Courses in Biology (Division 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

Biology 100 is a one-term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed. This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student instructors. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course. (Goldberg, Osgood)

101. Biology and Human Affairs. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include race, health, and the environment. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. Cost:3 WL:1 (Vandermeer, Wilson)

107. Evolution of Life. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course is intended for students not concentrating in the sciences and will provide an introduction to the concepts and processes of biological evolution. We will consider (1) the history of evolutionary thought, (2) the evidence for evolution, (3) comparative methods for inferring evolutionary history, (4) an overview of the evolution of cells, organisms, and viruses, (5) evolutionary themes such as natural selection, chance, and cooperation, and (6) the consequences of an evolutionary world view for understanding disease, the value of biological diversity, and aspects of human culture. The course consists of two one and one half hour lectures per week plus a coordinated discussion section which occupies one hour per week. The course is designed for students with minimal background in the biological sciences; however, some exposure to biology at the high school level is assumed. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student instructors. Grades will be based on three exams, including a cumulative final, and writing assignments. (Mindell)

110/AOSS 171/UC 110/NR&E 110. Introduction to Global Change I. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).
An interdisciplinary (team-taught) introduction to the evolution of life and the human species on Earth, with focus on problems of global change produced by recent human advances in technology and institutions. The discussion includes reference to: evolution of the universe, the Earth and its environments; evolution of living organisms; growth and reproduction; interactions of organisms with their environments; ecological roles of organisms. Extensive use is made of multi-media presentation tools: videos, slides, etc. Course grade will be based on a midterm exam and a final exam, plus successful completion of the required weekly laboratory exercises, leading to a term paper presentation. There are no prerequisites for this course and no science background is assumed. The course is appropriate for all undergraduate students, irrespective of intended concentration. Topics include: Evolution of the universe, solar system; evolution of the planets and moons; evolution of life: fossils, geologic strata, impact of life processes on earth systems; evolution of complex life forms, eukaryotes; the cell, respiration and photosynthesis; Atmospheres: paleoclimates and paleoclimate records climate models; Oceans: evolution, circulation, nutrients, sea level changes; Land: lithosphere, volcanism, plate tectonics, soils weathering; How green plants work: energy pathways, growth, development, reproduction; How animals work: function and anatomy, growth, development and reproduction; Biogeochemical cycles: water, carbon, nutrient cycles; Ecosystem dynamics: energy flows, examples of ecosystems; Biosphere interactions: ozone and greenhouse warming, acid rain, the Gaia Hypothesis. (Killeen, Allan, Teeri)

130. Animal Behavior. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (3). (NS). (BS).

The course is an introduction to the behavior of animals in their natural environment. Social behavior of birds, mammals, and insects is emphasized. Topics include: the environment as animals perceive it, natural selection and adaptations, development of behavior, communication, sexual cooperation and mate choice, social behavior of animals in groups, the importance of family relationships, and the evolution of traditions. The course objectives are to gain a background in the natural behavior of animals and to explain the evolution of behavior. By the end of the course you should be able to: (1) evaluate the evidence that behavior is shaped by natural selection; (2) recognize the interaction between environmental modification and genetic determination; and (3) explain sexual behavior, aggressive behavior, and social interactions in terms of evolution. The course consists of lectures, readings, slides, and movies. Grades are based on two midterms and a final exam; exams are multiple choice. Texts: The Selfish Gene (rev. ed., R. Dawkins) and Animal Behavior, an Evolutionary Approach (5th ed., J. Alcock). Cost:2 WL:1 (Payne)

140. Genetics and Society. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

This introduction to the impact of modern genetics on society is designed for students not concentrating in the sciences. Students will gain a background in genetics that should enable them to: (1) understand and evaluate reports on the latest advances in genetics that appear in the media; (2) be able to discuss the social history of genetics; (3) have a better appreciation of the "scientific method;" and (4) discuss aspects of genetics that have a bearing on our daily lives. There will be three lectures and a discussion group per week, with topics such as human diversity; genetics and medicine, including cancer, AIDS and complex diseases; gene therapy; DNA and forensic analysis; technological and economic applications of genetics; and biological determinism. Course evaluation is mainly based on a flexible combination of short-answer exams and a term paper. Cost:1 WL:1 (Gibson, Adams)

