Introduction to Course Listing Notations

The Fall Term Course Guide is published by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, University of Michigan, G411 Mason Hall, 764-6810; Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1027.

This edition contains 100- through 500-level course descriptions provided by the instructors on or before March 3. While every effort is made to make the Course Guide complete, gaps are inevitable. LS&A Academic Information and Publications continues to accept descriptions after the March 3, 1997 deadline, and these late descriptions will be available as received on the LS&A Student Academic Affairs Homepage at:

An accurate and current course description helps students in their academic planning. Descriptions are published in the LS&A Course Guide for distribution to LS&A students at least one week before early registration. They are prefaced with the course number, title, prerequisite(s), and other information from the updated LS&A Bulletin.

Descriptions generally begin with a statement of the subjects (topics, themes, methods, and include any recommended special background that is not already listed in the course prerequisite). Instructors usually indicate the basis of student evaluation (exams, papers, etc.); the texts which will be required; and the method(s) of instruction (lecture, lab, discussion).

COURSE NUMBERS: The University numbers courses 100 through 999. This numbering system does not always mean that courses with higher numbers are more difficult. Rather, the number system reflects degrees of specialization. Courses numbered on the 100 and 200 levels are usually designed for students with little previous knowledge of a subject, and are often taken by first-year students. In many cases such courses must be taken before more specialized courses on the 300 and 400 levels can be taken, but this is not always true, and you should study the requirements of different departments before deciding which courses to take.

A NOTE ON CLASS SIZE: Courses numbered on the 100 and 200 level, especially those which are prerequisites for more advanced courses, often have large enrollments. Class size in such courses can range as high as 500, although enrollment of 100 to 200 students is more common. To reduce size, many of these introductory courses are taught in sections. Each section covers the same material but has a different instructor and meeting time. For example, sections of Introductory Composition are limited to 22 students, and language sections are limited to 25 (much smaller in more exotic languages, e.g., 15 in Japanese). In addition, many of the larger courses on the 100 and 200 levels set aside a weekly class or two for small discussion sections led by teaching assistants. The presence of teaching assistants in such courses should not deter first-year students from trying to get to know the professor. Most professors welcome contact with freshmen and are troubled by the tendency of large classes to make contacts more difficult for students. First-year students should always feel free to see professors during their office hours and should not suppose that they must have specific (and profound) questions in mind before visiting.

RENUMBERED COURSES have their course numbers followed by a former course number in parentheses. When renumbering or reorganization has left the division unchanged, only the previous course number is given; if the division has also changed, the previous division name and course number appear. A reorganized or renumbered course cannot be repeated for credit without special permission.

CROSS-LISTED COURSES are sponsored by more than one department or program and may be elected through any of the participating departments. Cross-listings are denoted by a slash appearing between departmental titles.

Descriptions for cross-listed courses only appear in the "home" department, but the course title and instructor's name will appear under the other department(s).

COURSE TITLES are in bold type, and follow the course number.

PREREQUISITES appear immediately after the course title.

EXCLUDED COMBINATIONS OF ELECTIONS are designated in the course listing of affected courses.

THE CREDIT SYMBOL denotes the official undergraduate credits that may be earned for the course. Credit is granted in semester hours. One credit usually represents three hours of class each week of the term.

INSTRUCTORS for the term are indicated in parentheses at the end of the description.

THE AREA DISTRIBUTION designation is approved by the LS&A Curriculum Committee. A course may be approved with the designation Natural Science (NS), Social Science (SS), Humanities (HU), Mathematical and Symbolic Analysis (MSA), Creative Expression (CE), Language Requirement (LR), Introductory Composition (INTRODUCTORY COMPOSITION), or Excluded (Excl). Courses approved with the designation "Language Requirement" or "Introductory Composition" may not be used as part of an area distribution plan. If an introductory language course is designated "Excluded" (Excl), it may not be used to satisfy the LS&A language requirement. Courses designated "Excluded" (Excl) may not be included in an area distribution plan.

COURSES FULFILLING CERTAIN COLLEGE REQUIREMENTS ARE SO LISTED. (BS) means that the course may be used toward the 60 approved credits required for the B.S. degree. Courses meeting or partially meeting the Quantitative Reasoning requirement are designated (QR/1) or (QR/2). Courses with Standard Approval for meeting the Race & Ethnicity (R&E) requirement are so indicated. Other courses may meet the R&E or QR requirements on a term-by-term basis and are listed in the introductory pages of the LS&A Course Guides.

A SPECIAL GRADING PATTERN associated with a particular course is indicated in the course listing. Some courses offered by the College are offered MANDATORY CREDIT/NO CREDIT, and the notation "Credit" or "No Credit" is posted on the transcript.

EXPERIENTIAL, INDEPENDENT STUDY, AND TUTORIAL courses are so designated. For information concerning LS&A policies about counting credit earned in Experiential, Independent Study, and Tutorial courses toward a degree, see the LS&A Bulletin.

REPETITION of a course that varies in content from term to term is permitted only under certain conditions. When a department or program has a policy about the repetition of a course for credit, that policy is included in the course listing. The general statement "May be repeated for credit with permission" usually means "With permission of a concentration advisor." In all other instances, a student must get permission from both the department or program and the Academic Standards Board to repeat a course for credit. Generally, a course may be elected for credit once only.

LABORATORY OR OTHER SPECIAL FEES are indicated if known, but are subject to change without notice.


Information about the cost of books/materials for courses and about various course waitlist procedures is keyed as explained below. This information can be found at the end of individual descriptions preceding the instructor's name. The cost information comes first, followed by the waitlist information.


The books/materials for this course:

1 Cost less than $50.

2 Cost $50 or more, but less than $100.

3 Cost $100 or more, but less than $150.

4 Cost $150 or more.


If the course is closed through Touch-Tone Registration, you should:

1=Get on the WAITLIST through Touch-Tone Registration, and then attend the first class meeting. Policies and procedures for handling the waitlist will be explained there.

2=Go to the department office to get a WAITLIST, and then attend the first class meeting. Policies and procedures for handling the waitlist will be explained there.

3=Visit the faculty office to see the instructor about getting an OVERRIDE into the course.

4=Wait until classes start, and then attend the first class meeting. Policies and procedures for issuing overrides will be explained there.


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