The Physics Department discourages students from changing midstream
from Physics 140 to Physics 125 or from Physics 240 to Physics
126, so it is important that students choose the first course
of a physics sequence with care. Prospective engineers, physicists, and chemists should elect Physics 140/240 rather than Physics
125/126 because concentration programs in these areas require the Physics 140/240 sequence. In the case of some departmental
concentration programs * (e.g., * biology) or in special
individual circumstances, students can elect or are encouraged
to elect the Physics 125/126 sequence. Some advisors will advise
all students who have had calculus to elect Physics 140/240. Physics
140/240 can be elected by all students who have had calculus, but it should be elected only by students who enjoy solving difficult
problems and who think that they will be good at it. Physics 145
is a three credit version of Physics 140. The difference between
Physics 140 and Physics 145 is that Physics 140 meets in two lectures
and two discussion sessions per week, while Physics 145 has three
lectures per week and no discussion sessions. The same topics
are covered in both courses, and the final exam is common for
Physics 140 and Physics 145. Physics 145 is primarily intended
for students in the Engineering College who have a limit on their
number of credit hours, although it is not restricted to Engineering
College students.

Note: If the Waitlist code on a Physics course is WL:5, then both sign on the waitlist through Touch-tone Registration and contact the department office.

**103. The Physical Universe: Relativity and Quanta.
*** High School geometry, trigonometry, and algebra.
(1). (NS). (BS). *

The goal of physicists is to understand everything that goes on in the universe in terms of a small number of fundamental laws of nature. The various laws we presently know may even derive from some single unifying principle. The laws of gravity, relativity, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics will be discussed and applied to simple problems. Grades will be based on homework and a research paper of approximately 3000 words. Cost:1 WL:3

**104. The Physical Universe: What Einstein Never Knew.
*** High School geometry, trigonometry, and algebra.
(1). (NS). (BS). *

The goals of physicists is to understand everything that goes
on in the universe in terms of a small number of fundamental laws
of nature. Recent developments involving quarks, leptons, black
holes, big-bang cosmology, dark matter, * etc. * will be
described on an elementary level. In the end, all questions of
"how" and "why" must be answered or else pushed
to the limit of present knowledge. Grades will be based on homework
and a research paper of approximately 3000 words. The are no college
physics or advanced mathematics prerequisites. Cost:1 WL:3

**106. Everyday Physics. *** (3). (NS). (BS). *

This course examines everyday phenomena and current technology in terms of physical concepts and laws. The subjects examined are wide ranging and the discussion focuses on discovering common underlying themes. Examples of topics covered include: lasers, tornadoes, rainbows, computers, and satellites. This class emphasizes concepts rather than mathematical models. Grades are based on homework and exams. Curiosity is the major prerequisite. Cost:2 WL:5

**107. 20th Century Concepts of Space, Time, and Matter.
*** High school algebra and geometry. (3). (NS). (BS).
(QR/1). *

The twentieth century has been witness to two major revolutions in man's concepts of space, time, and matter. The first of these was provided by Einstein's Special and General Theories of Relativity. The implications of the Special Theory to our understanding of the unity of space and time and of the General Theory to our understanding of gravity and the evolution of the universe are explored. The second revolution was provided by quantum mechanics, leading to a new picture of the basic structure of matter. Topics to be discussed in this area include the Uncertainty Principle, wave-particle duality, the forces of nature, and the continuing search for the fundamental constituents of matter. No mathematical background beyond the high school level is assumed.

**112. Cosmology: The Science
of the Universe. *** (3). (NS). (BS). *

The majority of even college educated adults have only a modest
understanding of our place in the universe at large. Most would
be hard pressed to answer correctly such questions as: What else
is there in the universe besides stars? Why do we think there
was a big bang? How big is a galaxy and how might they have formed?
This course will provide answers to such questions, stressing * conceptual understanding * over calculational problem solving.
The format will be varied and informal. In addition to regular
seminar attendance, students will likely be asked to perform small
experiments and present at least one oral presentation. Essays
and other written work will play a large role in the grade. Although
no science prerequisites are required, exposure to physics at
high school level would be helpful.

**119/Geol. 130/Chem. 108. The Physical World. *** High-school
algebra. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). *

See Geological Sciences 130. (Van Keken)

**125. General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, and Heat. *** Two
and one-half years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry.
Phys. 125 and 127 are normally elected concurrently. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 140, 145, or 160. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 125 and 126 constitute a two-term sequence offered
primarily for students concentrating in the natural sciences, architecture, pharmacy, or natural resources; and for preprofessional
students preparing for medicine, dentistry, or related health
sciences. Physics 125 and 126 are an appropriate sequence for
any student wanting a quantitative introduction to the basic principles
of physics but without the mathematical sophistication of Physics
140 and 240. Strong emphasis is placed on problem solving, and skills in elementary algebra and trigonometry are assumed. While
a high school level background in physics is not assumed, it is
helpful. Physics 125 and 126 are * not available * by the
Keller plan.