150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 152, 154, or 195. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Small groups of students meet weekly with a faculty member for group discussions on topics selected by the faculty member. Topics may include biological issues in the news, history of biological ideas, and ethical issues in biological sciences. Students will be introduced to biological research through discussion of faculty research projects and tours of active research laboratories and museum collections. Such tours will be coupled with discussion of scientific questions being pursued in the laboratories visited. Introductory students will have the opportunity to interact directly with a faculty member who will introduce them not only to the basic areas of scientific research but also to the structure and opportunities available in biology concentration programs. Evaluation of students will be through class participation and short written assignments.

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs, or preprofessional studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are: (1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, (2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, (3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology, and (4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology, (b) genetics, (c) evolution, and (d) ecology. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule ) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 or 004 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture/lab course. The overall goal of this course is to introduce students to two major intellectual approaches that biologists use to understand nature. The first topic is the impact of recent discoveries in molecular biology and the second topic is the mechanism of biological evolution. Students will read papers from the primary and secondary scientific literature that will help them understand these very challenging areas of biological inquiry. Discussion will focus on the impact that discoveries in the fields are having on other areas of biological science, on human health, and on more general aspects of human society. Cost:2 WL:1

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) plant biology; (b) development; (c) animal structure and function; and (d) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 or 033 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 155 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 154, a four-credit lecture/lab course. The overall goal of this course is to introduce students to current research in the biological science being carried out at the University of Michigan. This experience will help the students select a lab in which to perform Honors research during their junior and senior years. Each week a different visiting faculty member will present his or her research. Following the presentation, the class will break up into smaller groups for discussion of assigned reading related to that week's presentation. Cost:1 WL:1

207. Introductory Microbiology. Biol. 152. (4). (NS). (BS).

The course consists of 3 one-hour lectures and 1 three-hour laboratory session each week. The lectures will trace the history of microbiology, microbial growth and metabolism, microbial diversity, and the importance of microbes in the environment, industry, and medicine. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, aseptic technique, staining, and the isolation, culture, and identification of microbes from the local environment. Grades are based on two lecture exams and the identification of unknown bacteria. The course is required for the microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for the biology concentration. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mann)

209. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is offered for students intending to concentrate in botany and related sciences. It is a required course in the botany concentration program, satisfies the physiology requirement of the biology concentration program, and serves as an elective in other concentrations. The content of the course material falls into three sequential parts: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) cellular and internal transport, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, cell water relations, plant water relations, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development in which a variety of factors that influence plant growth and development, such as hormones, light, photoperiodism, and temperature are discussed. The lectures serve as the major source of information, and are intended to introduce the basic concepts and mechanisms that underlie plant functions. Six exams; two exams per part; take-home format. Students must purchase the assigned textbook and a course pack. Because of the highly empirical nature of plant physiology, students are recommended to take the laboratory (Biol. 210) with this course. This course is offered ONLY in the Fall term. Cost:3 WL:3 (Ikuma)

210. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 209. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($65) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This laboratory course is offered to supplement and complement the plant physiology lectures (Biol. 209), and the laboratory exercises are organized to follow closely the three main sequential parts covered in lecture: i.e., (1) plant cell physiology, (2) cellular and internal transport, and (3) plant growth and development. Plant physiology is a highly empirical science. The lab exercises are designed to have students experience representative experiments in each of the three parts and learn a variety of experimental approaches used in modern plant physiology. This course serves as one of the three lab courses required in the biology concentration program. Offered only in the Fall. Cost:1 WL:3 (Ikuma)

