Anthropology


Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The first unit of this course will use evolutionary theory to explore human genetics and cellular biology. The second unit will focus on primate behavior, speciation, and morphological adaptation. We will review the fossil evidence for human evolution to ask questions, such as: What was the fate of the Neanderthals? The third unit will use evolutionary theory to understand the behavior of modern humans, including sexual selection, mate choice, and culture. Three in-class exams, no final. Extra credit option. Cost:2 WL:1 (Strassmann)

168. First Year Seminar in Primate Field Studies. (3). (NS). (BS).

A seminar designed for incoming freshmen. Students will be introduced to science as a mode of inquiry by applying Darwin's theory of natural selection to the behavior of non-human primates. Emphasis will be given to long-term field studies of primates in the wild. One three-hour discussion/lecture. Class participation, weekly writing assignments, and a term paper required. (Mitani)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).

What is the relationship between race and biological evolution, biological evolution and culture, and culture and race? What is culture and how did it evolve? How did culture shape human evolution? Did extinct fossil races like Neandertals have culture? Was there a Human Revolution? What is the impact of technology on human biology, now and in the past? How is the human symbolic system used to construct racial groups in cultures around the world? Are these races real biological entities? Do they have any intrinsic differences in intelligence, as some recent publications suggest? What is the relationship between racial groups, health, and diseases such as sickle-cell anemia and AIDS? Anthropology is a comparative and holistic science that has such multidisciplinary issues at its core. This course examines these and related questions as critical to an understanding of the evolutionary basis of culture and the biological attributes and implications of cultural constructs like race. Grades will be based on two short essays and a take-home exam. (Caspari)

364. Nutrition and Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS). (BS).

Examines: (1) the physiology of nutrient utilization from carbohydrates to fats and proteins; (2) the role of diet on the evolution of the digestive system and brain size of non-human and human primates; (3) the archaeological evidence about the evolutionary roots of human diet; (4) the ecological basis of the hunter-gatherer's diet; (5) the dietary habits of western-style societies; (6) cultural variability and dietary preferences; (7) cannibalism; (8) lactose intolerance; and (9) accommodation to dietary restriction during development and adulthood. The course involves hands-on experience in measurements of nutritional status that includes anthropometric measurements of body size and body composition, metabolic rate, etc. (Frisancho)

368/Psych. 437. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS). (BS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order. The major focus of the course will be the behavior of prosimians, monkeys, and apes in the wild. Special attention will be given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, kinship systems, sexual behavior, vocal communication, competition, and other topics will be described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, and serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369 (Primate Social Relationships) and 568 (Primate Behavioral Ecology). Three lecture hours, and one discussion weekly. Two midterms, a term paper, and a final exam. WL:1 (Mitani)

398. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors advisor for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program.

451. Molecular Anthropology Lab. Anthro. 450 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This is a laboratory course where students will learn and employ some of the basic methodologies for collecting molecular genetic data. Methods include DNA extraction, PCR, electrophoresis, RFLP analyses, analysis of STR polymorphisms, and DNA sequencing. Class projects will include the collection and analysis of data. Lab fee: $50 (Merriwether)

463. Research Strategies in Human Biology. Senior standing, and/or any 300-level course in biological anthropology. (3). (Excl).

Evaluation of the various research strategies, methods, and techniques used in the study of contemporary human variability. The course includes use of non-invasive field techniques for measuring body composition, cardio-respiratory function, and energy expenditure throughout the life cycle. Students will develop individual projects and present them during class. This course involves hands-on experience. (Frisancho)

471. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Laboratory training and work in the techniques used in various aspects of research in biological anthropology.

564. Hominid Origins. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for biological anthropology concentrators. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is about the origin of the human species and the life history of the earliest type of human - Australopithecus. It examines the ancestry of the hominids, the various theories of their origin, and aspects of australopithecine evolution such as their locomotion, behavior, adaptations, and taxonomy. Emphasis is placed on the application of evolutionary theory to species origins and mode of evolution, the biomechanical links of form to function, and the importance of the discovery of stone tools. The format includes lectures and a laboratory session. Evaluations are based on a paper, final exam, and laboratory texts and assignments. Prerequisite: Anthro. 365 or equivalent or more advanced class in evolution. Cost:2 WL:4 (Wolpoff)


Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).
Section 001.
This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture; human genetics, evolution and the fossil record; the concept of race; primate (monkey and ape) behavior; language and culture; systems of marriage, kinship and family organization; sex and gender roles; economics, politics, and religion in global perspective; the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps, a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Peters-Golden)

Section 150. Anthropology, from the Greek anthropos (human) and logos (theory) is the scientific study of humankind. This course will introduce students to the four major subfields of anthropology: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and biological anthropology. In the process, we will focus on how each of these subfields helps to explain the cultural, social, and physical aspects of human diversity. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the sub-disciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture; human genetics, evolution and the fossil record; the concept of race; primate (monkey and ape) behavior; language and culture; systems of marriage, kinship, and family organization; sex and gender roles; economics, politics, and religion in global perspective; the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings include an introductory text, course pack, and several short monographs. (Lansing)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

This course explores non-western and western societies and the methods, poetics, and politics of representing of cultural difference and historical change. We will examine the significance of conceptions of time and space, the role of fieldwork and archives in the formation of knowledge, the procedures that distinguish between factual and fictional accounts, and the effects of power in the formation of societies in the context of colonizing and globalizing processes. Our goal is to develop a historical anthropological perspective that will enable us to appreciate the richness of human diversity and the human potential for transformation. Our texts will include anthropological and historical works, fiction, films, visual art, and travel accounts. Classes will involve lectures and discussions. Course requirements include class participation and presentations, quizzes, and several papers and/or take-home examinations. Cost:3 WL:3 (Coronil)

256(Biol. Anthro. 256)/NR&E 256. Culture, Adaptation, and Environment. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a wide-ranging introduction to the field of ecological anthropology, focusing on issues related to the management of common property. The main goal for the course is to help students acquire an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of competing approaches to the question of the relationship of ecology to the social world. On the natural science side, the major approaches to be considered are behavioral and systems ecology. From the social sciences, we will investigate the basic techniques of social anthropology, as well as evolutionary game theory. Why combine the social and natural sciences in a single course? Traditionally, social scientists study social systems, and natural scientists study ecosystems. But many of the most important problems in environmental studies only come into focus when we are able to combine both perspectives. This is particularly true of one of the most pressing issues of our time the management of common property (resources that are held in common and utilized by a social group). Today, the oceans are our common property, and the recent collapse of many fisheries illustrate the dangers posed by over-exploitation, the so-called "tragedy of the commons." To investigate systems of common property, we need to know something about how they function as ecosystems, as well as how societies relate to them. In this course, we will explore systems of common property utilized by a wide range of societies, including Native American salmon fishermen, African nomads, and Asian rice farmers. (Lansing)

286. Food in Human Affairs. (4). (SS).

The course will survey the domestication of plants and animals world-wide. It will examine the cultural and ecological contexts for the domestication of each and the genetic and anatomical consequences as they were selected to become productive food staples. The history of domesticated plants and animals will be explored including their introduction and the sociocultural consequences of new plants and animals in the diet of people around the world. The economic and political consequences of food problems will be discussed - ranging from maize in the New Word to the Irish potato blight, population increases in China and Africa, and the consequences of global change on the food supply. There will be several textbooks and a course pack. In the lecture there will be a midterm and final. In discussion there will be quizzes and research reports to prepare (2-4 pages in length) about different plants and animals. Cost:1 WL:1 (Ford)

298. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. (3). (SS). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Introduction to Cultural Studies.
Cultural studies is an emerging field in which scholars trained variously in cultural anthropology, literature, media studies, history, and sociology converge to explore the relationship between cultural, political, and economic processes in people's everyday experiences. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which dominant institutions such as schools, the mass media, and the police try to shape people's attitudes and actions, and the varied ways in which people respond. We will examine the main theoretical perspectives and research techniques that have been developed. (Rouse)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Native American Peoples of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages - all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. In this course, we look at cross cultural dynamics and tribal identities in political encounters between Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include land rights, family relations, alcoholism, and freedom of religion. We also look at contemporary Native American fiction, non-fiction, and film documentaries as cultural forces which challenge others' constructions of who Native American peoples are. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? WL:1 (Bierwert)

319. Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).