PHYSICS 125 covers classical mechanics (laws of motion, force, energy, and power) and mechanical wave motion (including sound waves). The final course grade is based on three one-hour evening examinations, class performance, and a final examination. Physics 127 should be taken concurrently. Cost:3 WL:5

**126. General Physics: Electricity and Light. *** Physics
125. Phys. 126 and 128 are normally elected concurrently. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 240 or
260. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

See Physics 125 for a general description of this introductory sequence of courses.

Physics 126 is a continuation of Physics 125; it covers electricity and magnetism, the nature of light, and briefly introduces atomic and nuclear phenomena. The final course grade is based on three one-hour evening examinations, class performance, and a final examination. Physics 128 should be taken concurrently. Cost:3 WL:5

**127. Mechanics, Heat, and Sound Lab. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 125 is strongly recommended. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 141. (1).
(NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 127 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 125 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Macintosh computers are used for data acquisition and analysis. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2 WL:5

**128. Electricity and Light Lab. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 126 is strongly recommended. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 241. (1).
(NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 128 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 126 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2 WL:5

**140. General Physics I.
*** Math. 115. Physics 140 and 141 are normally elected
concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in Phys. 125, 145, or 160. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 140, 240, and 242 constitute a three-term sequence which examines concepts in physics fundamental to the physical sciences and engineering. This introductory sequence uses calculus, and, while it is possible to elect Physics 140 and Mathematics 115 concurrently, some students will find it more helpful to have started one of the regular mathematics sequences before electing Physics 140. The introductory sequence is primarily designed to develop a skill: the skill to solve simple problems by means of mathematics. Developing this skill requires daily practice and a sense for the meaning of statements and formulas, as well as awareness of when one understands a statement, proof, or problem solution and when one does not. Thus one learns to know what one knows in a disciplined way.

The topics in Physics 140 include: vectors, motion in one dimension, circular motion, projectile motion, relative velocity and acceleration, Newton's laws, particle dynamics, work and energy, linear momentum, torque, angular momentum of a particle, simple harmonic motion, gravitation, planetary motion, pressure and density of fluids, and Archimedes' principle. Evaluation is based on performance
on 3 evening hourly examinations (see * Time Schedule * for
dates and times) and a final examination. (Dershem)

*Sections 035 and 036 – Keller Plan. * Certain sections
of Physics 140 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program
without formal lectures. These sections are marked PSI in the * Time Schedule. * An information sheet describing the format
of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics Student Services
Office (2061 Randall Lab). Students who want to elect Physics
140 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering.
Cost:3 WL:5

**141. Elementary Laboratory I. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 140 or 145 is strongly recommended. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 127. (1).
(NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 141 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 140 or 145 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Macintosh computers are used for data acquisition and analysis. Cost:2 WL:5

**145. General Physics. *** Math. 115. Physics
145 and 141 are normally elected concurrently. No credit to those
who have completed for are enrolled in Physics 125, 140, or 160.
(3). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 145 is a three credit version of Physics 140. The same topics are covered and the same textbook is used in both courses. The final exam is common between Physics 140 and 145. The difference between the courses is that Physics 140 meets twice a week in lecture and twice a week in discussion section, while Physics 145 meets three times a week in lecture and does not have a discussion section. Cost:2 WL:5

**160. Honors Physics I. *** Math. 115 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students should elect Physics 141
concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in Phys. 125, 140, or 145. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 160 is a rigorous introduction to particle mechanics and the motion of extended objects. Particular topics include vectors, one and two dimensional motion, conservation of laws, linear and rotational dynamics, gravitation, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics. Students should also elect a Physics 141 laboratory. Cost:3

**201. Physics, Truth and Consequences. *** Sophomore
standing or permission of instructor. Simple high school algebra
and geometry will be helpful. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). *

This course is designed for all students, especially non-science
concentrators, who are interested in increasing their understanding
of the goals, methods, and achievements of physics. A number of
physics concepts and laws * (e.g., * related to gravity, motion, energy, atoms, quarks and leptons, phases of matter) will
be discussed, a few in depth. All will be examined along with their historical context, the ways by which they are tested, in
what sense we believe them, and what impacts they have had on the development of science and society. The student will learn
something about where scientists are today in trying to understand the natural world. The grading will depend on approximately three
writing assignments (one based on an original historical work
of physics, one based on something involving physics to be selected
by the student, and one based on the impact of physics on superstition)
plus two tests, one oriented towards facts and relationships and one oriented towards concepts. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kane)

**240. General Physics II. *** Physics 140, 145 or 160; and Math. 116. Physics 240 and 241 are normally elected
concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in 126 or 260. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

See Physics 140 for a general description of the introductory physics sequence.

The topics covered in PHYSICS 240 include (1) classical electromagnetism:
charge, Coulomb's Law, electric fields, Gauss' Law, electric potential, capacitors and dielectrics, current and resistance, electromotive
force and circuits, magnetic fields, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere's
Law, Faraday's Law of induction, simple AC circuits; and (2) geometrical
and physical optics. There will be 3 evening hourly examinations
(see * Time Schedule * for dates and times) and a final examination.