224. Biology of Cancer. Biology 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 124. (3). (NS). (BS).

The Biology of Cancer is designed to provide science concentrators with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the development of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what causes cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments that address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with cancer. Student performance will be evaluated using exams and a term paper based upon library research. There will be no assigned cancer textbook, but some reading will be assigned from the course pack and from a short text on critical scientific thinking. There will be two 90 minute lectures and one 90 minute discussion per week. Non-science students interested in the subject of cancer should elect Biology 124 instead of Biology 224. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kleinsmith)

252. Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (4). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course teaches the comparative method, using the "three-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, and paleontology. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections, preparation of cleared and stained materials, and examination of fossils. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used, with supplementary texts on reserve. Cost:1 WL:1 (Fink)

281. General Ecology. Biology 152 and 154 (or the equivalent) and a laboratory course in chemistry. (3). (NS). (BS).

The course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations, and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the roles of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the dynamics of population growth, species interactions including competition, predation, mutualism, the structure of ecological communities, ecological succession, and applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 281 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There will be lectures, discussions, and computer simulations. Three exams will constitute the main basis of evaluation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Rathcke)

282. General Ecology Laboratory. Biology 152 and 154 (or the equivalent), a laboratory course in chemistry, and concurrent or prior enrollment in Biology 281. (3). (Excl).

This laboratory course introduces the basic concepts and methods used in ecological research. The laboratories consist of both field and laboratory research projects, field trips, computer simulations, and an independent research project that is designed by each student. Students will write up laboratory reports and a paper on their independent research, give an oral presentation on their independent research, and participate in laboratory discussions. Cost:1 WL:1 (Rathcke)

301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing as professional biologists. Course structure and content have been planned to give students practice in the kinds of writing that biologists actually do, to help them understand the basis for effective writing, and to give them the tools to become their own best critics. The work load of the course consists of a series of assigned paper, critiques of published papers, peer critiques, and short writing exercises. The effectiveness of the course derives primarily from the close interaction between staff and student, both in weekly class sections and in individual conferences. A weekly lecture provides structure and continuity. WL:1 (Martin)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is intended for students who are concentrating in the natural sciences, or who will apply for graduate or professional study in the biological sciences. The material is divided into two sections; classical studies of how genes are transmitted, and molecular studies of gene structure and regulation. There are three hours of lecture each week, and one discussion section directed by a graduate student instructor. The discussion sections are used to review and expand on lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering both lecture material and problem assignments. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ellis, Brown)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students will analyze patterns of inheritance, gene interaction, linkage relationship and genetic mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila through a series of genetic crosses. By using molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans will be mapped to chromosomal locations. The experiments in microbial genetics include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, recombination analysis by transduction using bacteria and phage, and complementation tests on "his" mutants of yeast. Students will do karyotyping of human chromosomes by using their own blood cells. One hour lecture on Mondays 12-1 PM and one three-hour lab are scheduled each week; additional 3-4 hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write three lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are two tests given during the term. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)

310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Introductory Biochemistry is designed to be a general introduction to the chemistry of biological systems. This course will furnish basic information concerning the organization of chemical reactions in cells and will include information on the enzymes that catalyze these reactions as well as on the interactions between different pathways. Topics covered include: amino acid structure and nomenclature, protein structure and function, enzyme kinetics, nucleic acids, intermediary metabolism, photosynthesis, and regulation of metabolism. This is a lecture based course. The final grade is based on a midterm, a final, and quizzes and presentations in discussion. See
for more information. Cost:2 WL:1

311. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 310, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. The student takes both a written and an oral quiz for each of 12 units which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed and performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Cost:3 WL:1 (Osgood)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215 or equivalent. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 427 or 428. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This lecture course aims to provide (1) understanding of basic functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, (2) appreciation of the experimental evidence that has established our current understanding, (3) through study of how evidence is used, inferences about how science works, and (4) awareness of how cellular and molecular biology contribute to human affairs. Interdependence of intracellular structure and function is stressed, along with efforts to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms. Course content includes: introduction to cell functions and diversity; membrane structure and function; organelle function and biogenesis; properties of cell surfaces; intracellular transport; secretion; cell cycle; cytoskeleton; and methods for study of cell function. The aim is to provide a selected background in cellular and molecular biology for biology concentrators and others. Most students enrolling have a foundation in biology, and may have completed either genetics or biochemistry. For more detailed treatment, students should take Biology 427 or 428. There is a textbook; purchase is optional, but recommended. Recommended readings are on reserve in the Shapiro Library. Exams include questions which require interpretation of data, formulation or test of hypotheses, and interpretation of experiments. Students whose introductory biology course lacked contents of Biol. 152 or 195 may have greater difficulty with this course, but difficulty can be overcome via prior study of biochemistry and genetics. Cost:2 WL:1 (Shappirio, 764-1491)

355/NR&E 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biol. 152 or 195 or equivalent. (4). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Woody plants are studied in their natural ecosystems including upland (oak-hickory, beech-sugar maple, lake plain), wetland (swamp, bog), and floodplain forests. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in the Saginaw Forest, Stinchfield Woods, Nichols Arboretum, and main campus. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology; woody plant biology, ecology, and diversity; variation and genetics; systematics of woody plants; ornamental plants; and winter conditions. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., China, and the tropics. Field trips are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 once a week. Michigan Trees (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Grading is based on 60% on plant identification (field quizzes and exams and indoor identification exams); 40% on lecture material (two hour-exams). Cost:1 WL:2, at SNRE Office of Academic Programs, 1024 Dana. (Barnes and Wagner)

380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. This course teaches physical and chemical aspects, but concentrates on biological aspects of oceanography, and applies ecological and evolutionary principles to the study of marine life. Lectures introduce the major groups of marine organisms and cover the interrelationships of marine organisms and their environments. Organisms and communities from the following habitats are discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea, and the open ocean. The course treats organisms as different as bacteria and whales. Meets the undergrad Biology concentration requirements for a course in Biological Evolution and Diversity, and is required for the Marine Biology option of the undergrad Oceanography concentration. Grading is based on two one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:1 (O'Foighil)

390. Evolution. Biol. 152-154 or the equivalent. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). (Excl). (BS).

This lecture course covers the fundamentals of evolutionary biology with a focus primarily on living organisms. It includes a historical survey of the development of evolutionary theory from ancient philosophers to the present, and critical examination of phylogenetic systematics, natural selection, population genetics, molecular evolution, microevolution, and macroevolution. Weekly discussions will focus on primary literature. Two midterm tests and one cumulative final exam will test students' knowledge of lecture material. Short writing assignments based on readings from the primary scientific literature will be required. WL:1 (Hazlett)

401. Special Topics in Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Introduction to Protein Structure and Function.
We will identify three dimensional structural motifs that are commonly found in proteins and discuss how they are related to the protein's functions. We will also consider how proteins fold into their proper 3D structure. The class will be 2/3 lecture and 1/3 hands on computer visualization, modeling, and discussion. The class will also provide guidance in reading and interpreting original scientific literature. Prerequisites: Biol 311 and 428 or the equivalent. Cost:1 (Bardwell)

406. Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem 415), and Genetics (Biol. 305). (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is focused on the molecular basis of plant development. Emphasis is placed on the genetic and molecular mechanisms employed by plants to generate regular patterns of cells, tissues and organs, and to modify those patterns in response to internal and external signals. The topics include embryogenesis, meristem function, organ formation, gametogenesis, cell differentiation, plant hormone action, developmental responses to the environment, and signal transduction. These topics will be explored through lecture material and class discussions based on the primary literature. Students will be exposed to the design of experimental approaches and the critical evaluation of research papers. Emphasis is placed on the use of model plant species for the dissection of developmental processes at the molecular and genetic levels. Student evaluation is based on participation in the class discussions, a critical paper on a current research topic, and one midterm and the final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Clark)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TA's for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 311). TA's meet with the instructor for a two-hour class each week for lectures, presentations, and discussions of teaching and biochemistry. TA's also prepare a report on a recent advance in biochemistry which they present to their peers and the instructor. The major roles of the TA's are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the students with explanations supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TA's learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Osgood)