In this course we will examine the cultures and societies of contemporary Latin America both as they exist "at home" and as they have come to be redefined in this "other America." We will do this with an eye to appreciating the particularities of local cultures while searching out the shared themes and histories which in some ways unify them. Some of the themes we will cover are indigenous societies, religion, colonialism, economic development, agrarian reform and the state, race and ethnicity, language, and the politics of identity. This year we will focus primarily on two of the many and diverse regions of Latin America: Mexico and the Caribbean. Students will be expected to keep up with the reading, which will be heavy at times, to participate actively in class discussions, and to do independent research for a final project. Cost:3-4 WL:4 (Frye)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Family and Gender in China.
Studying family structure is one of the most effective ways to investigate Chinese culture and society. This seminar uses the rich literature on Chinese families to explore social transformation in twentieth-century China. It examines the processes of political revolution, economic modernization, and cultural innovation that have revolutionized family structure and gender relations in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. We will identify some of the historical processes in which gendered power relations within families have shaped the states and economies of these societies, and explore the history of Chinese feminisms and their articulation with international feminist movements. Assignments include active class participation, a class presentation, a short topical paper, and a final research paper. (Mueggler)

403. Japanese Society and Culture. Anthro. 101, 222, or any Japan course. (4). (Excl).

Many Americans imagine Japan as the mirror-image of the United States; that is, as the other way around. When did this perception become part of our "folk knowledge" about Japan, and how has it informed the representation of Japan in the scholarly literature and the mass media alike? In addition to exploring the various images that "outsiders" have of Japan and the Japanese, we will look at images of Japan created by Japanese peoples. Although the class deals primarily with post-1945 and post-Occupation Japan, we will trace the history of different social institutions that have a major role today in the everyday lives of Japanese, such as neighborhood organizations, the educational system, the entertainment industry, marriage, medicine, religion, and so forth. Popular culture, environmental pollution, sexualities, young adults, and race and ethnicity are also key subjects of discussion. Readings are augmented by slides and films. (Robertson)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures, I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity, and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: four 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize reading and lecture materials; participation in class discussions; regular class attendance. Cost:2 (Owusu)

416/Hist. 476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

See History 476. (Monteiro)

Ethnology-Theory/Method

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of Homo sapiens and traces the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems, I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function, and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or three 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. Cost:2 WL:2 (Owusu)

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Cuba and Its Diaspora.
This course examines Cuban history, literature, and culture since the Revolution both on the island and in the United States diaspora. In political and cultural essays, in personal narratives, in fiction, poetry, drama, visual artworks, and film, we will seek a comprehensive and diverse view of how Cubans and Cuban-Americans understand their situation as people of the same nation divided for thirty-five years by an iron wall of political differences. Topics to be considered include Afrocuban culture, changing gender conceptions, everyday life under communism, and the construction of exile identity. We will read works by Alejo Carpentier, Fidel Castro, Roberto Fernandez Retamar, Louis Perez, Oscar Hijuelos, Reinaldo Arenas, Lourdes Casal, Nancy Morejon, Coco Fusco, Margaret Randall, and Cristina Garcia, among others. There are no prerequisites for this course. Students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions and to do independent research for a final essay. (Behar)

425. Evolution of War and Peace in Stratified Societies. One course in anthropology. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the origins of war and the early evolutionary development of war alliance and peace-making. It examines the conditions under which warfare is initiated in sociocultural contexts where it did not previously exist and elucidates the origin of war in that sense. The course begins with a delineation of the distinctive characteristics of peaceful (or warless) societies that represent both a prior sociocultural disposition and the context in which primal warfare arises and takes shape. Consideration of peaceful societies illuminates certain key features of the transition from warlessness to warfare and provides a basis for identifying transitional cases. These sociocultural systems exemplify the causes, conduct, and consequences of nascent and early warfare. The subsequent co-evolution of war and pre-state societies is traced, including the development of alliance and peacemaking. Format: lecture and discussion. Requirements: substantial term paper and presentation. Cost:2 WL:2 (Kelly)

