in listening comprehension. There are several quizzes and tests, as well as midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Class participation is graded. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103.
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102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. (4). (LR).

See French 101. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H. Neu for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course.
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103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

French 103 is a course for students with some prior language study in French, and covers the same material presented in French 101/102. Entrance into the course is by placement or with the permission of the course coordinator. Because students are expected to be already familiar with some of the material, the course moves at a rapid pace, and students will need to plan on spending at least 8-10 hours each week preparing daily lessons. The objectives and methods of instruction are similar to those of French 101/102. Frequent quizzes (with both oral and written components) are administered to check students' assimilation of material. There are two hourly exams, a final, and speaking tests. By the end of the course, students will have a good working vocabulary and strong listening comprehension skills; they should be able to express themselves in French (both in writing and orally) using most of the basic structural patterns in the language.
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231. Second-Year French. French 102 or 103; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French grammar structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and literary excerpts. Both courses include the use of French movies and video. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversation on such topics. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises, and laboratory work, both audio and video. There are comprehensive course-wide tests, compositions, and final examinations.
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232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

In French 232, students will continue learning and reviewing vocabulary and grammar from the second half of the book Ensuite. There will be short weekly readings (advertisements, literary excerpts, and short stories). Throughout the term, students will listen to French songs, see several videos (from French television) as well as two French movies. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized, daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. There will be three course-wide tests, compositions, and a final examination.
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Courses Taught in English (without language prerequisite)

240. French and Francophone Topics in Translation. Taught in English. A knowledge of French is not required. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Literature and Science.
This discussion course will explore differences between 'science' and 'literature.' Science explores and discovers 'external reality' while literature deals with the world of creation and imagination. The scientist experiments and collects data which should be precise and reproducible. Thus the language of science, should be precise and unambiguous, and secondary to observation. In literature, the written text is everything and some ambiguity and imagination in interpretation is important. Chance plays an important role in science and is a significant theme in literature. We will discuss some discoveries in French science where chance played an important role, read literary texts where chance is prominent and explore other scientific concepts that occur in literature. The course will be in English and there are NO SCIENTIFIC PREREQUISITES. Those wishing to read the texts in French will be encouraged to. Grade based on regular and active class participation and term paper. (Maxwell)
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Cultural and Literary Studies

250. First-Year Seminar in French and Francophone Studies. French 232. (4). (HU).
Section 001.
This course introduces students to the cultural, economic, social, and political interconnections between Francophone and European literature and cinema. The course will provide an introduction to French Studies by examining several approaches or methods to the study of cultural production. A strong emphasis will be placed on student participation in class discussions, vocabulary development, and writing skills. We will study contemporary literary and filmic texts from French-speaking writers and filmmakers from Africa, the Maghreb, the Caribbean, Canada and France. Required work: participation in class, short weekly papers, oral presentations, and one final project. (Yervasi)
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270. French and Francophone Literature and Culture. French 232. (4). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.

Intensive study of a topic, theme, or genre in the literature and other cultural productions of French speaking peoples, providing an introduction to the methods and practice of literary and cultural study in the French language and opportunities for development of linguistic proficiency beyond the fourth term level.
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274. French and Francophone Societies and Culture. French 232. (4). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.
Section 001 Societies and Culture.
Intensive study of a topic in the culture, politics, and structures of French-speaking societies, providing an introduction to the methods and practice of cultural and social study in the French language.