422/Anatomy 422. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), one year of physics, prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course deals primarily with the properties of individual nerve cells, and small groups of nerve cells. This provides the basis for understanding information processing by the nervous system, learning and memory, development of neurons, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Considerable emphasis will be placed on understanding the molecules that endow the nervous system with these properties. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kuwada, Oakley)

423. Introduction to Research in Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 422; or completion of Biol. 222 or 422, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This lab course provides an introduction to experimental approaches in neurobiology. Emphasis is on molecular, anatomical, and physiological approaches for studying neuronal function. Among the molecular topics to be covered are analysis of cDNA clones, PCR amplification of DNA and expression of genes in foreign tissues. Among the anatomical topics to be covered are gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous systems, axonal pathway tracing, and immunocytochemical localization of specific neuronal proteins. Among the physiological topics to be covered are intracellular, extracellular and patch clamp recording, as well as the use of computers in the acquisition and analysis of data. This course is intended for students who plan to engage in research in neurobiology. Cost:1 WL:3 (Hume)

427. Molecular Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Comprehensive coverage of the general principles governing the structures, synthesis, and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the context of the cell. Emphasizes understanding methods and interpretation of data. Topics include genome organization, DNA replication and transposition, chromosome segregation, transcription and translation, the processing of macromolecules, signal transfer, and regulation at various levels. Three lectures per week are supplemented by a 1.5 hour discussion section. There will be two examinations during the term and a final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Helling, Pichersky)

436. Introductory Immunology. Biol. 305 and biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415). (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is intended to introduce pre-professional and biology concentrators to the experimental and theoretical principles of immunology. Topics covered will include a detailed study of the organs, cells, and molecules that constitute the immune system; the humoral and cellular immune responses; antibodies as biological and biomedical research tools; and the role of the immune system in organ transplants, cancer and AIDS. Grades are based on weekly quizzes and two exams. The course is appropriate for concentrations in biology, microbiology, and cell and molecular biology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)

451. Biology of Mammals. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Biology 451 introduces students to the diversity of mammals. Through laboratory exercises (one four-hour laboratory period/week) and lectures, participants will have opportunity to see and learn about species representing all of the major groups of mammals. We will review their evolutionary history; examine adaptations such as those for running, digging, swimming, and flying; and discuss current research in ecology, behavior, zoogeography, and systematics. A text supplements the lectures, and a published manual is required for the laboratory. Grades will be based on lecture and laboratory exams, participation in discussions, and several brief papers. Cost:2 WL:1 (Myers)

458. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent, or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (5). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($40) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course studies the very diverse group of plants and photosynthetic protistans collectively known as "the algae," which includes the prokaryotic blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and the eukaryotic green, golden, yellow-green, brown, and red algae as well as well as the euglenoids, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads. The framework of the course is a systematic orientation, examining representative examples from the various algal groups, mostly from living material but also from prepared slides and preserved specimens. It treats both freshwater and marine types and includes identification, structure, reproduction, ecology, and stresses the interrelationships among the algae. A comparative approach is followed. The use of algae as research tools is stressed, where appropriate. Two lectures and two laboratory sessions per week are scheduled, and two field trips are planned. Cost:3 WL:3 (Wynne)

459. Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($30) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Plant biodiversity taught with lectures, color projection slides, trips, specimens, living plants, and laboratories. Emphasis at level of orders, families, and genera, temperate and tropical, to familiarize students with all parts of the world. Focuses mainly on flowering plants but also gymnosperms and pteridophytes. Phylogeny provides the framework: Hypothetical ancestors and different lines are analyzed, e.g., pinks (Caryophyllidae), roses (Rosidae), trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae), etc. Subjects like habitats, endangered species, geography, biosystematics, cladistics, floral biology are given special lectures. Plant biosystematics is essential to botanists but the course is needed also by conservationists, ecologists, zoologists, foresters, and ethnobotanists. Some students take the course simply because they enjoy plants. Two midterms, a final, and lab quizzes. Text: Flowering Plant Families, W.B. Zemlefer, U. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. Cost:1 (Wagner)