451/CAAS 459. African-American Religion. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the nature of religion in the lives of humans, within the framework of culture, and as a pervasive social institution. It will focus on the special case of the intensive and involved character of religion in the history and the lives of African-Americans. These special uses of religion create special problems. We will analyze those problems. The course is open to all students, and it requires no special background or preparation. There will be two examinations and two short written assignments. Class participation and attendance are required. The course objectives are to: (1) introduce the subject of religion as a social institution, as a pervasive component of culture, and as a contemporary adjustment and adaptation to peculiar social problems; (2) demonstrate how an anthropological analysis can be used to understand religion in contemporary society; (3) develop skills in critical thinking and analysis; (4) present the relationship between culture, institutions, religion, subculture, and the nature of man (humans); and (5) enable students to understand the religious institutions of humans generally and African-Americans specifically. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

455/WS 455. Feminist Theory and Gender Studies in Anthropology. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

How are gender and power related? What does gender have to do with racial, sexual, or national identities? This course shows that feminist anthropology offers an important perspective for analyzing gender as an integral part of the organization and representation of social life. It examines the conditions within which women and men act, and focuses on how gender is historically constructed and embedded within institutions and beliefs in different social strata and cultures. It relates feminist anthropology to issues of contemporary concern and to problems addressed by other disciplines. The class will combine lecture, discussion, and student presentation. It will draw on a variety of theoretical, ethnographic, biographical, and visual materials. Students will write several short commentaries on readings and a final paper. (Skurski)

Linguistics

472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

Language and culture have often been described as mutually reinforcing and constraining systems of meaningful coherence. This course will explore not only parallels, but also tensions between linguistic and sociocultural forms and practices. Readings will probe, among other things, how language informs cultural categories (such as time and space, agency and affect), and how participants frame verbal communication (as ritual or "everyday," engaged or ironic). We will devote particular attention to assumptions, in a variety of societies, about how comprehension and misunderstanding work, and to ways in which such assumptions reproduce inclusion or exclusion. (Lemon)


474/Ling. 410. Language and Discrimination: Language as Social Statement. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410.

576. Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Two courses in anthropology or biology. (3). (Excl).

This course is an intensive introduction to theoretical issues in linguistics of special relevance to anthropologists, most of whose primary interests are outside of language. Think of language as a special kind of semiotic or cultural system. Our subject matter, then, consists of ways of approaching its formal description and the general issues (for the most part, about the nature of culture) that are raised by those approaches. Several such issues will continually crop up: (1) The nature of cultural patterning, its representation by members of a culture, and the means we use to describe it; is it possible to understand cultural patterning from the outside? How does our point of view change in the course of analysis? (2) The possibility of cross-cultural comparison and typology using culturally-meaningful (or "emic") patterns as a basis; can general "laws of structure" of cultural form be constructed from descriptions of particular cultural systems? (3) Are there true universals of culture? If universals do exist, what is their basis? Are they biologically determined, determined by the nature of the cultural code, or some combination of the two? What evidence is required to make sense of the question? (4) What does it mean for individuals to share a culture? Does "sharing a culture" require collective representations? Are there any? (Mannheim)

Archaeology

394. Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology. Anthro. 282 and concentration in anthropology; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology is designed to familiarize students with the intellectual history of American archaeology. The students will read primary source material, learn about leading pioneers of modern archaeology, and discuss issues that have shaped the direction of contemporary archaeology. Student will prepare several short papers and a term paper. Grades will be determined by seminar discussion and the papers. Cost:2 WL:3 (Ford)

489. Maya and Central American Archaeology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes the cultural evolution of the ancient Maya, whose civilization once extended from eastern Mexico through Guatemala and Belize into El Salvador and Honduras. Stages of development include hunters and gatherers, egalitarian villagers, emerging rank, and the state. Topics include religion, social organization, architecture, political hierarchies, subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, exchange systems, and hieroglyphic writing. The last part of the class covers other tribes and chiefdoms that occupied lower Central America. The grade is based on a paper (midterm) and on the in-class final exam. Cost:1 WL:4 (Marcus)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 001 Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall Term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter Term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and second reader. By the end of the term, each student should have completed the research and write-up for their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Mueggler)

Section 002 Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. In 398, the students will meet in seminar to discuss the construction of analytical models appropriate for archaeology and to analyze methods for solving problems. This seminar provides the intellectual and historical background to enable a senior Honors thesis. In 399, students work on an original thesis topic. A student, in consultation with the Honors advisor, may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically students convene to discuss their research progress. At the end of the term, each student completes a written Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing it. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

499. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 hours credit.

Independent reading and research under the direction of a faculty member. Ordinarily available only to students with background in anthropology.


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