Section 002 Small Change: Childhood Narratives and the Politics of Learning French. The purpose of this course is twofold, to introduce students to French and Francophone societies and cultures and to allow students to develop their reading, writing, and speaking skills in French, skills they will need in more advanced courses in French and Francophone studies. We shall concentrate on French and Francophone childhood narratives (to be distinguished from literature written for children) in both novels and film and consider what these childhood narratives teach us about their cultural context and, especially, about the role (political, social, economic) of teaching and learning French in France and the French colonies (during the colonial period). We shall begin with several Francophone novels to consider the relation between teaching French and colonization. Throughout the course we shall view French and Francophone films to study the representation of historical events such as the Algerian Revolution through childhood narratives, with special attention devoted to how childhood narratives can serve as allegories of the political conflicts to which children are sometimes thought to be immune. We shall also consider the political implications of children's discovery of sexuality as they grow up. Finally, students will have the opportunity to think about how their own experiences of learning French might relate to the narratives they will have studied. The objectives of the course will be to envision ways of learning French that empower students rather than alienate them. This will be an intensive writing course with an emphasis on revising and rewriting as a way of improving writing skills. Students will keep a journal of reflections on the texts studied in the course. The grade will be based on class participation (contribution to class discussions on the part of every student will be crucial), journals, in-class writing assignments, and papers. Readings will include an Algerian, a Guinean, and a Québécois novel, as well as the memoirs of an American French teacher. Five French and Francophone films will be screened. Novels: Mouloud Feraoun, Le fils du pauvre (Algérie) Camara Laye, L'enfant noir (Guinée) Michel Tremblay, Therese et Pierret à l'école des Saints-Anges (Québec) Alice Kaplan, French Lessons (USA) films: Halfaouine, dir. Férid Boughedir; L'argent de poche, dir. François Truffaut; Les roseaux sauvages, dir. André Téchiné; Le souffle au coeur, dir. Louis Malle; La rue Case-Nègres, dir. Euzhan Paley. (Hayes)
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363. Caribbean Studies. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Desiring Across Borders: Métissage, Gender, and Identity in the French Caribbean (in French).
Many Caribbean theorists have used the concept of métissage (racial mixing) to describe not only Caribbean racial identity but also the cultural and historical trends that came/come together in the Caribbean to produce Caribbean identities and societies. In this course we shall examine the themes of cross-racial and cross-cultural desire as metaphors and/or allegories of identity as a form of métissage in literary, political, and other cultural discourses. Whereas many discussions of métissage often take a celebratory tone, we shall consider the beginnings of métissage as a practice forced on slaves brought to the Caribbean from Africa, a practice whose weight remains present in contemporary literature. We shall also consider the positive possibilities of a politics of identity as métissage in contrast with an identity politics of purity, which might define communities through exclusion. There will be two papers, a journal, and class presentations. Since this course is offered in conjunction with the Theme Semester on Genders, Bodies, and Borders, students will be asked to attend several events organized in conjunction with the theme term. Texts: Mayotte Capécia, Je suis martiniquaise; Frantz Fanon, Peau noire, masques blancs (selections); Maryse Condé, Moi, Tituba, sorcière noire de Salem; Dany Laferrière, Comment faire l'amour avec un nègre sans se fatiguer; Dany Laferrière, Cette grenade dans la main d'un jeune nègre, est-elle un fruit ou une arme (selections); Simone Schwartz-Bart, Ti Jean l'Horizon; Myriam Warner-Vieyra, uletane Films: La rue Cases-Nègres, and others. (Hayes)
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367/368/369 Introduction to French Literature.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

367(387). Literature, History, and Culture of Early Modern France. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Literature, History, and Culture of Early Modern France.
This course will examine the writing of French women of the 15th century to the Revolution in a variety of genres including, poetry, novel, short story, letter, and essay. We will consider the problematics of the early modern woman author in the context of the querelle des femmes, but our primary focus will be on close analysis of selected texts from a feminist perspective. Authors to be read include Pisan, Labé. Catherine des Roches, Gournay, La Fayette, Sévigné, Graffigny, Salm Dyck, and des Gouges. Work for the course will include team-based oral reports, three short papers, and a final exam. (Stanton)
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368(388). Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course will focus on a representative work of five of the most important writers of the period in question, namely Voltaire, Benjamen, Constant, Balzac, Baudelaire, and Musset. Emphasis will be placed on the literary and thematic aspects of the works read, together with appropriate consideration of their historical, political and cultural context. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write five papers in French (three or four pages in length) during the course of the term. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. Regular attendance is required. The course will be conducted in French. (Gray)
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369(389). Literature, History, and Culture of Modernity. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course will explore the notions of circulation as they pertain to the specific phenomenon of urban Modernity from the mid-19th through 20th centuries. Some of the questions that will preoccupy us during the term include: How is circulation addressed in the architecture and infrastructure of the city, above ground (buildings, boulevards) and below (subways, sewers)? How is the circulation applied to the crowd or to mobs? Why is Paris most often represented as the center of urban Modernity? In what ways does circulation apply to print culture and art? To photography and cinematography? How does Modernity take into consideration scientific or industrial advances that enhance the ease of reproduction and distribution in the media and visual arts? How does literary circulation differ from filmic circulation? We will examine these questions through the study of literary texts (poetry, short stories, novels), architecture, history, urban development, photography and cinema, as well as their mutual influences on the culture of Modernity. (Yervasi)
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384. Origins of Contemporary France: From the Gauls to de Gaulle. French 235. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Cultural History of France: From the Middle-Ages to the Revolution. A survey of French civilization: literature, history, art, and society.
We will discuss Romanesque and Gothic art, the role of women in medieval society, witchcraft and the Church, Reformation and Counter-Reformation, the centralization of power and the emergence of absolutism. Slides and films will complement lectures, reading and discussions of monuments, events and social structures. Conducted in French. (Huet)
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399(350/450). Independent Study. French 232; permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credit.