477. Laboratory in Field Ecology. A course in ecology and field biology. (5). (Excl). (BS).
This course will meet September 12-October 24, Friday evening beginning at 7:00 p.m. and concluding Sunday evening at 7:00 p.m.
Ecology students require intensive practice in making filed observations and systematically exploring the implications of those observations. One vehicle for doing so it the "field problem" based course, in which a faculty member chooses a general topic and works with a small group of students exploring that topic for an entire day. The field problem-based course is distinct from the laboratory course in that field problems seek to explore an unknown area. The course does not include "set labs" or repeats of well-known patterns. The professor and students seek to explore an area that has not been explored before. The exercise of working out the details of a new problem along with the professor gives the student practice in the creative part of the scientific endeavor. Working with a variety of faculty members gives the student experience with a variety of styles of doing science. The general structure of the course, which is centered on the field problem, encourages a great deal of discussion among students and between students and faculty. A major goal of the course is to facilitate that discussion. Additionally, there is a relatively large lecture load, with an average of four lectures per weekend. (Curran, Vandermeer)

481. Population Dynamics and Ecology. A course in ecology or permission of instructor. Calculus is strongly recommended. (4). (Excl). (BS).

An examination of the principles of population ecology. Theoretical and empirical research on population dynamics and regulation of managed and natural populations are emphasized, as well as the development of the mathematical and computer skills for modeling dynamics of single and interacting populations. Specific topics include concepts of linear and nonlinear dynamics, demography, life history evolution, density-dependence and population regulation, and basic models of competition, mutualism, predator-prey, host-disease, and other population interactions. A background in ecology or permission of the instructor is required. There will be two 1.5 hour lectures and one two hour discussion section a week. Discussion sections will cover original readings from the literature and techniques for modeling populations. Course requirements include computer modeling projects and writeups, a midterm, and a final. (Goldberg, Vandermeer, Wilson)

492. Behavioral Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and one additional course in zoology. (4). (Excl). (BS).

The objective of this course is to acquaint students with the subject of animal behavior. All types of behavior and their ecological ramifications are considered; both vertebrate and invertebrate examples are utilized. The course approaches behavior from a zoological viewpoint; emphasis is placed on understanding the methods of investigation used in the study of animal behavior. Consideration of physiological mechanisms is given, as well as discussion of the evolutionary framework in which behavior patterns evolve. The course is divided into two sections. In the first, the types of factors which affect behavior are discussed. During the second part of the course, functional categories of behavior (feeding, orientation, agonistic, sexual) are discussed with an emphasis on bringing together as many factors as possible in an attempt to understand the control (both proximate and ultimate) of these behaviors at all levels. Although Biology 152-154 or equivalent are required, it would be best to have at least one of the following three areas before taking the course: genetics, ecology, or neurophysiology. Students who wish to obtain a more complete background should plan to take Biology 422 and/or Biology 494 either before or after taking Biology 492. Methods of instruction: (1) lectures and discussion are the primary means of instruction; (2) a text is also utilized, as are a number of outside readings; (3) there is a midterm lecture exam and a short term paper, as well as a final exam. Cost:2 (Hazlett)

498. The Ecology of Agroecosystems. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

An analysis of ecological principles as they apply to agricultural ecosystems, emphasizing theoretical aspects but also covering empirical results of critical experiments. While the emphasis is on principles, practical applicability is also explored where appropriate. Physical, biological, and social forces will be integrated as necessary. Designed as preparation for active research in agroecosytem ecology. Cost:4 WL:3 (Vandermeer)

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