French 399 is an Independent Study course which may be offered to undergraduate students who demonstrate the need to study some specific language aspect of French, phonetics (in this case it must not correspond in any way to French 325), grammar, style and translation included. The course may be elected for up to 6 hours of credit, but that option should be exceptional. Generally 3 credits are granted if the course work is as intensive as any regular course at the 300 level. The type of requirement for the final grade must be specifically indicated: examination or other. In all cases the student petitioning for independent student 350 and the supporting instructor must demonstrate that the course is needed and that no other regular course may be taken as a substitute.
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450(460). Special Studies. Three courses in French numbered 300 or above. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

Readings and topical studies on aspects of French and Francophone culture, history, and literature requiring an advanced linguistic, critical or theoretical background, or particular critical or analytic techniques.
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466(457). Literature of the Twentieth Century. Three courses in French numbered 300 or above. (3). (Excl).

This course will focus on some of the most famous names and trends in gay male culture, literature, and film in twentieth-century France. Several of the authors we will read are in fact major names in twentieth-century high culture, which seems to indicate an ambiguous relationship between gay male identity and mainstream culture. Texts will be read in their social contexts, such as Parisian life in the 1920s, the revolutionary politics of the 1970s, or the AIDS crisis. Among other issues, the course will explore the difficulties in defining a gay community in France, the resistance to identity politics, the ambiguous relationship between gay men and North Africa, notions of homosexuality as subversive, the reasons for the denial of AIDS until the late 1980s, etc. LITERATURE: André, Gide, L'immoraliste and parts of Si le grain ne meurt. Marcel Proust, Sodome et Gomorrhe (part 1 only); Jean Genet, Journal du voleur; Hervé Guibert, Le protocole compassionnel; Excerpts from Renaud Camus, Tricks; Guy Hocquenghem, etc. FILM: Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Querelle. (Caron)
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491. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl).

Supervised independent studies; a program of selected readings and conferences, term papers, or reports; and written examinations.
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492. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl).

Supervised independent studies; a program of selected readings and conferences, term papers, or reports; and written examinations.
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Other Language Courses

111. First Special Reading Course. French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of French 111-112 does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement. May not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one term. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the term students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.
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235(361). Advanced Practice in French. French 232. (3). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in French.

French 235 uses a cultural content as a basis for oral and written communication. It is a content course in which current problems and issues in French society are studied through readings (textbook; education system, sexism, immigrants and racism); videos (documentaries, news programs exposés on current issues), and films. The course focuses on developing student's ability to support opinions oral and in writing in a coherent manner. Students gain experience by working through texts in class and through class discussion, three oral presentations, and three medium-length papers. The final examination is an individual oral presentation. Active participation for 20% of the final grade.
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Courses in Italian (Division 399)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. Italian 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. It is strongly recommended that students who began Italian at another college or university also take the placement test. Students must check with the Course Coordinator for any exceptions to the Placement Test level.

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (LR).

This course is task- and content-based and incorporates grammar in a functional use of language through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Vocabulary and structures are practiced in class through communicative activities. Cultural awareness and listening skills are further developed through audio-visual materials. Evaluation criteria include: regular attendance, oral participation, in-class work, homework assignments, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. Italian 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in Italian 103. (4). (LR).

This course continues the presentation of the essential of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. It is task- and content-based and incorporates grammar in a functional use of language through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language use is encouraged through a variety of communicative activities. Instructional methods include authentic readings in Italian (short articles from newspapers and magazines) and audio-visual materials. Grading is based on regular attendance, oral participation, in class-work, homework assignments, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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103. Accelerated Italian. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

Italian 103 is an accelerated course for those students who wish to develop their speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills at a rapid pace, while being introduced to various aspects of Italian culture. The material covered in this term course is equivalent to that taught in two terms of elementary Italian 101 and 102. Evaluation criteria include: regular attendance, oral participation, in-class work, homework assignments, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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111. Special Reading Course. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students interested primarily in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of Italian. The aim of the course is to provide students with a level of proficiency in Italian sufficient to satisfy the basic reading knowledge requirements of doctoral programs, study abroad grants, etc. The course is open to graduate students, juniors and seniors and to others by special permission. Course requirements: Active class participation and attendance; periodic quizzes and exams; a final examination.
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205. Italian Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is designed for students who have had at least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading materials from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short stories, etc.) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Classes will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in the classroom activities.
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231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Text, workbook, and lab manual required. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions and oral report center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (LR).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. Text, workbook, and lab manual required. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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Courses Taught in English Translation (without language prerequisites)

150. First Year Seminar in Italian Studies. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Writing Women in the Renaissance.
This course will be taught in English and is designed for a small group of incoming freshmen. Its focus will be the influence of Italian literary models for the construction of female literary types as well as female voices in Europe from 1300 to about 1600. Italian authors studied will include four influential Florentines, Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Machiavelli, as well as Castiglione, Ariosto, Tasso, and Aretino. We will also read women poets, patrons and prostitutes from Italy and other countries. At issue will be women's roles in city and court culture during the early modern period, and Italy's immense cultural impact at a time when she was politically subjugated by other European powers. Required are active participation, two essays (4-6 pp.), and a final exam. (Cornish)
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310. Italian Cities. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course will have an interdisciplinary aspect, as it will include the study of history, art, music, philosophy, and politics as well as literature. At the same time, the literary production of a single Italian city will be emphasized along with its role in literature, Italian or foreign, written about it. Venice, Florence, and Rome are the most obvious candidates for a course of this nature, although others, such as Naples or Palermo, also provide rich possibilities.
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Other Language and Literature Courses

235(362). Intermediate Italian. Italian 232. (3). (Excl).

Italian 235 is a content-based course which uses culture as a stimulant for oral and written communication. Current problems and issues (social, economic, political, and cultural) in Italian society are studied through selected readings, videos, and films. The main objective of the course is to develop student's ability to support opinions, oral and in writing, in a coherent manner. Class format includes discussions, three oral presentations, and four medium-length papers. Active class participation and regular attendance are included in the final grade. This course is conducted in Italian.
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340(360). Contemporary Italian Culture. Italian 232. (3). (HU).

This course, taught in Italian, focuses on contemporary Italian culture, dealing with such themes as political life, mass media, women's roles, and modern vs. postmodern. Readings include a recent best-selling novel, contemporary essays, and articles from newspapers and magazines. The course takes full advantage of films, television broadcasts, and CD-ROMs. Course requirements: Active class participation and attendance; an oral presentation; a series of brief essays totaling 20 pages; a final examination. (Frisch)
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350(468). The Historical Novel. Italian 232. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
Section 001 Historical Novel: Narrative and Film.
Beginning with The Betrothed by Alexandra Manzoni the "founding father" of modern Italian narrative, we will trace the development of the historical novel through Giovanni Verga's Mastro-don Gesualdo, Tomasi di Lampedusa's The Leopard, and Elsa Morante's History: A Novel, with an eye toward sociohistorical as well as literary questions. In each case the problem of fictional re-presentation of historical background will be assessed in terms of politics, social organization, local familial effects, and the rise of the individual. Along with these four novels, the films based on them will be viewed in class. The intent of the course is thus to combine written narrative and cinema in a critical and compelling fashion. Requirements include two essays (4-6 pages each) and a final exam. (Lucente)
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387. Italian Renaissance Literature. Italian 232. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Feminine Century.
Taking its title from Tommaso Campanello's (1568-1639) assessment of the sixteenth century as a peculiarly "feminine" age (secolo femminile), this course will focus on women in Italian Renaissance literature, as writers, readers, objects of description, idolization and vilification, and subjects of debate. Texts will range from Ariosto's vision of an island ruled entirely by women to the patronage of Isabella d'Este to the poetry of Venetian courtesans and public performers. At issue will be the status of women in literature and the historical circumstances that encouraged their active participation in the writing of it. Evaluation will be based on class participation, progress in reading comprehension, two short essays, and a final exam. Class will be conducted primarily in Italian. (Cornish)
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399(485). Directed Reading. May be elected only with permission of concentration advisor in Italian. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Open only exceptionally to concentrators and graduate students in Italian whose program requires training in areas not covered in regular departmental offerings.
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Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101. Elementary Portuguese. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to give students the ability to understand the Portuguese of everyday life when spoken at a moderate speed, to be understood in typical situations of everyday life, and to read non-technical Portuguese of moderate difficulty. Because of the nature of materials, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, and writing exercises. Grading will be based on six hourly quizzes, two partial exams, oral exercises, homework, class participation and attendance, and a final exam. Portuguese 101 is offered only in the Fall Term.
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231. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102. (4). (LR).

Second year Portuguese is designed to improve and expand the work done in Portuguese 101/102. It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. Classroom work involves an intensive grammar review, the study of finer points of Portuguese grammar as made necessary from daily observation of students' writing and speaking performances, oral presentations, and discussion of short stories, texts, and videos. Homework involves studying grammar, preparing oral presentations, and writing guided essays. Grading is based on quizzes, oral presentations, essays, class participation and attendance, and a final exam. Portuguese 231 is offered only in the Fall Term.
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350. Independent Study. Portuguese 232. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed must be submitted to the concentration advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Portuguese Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. (Proposal forms are available in the Department Office.) The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course.
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450. Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of six credits.

The work to be done should not be the same as that offered in a regular course. A written description of the project together with an appropriate bibliography must be submitted for initial approval to the proposed instructor of the course and then to the concentration advisor for final approval prior to the beginning of the term during which the independent study is to be undertaken.
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489. Directed Readings in Portuguese. Permission of department. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

A directed work for qualified students requiring work not regularly offered. Offered only by permission of the department.
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Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course will offer a non-technical introduction to the comparative study of the structure of the Romance languages. It will compare and contrast the sound systems, grammar, and vocabulary of French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Students are expected to have completed the fourth term or equivalent of one Romance Language (French 232 or Italian 232 or Portuguese 232 or Spanish 232). No previous training in linguistics is required. The course will be taught in English. There will be a series of short exams. Materials will be made available in a course pack. (Dworkin)
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413/Spanish 413/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 413. (Hilberry)
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450. Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

The work to be done should not be the same as that offered in a regular course. A written description of the project together with an appropriate bibliography must be submitted for initial approval to the proposed instructor of the course and then to the concentration advisor for final approval prior to the beginning of the term during which the independent study is to be undertaken.
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Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. Spanish 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. It is strongly recommended that students who began Spanish at another college or university also take the placement test. Students must check with the Course Coordinator for any exceptions to the Placement Test level.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (LR).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to the Spanish language and culture. Emphasis is placed on the development of functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish. Grade based on daily oral work, departmental tests, final (oral and written) exam, and written work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 103.)
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102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. Spanish 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in Spanish 103. (4). (LR).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on departmental exams, one oral exam and written assignments (including several compositions). Great emphasis on daily participation.
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103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. Transfer students elect Spanish 103 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231.
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231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102 or 103; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on a series of quizzes and exams designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work, and oral class participation.
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232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 112. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, and outlooks, of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on exams, designed to assess ability to speak, understand, read and write Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions) and oral class participation.
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Other Language Courses

270(358). Spanish Conversation for Non-Concentrators. Spanish 232. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Spanish 275(361) or 276(362). A maximum of six credits of Spanish 270, 275, and 276 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 270 is a practical Spanish course for non-concentrators interested in the Spanish language and in contemporary Hispanic culture. Texts include journalistic prose as well as journal formatted videos aimed at increasing students' knowledge of current affairs in Spain and Latin America. Audio tapes will be employed to improve pronunciation, vocabulary, and listening skills. Class format includes group discussions, debates, oral presentations, and role-playing. Attendance and participation will be mandatory and will constitute a large part of the course grade. Grades will also be determined by examination of students' listening and expressive skills. Finally, students will practice writing in various practical formats such as letters, book or movie reviews, etc. These written exercises will form the final component of the course grade.
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275(361). Grammar and Composition. Spanish 232. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 270, 275, and 276 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 275 is intended to increase the accuracy of students' Spanish and to increase vocabulary and cultural knowledge through readings. The course is centered on a grammar-review text. Students do readings in Spanish, prepare translations and other exercises, and expand vocabulary. Time is allotted to class discussion of readings and especially to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, and class participation.
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276(362). Reading and Composition. Spanish 232. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 270, 275, and 276 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 276 is intended to improve students' ability to read Spanish prose, as well as their skills in conversational and written Spanish. To this end, students are presented with a variety of materials to stimulate discussion, both written and oral. A major component of this course is an interactive computer program based on a movie version of the short story "Instrucciones para John Howell." This computer application is designed to improve students' ability to read and interpret fiction. Compositions are assigned regularly and oral presentations by students are required, as well. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in class discussions.
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411. Advanced Syntax. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the analysis of the major morphological and syntactic structures of Spanish. The course begins with a consideration of morphology, with topics such as the function of inflexional suffixes, the role of derivational suffixes, verb morphology, etc. and then moves to the description and analysis of the simple and complex sentence, their syntax and their use. The course will be complemented by practical exercises, and the identification, segmentation and analysis of the various types of sentences studied. There will be a midterm, a final exam, and a required research project. (Dworkin)
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412. Spanish Grammar for Teachers. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

Not a course in composition. The course attempts to consolidate the prospective teacher's theoretical knowledge of the language with practical hints on classroom practice. (Gallego de Blibeche)
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413/Rom. Ling. 413/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

This course will assist teachers of Spanish as a foreign language, and students interested in language learning in the process of clarifying their own beliefs about language learning and teaching, both in terms of theoretical issues and practical implications for classroom instruction. The course will review second/foreign language acquisition theories and examine their pedagogical application of the classroom. Students will become familiar with different methodologies and teaching techniques in the context of a proficiency orientation. Emphasis will be given to curriculum design and material development for teaching and testing all four skills within a student-centered philosophy of teaching. A portion of each class session will be devoted to microteaching sessions as a means of providing students with hands-on teaching experience and concrete input on their teaching techniques, allowing students to gain a better understanding of what is needed to become an effective teacher of Spanish. (Hilberry)
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Literature

320. Introduction to the Study of Literature. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (HU).
Section 002 Introduction to the Study of Literature.
This course introduces students to narrative fiction, poetry, drama, argumentative essays, and critical literature. It emphasizes the formal aspects of each genre, including appropriate terminology and analytical/interpretive approaches. (Casa)
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332. Short Narrative in Latin America/Spain. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (HU).

Narrative, as a mode of thought and as a cultural practice, imposes designs upon human experience. In literature and in life, narrative makes experience in time meaningful, by shaping, ordering, and linking disparate events. Narrative also "has designs" on its participants and its readers instilling in us the desire for coherent identities, logical explanations, and satisfying resolutions. In this course, as we examine narrative designs, we will also explore the possibilities for creative freedom within (and without) these designs. Primary readings include recent fiction from Spain and Latin America (including Brazil). Major assignments include two exams, two analytic-interpretive papers (5-8 pages each), and an original narrative (either fictional or autobiographical). Evaluation will be based on written assignments, as well as class participation. Discussions will be conducted in Spanish. (Highfill)
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340(375). Introduction to Iberian Cultures. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

Espa a es un territorio en el que han convivido varias culturas y mentalidades a lo largo de su historia. Un panorama de dichas culturas (iberos, celtas, fenicios, griegos, romanos, hebreos, visigodos, árabes musulmanes) servirá para adentrarse en los aspectos de la cultura del Asia occidental, del norte de Africa y de Europa presentes en el territorio hispano. En este curso se presentará un panorama de la cultura y la civilización espa ola desde las Cuevas de Altamira (con pinturas rupestres del período paleolítico) hasta el siglo XX. Se leerán textos breves, representativos del pensamiento y la vida de los hispano-romanos, y de los hispano musulmanes en traducción castellana moderna, textos de sefardíes (judíos espa oles) en lengua espa ola, y fragmentos de literatura espa ola desde la Edad Media hasta nuestros días, tanto de literatura culta como folklórica. Se presentarán coincidentemente en cada momento histórico, proyecciones y muestras de arte pintura, escultura, arquitectura, música, danza de cada período histórico-cultural. El curso se dará en lengua espa ola y habrá ejercicios orales y escritos para enriquecer el nivel de dicha lengua que posean los alumnos. (Lopez-Grigera)
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341(376). Introduction to Latin American Cultures. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

This course examines a variety of Latin American popular and elite cultural artifacts. Cinema, soap operas, literature, visual arts, performance arts and music will drawn from different historical periods and cultural traditions, from the pre-Columbian period to contemporary U.S. Latinos. Students write in Spanish on a daily basis and are required to give oral presentations in Spanish on a regular basis. Special times are allotted for discussions in English.
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350. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration advisor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit more than once with permission.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Concentration Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. (Proposal forms are available in the Department Office.) The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course.
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372. Survey of Spanish Literature, II. Spanish 275 and 276, and one additional 300-level course. (3). (HU).

The late eighteenth-century and the 1930s mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their cultural context ranging from the Enlightenment through Romanticism, Realism, Generation of '98 to Symbolism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Bécquer, Galdós, Unamuno and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lecture and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of periodic tests, midterm and final paper, and final exam. The course is conducted in Spanish. (Hafter)
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381. Survey of Latin American Literature, I. Spanish 275 and 276, and one additional 300-level course. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the main currents of Latin American literature from the 16th to the 20th centuries through the study of its major figures. Lectures, reading, reports.
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391. Junior Honors Course. Permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

In Spanish 391, selected readings chosen from Spain and Spanish America are studied and analyzed through class work, conferences with a senior member of the faculty, written reports, and term papers. This course exists to enable students who have been admitted to the Honors Program to begin research supervised by a faculty sponsor. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course.
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392. Junior Honors Course. Permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

In Spanish H392, selected readings chosen from Spain and Spanish America are studied and analyzed through class work, conferences with a senior member of the faculty, written reports, and term papers. This course exists to enable students who have been admitted to the Honors Program to begin research supervised by a faculty sponsor. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (Perez)
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435. Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.

See Spanish 350.
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459. Don Quijote. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (HU).
Don Quijote
es la cumbre de la literatura espa ola y una de las mas importantes de la literatura universal. En ella están presentes tanto los problemas e ideales y problemas de la época de su autor como los de todos los tiempos. La lectura del Quijote es un ejercicio de la mas alta calidad, reconfortante al mismo tiempo que produce una excepcional emocion estetica. El curso tiene como objeto que el estudiante haga una introduccion a la obra que le permita disfrutar tanto de los mundos ideologicos de retórico del Quijote. El estudiante debe leer detenidamente la obra y hacer un trabajo sobre un tema especifico, segun la metodologia que el profesor requiere. (Casa)
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465. The Modern Spanish Novel I. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl).

Galdós' novel, Fortunata y Jacinta, like other realist novels of the nineteenth century, displays a vast and complex social world. The voyeuristic narrator surveys the neighborhoods of Madrid and peers into the homes of diverse character types: the newly rich bourgeois, the slum-dweller, the fallen woman, the charity worker, the parasite, the usurer, the consumptive, the free-thinker. But however empirical its aims this novelistic observatory is of course a fictional construction that produces a real-life effect. Moreover, in its time, Fortunata y Jacinta participated in an entertainment industry through which serial novels precursors to television soap operas were avidly consumed by middle-class readers. In this course we will examine the contradictions of Galdós' realist enterprise as revealed in his novel, essays, and speeches. Additional readings include historical documents, critical, and theoretical essays. Assignments include two essays (7-8 pages each), two exams, and a class presentation (in groups). (Highfill)
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470. Latin-American Literature, Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl).

Poesía épica, poesía satírica y edificante en los périodos virreinal y nacional. This course will deal with the long poem in Spanish American Literature from the Renaissance Period to the Twentieth Century. Readings will include: Alonso de Ercilla, La Araucana, Mateo Rosas de Oquendo, Satira a las cosas que pasan en el Perú. A o de 1598. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, El Sue o, Andrés Bello, A la agricultura de la zona tórrida, José Hernández, Martín Fierro, Rubén Darío, Los centauros, Gabriela Mistral, Cordillera. Problems of literary history, genre, narrative, rhetoric and poetic structure will be addressed. The class format will be lecture and discussion; active participation is encouraged. Evaluation will consider: (1) participation: 10%, (2) assignments: 20%, (3) Midterm Paper: 30%, and (4) Final Paper: 40%. (Goic)
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485. Case Studies in Peninsular Spanish and Latin American Literature. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course considers, in detail, specific problems, figures, movements, works, or literary genres in Hispanic literature.
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488. Topics in Hispanic Literatures and Cultures. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Federico García Lorca.
This upper-level literature course will be concerned with a number of representative works by Federico García Lorca (1898-1936), Spain's most famous twentieth-century writer. We shall concentrate on several of the collections of poetry and several of the plays, but not to the exclusion of a variety of lesser-known prose works. The primary approach will be intrinsic, based on close reading, but the works will also be contextualized within the period and we shall consider some of the salient aspects of Lorca's biography. Teaching, conducted entirely in Spanish, will be a mixture of lecture, class discussion, and a number of informal oral presentations. Evaluation is by attendance, class participation, and several medium-length papers. (Anderson)

Section 002 Tópicos. La literatura de la mujer hispánica. Este curso está destinado al estudio de un tópico particular: la mujer hispánica a través de la literatura. Introducción a la comprensíon histórica de la mujer espa ola: teorías filosófica psicológicas y médicas sobre la mujer, que pudieron ejercer influencia. La mujer en la literatura: Escritora. Grandes escritoras femeninas en Espa a y América desde el siglo XVI hasta el XIX: Santa Teresa, María de Zayas, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Rosalía de Castro, Emilia Pardo Bazán. Se leerán fragmentos representativos de cada uno de ellas. La mujer como protagonista literaria: Libro de Apolonio, las protagonistas femeninas en Cervantes, La tribuna de Emilia Pardo Bazán. La mujer en la poesía amorosa, en boca del varón y en boca de la mujer. La mujer marginada en el Siglo de oro. La galera famenina. La mujer en las jácaras de Quevedo. Cada estudiante hará un trabajo de investigación durante el curso, que comprenda al mismo tiempo problemática teórica y análisis literario. (Lopez-Grigera)
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490. Spanish Honors: Introduction to Literary Studies and Criticism. One 400-level Spanish literature course, and permission of Honors advisor. (3). (Excl).

The main goal of this course is to introduce the student to the fundamental principles of literary studies as a discipline. Literary studies, as any other discipline in the human services, can be seen as a series of knowledge-generating activities of theorizing or as a cluster of knowledge-problems and methods produced by these activities. Literary studies share, with other human sciences, a common goal: the explanation (theory) and interpretation (understanding) of our cultural world and our cultural experience. What distinguishes literary studies from other disciplines in the domain of the human sciences, is its focus on language, discourse and texts. Consequently, this course will emphasize critical thinking about texts by asking questions such as: What is literature? What is fiction? What are genres? What is explanation? What is explication? What is interpretation? Do we obtain knowledge or understanding in our transactions with literature and literary texts? A secondary goal of the course is to have a clear understanding of the meaning "Hispanic Language and Literature" within the context of general literary studies and of the current division of knowledge within colleges and universities in the USA. In this respect the course will focus on questions such as: What distinguishes the study of Hispanic from English language and literature? What are the relationships between foreign languages and literatures and cmparative literature? Reflecting on these issues will help the student to understand both the place of literature among other human symbolic expressions and the cultural significance of understanding the "other" from "our native" point of view.
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491. Senior Honors Course.
Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Students who successfully complete the Junior year Honors sequence are eligible to elect the senior year sequence (Spanish 490 and 491). In Spanish 491 the focus is upon selected topics, authors, literary movements, or genres chosen from Spain or Spanish America depending on the needs of the student. The student will study and analyze the subject, supervised by a senior member of the faculty. A description of the project and required exercises to be completed must be submitted to the Honors Advisor no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Honors Committee. The committee is to receive any lengthy paper submitted in the course.
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