*Sections 035 and 036 – Keller Plan. * Certain sections
of Physics 240 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program
without formal lectures. These sections are marked in the * Time
Schedule. * An information sheet describing the format of Keller
Plan offerings is available in the Physics Student Services Office
(2061 Randall Lab). Students who want to elect Physics 240 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering.
Cost:3 WL:5 (Williams)

**241. Elementary Laboratory II. *** Concurrent
election with Phys. 240 is strongly recommended. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in 128. (1). (NS).
(BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 241 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 240 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2 WL:5

**250/Environ. Studies 353. Energy, Entropy, and Environment.
*** Two and one-half years of high school mathematics, or any college course in mathematics or natural science. (3).
(NS). (BS). *

For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with RC Natural Science 263.

**260. Honors Physics II. *** Physics 140, 145
or 160; and Math. 116. Students should elect Physics 241 concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in Phys. 240. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). *

Physics 260 is a rigorous introduction to the theory of electromagnetic phenomena, involving a great deal of student participation. Topics include electric and magnetic fields and potentials, DC and AC circuits, inductance and Maxwell's equations. Students should elect Physics 241 laboratory. Cost:3

**333. Keller Tutor 140. *** Permission
of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL). *

Students work as tutors in Physics 140 Keller sections. One to three credits may be earned while providing tutoring on one-to-one basis under the supervision of the faculty member. Tutors are expected to spend three clock hours per week for each credit earned. Registration requires instructor approval, and the appropriate application forms are available in the Physics Student Services Office, 2061 Randall Lab.

**334. Keller Tutor 240. *** Permission of instructor.
(1-3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL). *

Students work as tutors in Physics 240 Keller sections. See Physics 333.

**340. Waves, Heat, and Light. *** Physics 240
or 260, and Math 215. Concurrent election of Physics 341 is strongly
recommended. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This course is the third in a three-term introductory physics sequence, and is required of all physics concentrators. The topics covered in this course include thermodynamics, light and optics, and special relativity. The Wave equation is treated in detail. The class meets in lecture, with applications and demonstrations of the topics covered.

**341. Waves, Heat, and Light Lab. *** Physics
240 or 260. Concurrent election of Physics 340 is strongly recommended.
(2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. *

Physics 341 is a laboratory course intended to accompany Physics 340 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science. The experiments performed cover topics that include temperature measurement, black body radiation, optics, interference, diffraction and the speed of light. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports.

**390. Introduction to Modern Physics. *** Physics
340 or equivalent, and Math 216. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This course is a quantitative introduction to Modern Physics and includes a review of special relativity, the relationship of particles and waves, the Schrödinger equation applied to barrier problems, atomic structure and the interpretation of quantum numbers, the exclusion principle and its applications, structure of solids. This course includes a survey of the topics and techniques in several subfields of physics, including Solid State, Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics. The class will meet as a lecture group. Applications of the principles will be considered in the lecture section on a regular basis.

**401. Intermediate Mechanics. *** Physics 126/128
or 240/241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). *

This course is required for physics concentrators. It presents
a systematic development of Newtonian mechanics beginning with
single particle motion in one dimension and extending through
multiparticle systems moving in three dimensions. The conservation
laws of energy and linear and angular momentum are emphasized.
Lagrangian mechanics is introduced, and Hamiltonian mechanics * may be * introduced as well. Physical systems treated in
detail include the forced damped-oscillator, inverse square forced
orbits, harmonic motion in two dimensions, coupled oscillations
and rigid body motion in two and three dimensions. Mathematical
topics given extensive treatment include vector algebra, elements
of vector calculus, ordinary differential equations, plane and spherical polar coordinates and phasors and/or complex numbers.
Grades are based on one or two hourly exams and a two-hour final.

**402. Light. *** Physics 126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This course may be included in a concentration in physics. Topics studied cover the phenomena of physical optics, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, and polarization interpreted in terms of the wave theory of light. Several topics in modern optics will also be developed. Cost:3 WL:4

**405. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism. *** Physics
126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
(BS). *

This is a second course on the classical theory of electromagnetism. Familiarity with Maxwell's equations at the level of 240 is assumed. Physics 242 is strongly recommended. The course elaborates on the theoretical content of the Maxwell theory as well as practical application. Topics: review of vector analysis; electrostatic boundary value problems; magnetostatics; dielectric and magnetic materials; Maxwell's equations and electrodynamics; the wave equation, electromagnetic waves in free space, waves in conducting and dielectric media; guided waves; electromagnetic radiation, sources of EM radiation. Cost:3 WL:4

**406. Statistical and Thermal Physics. *** Physics
126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

An introduction to the thermal and other macroscopic properties of matter, their description in terms of classical thermodynamics, and their microscopic interpretation from the perspective of statistical mechanics. Techniques from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and elementary quantum mechanics will be used. Frequent homework problem assignments, at least one hour exam, and a final examination will be given. Cost:2 WL:4

**413/Complex Systems 541.
Physics of Complexities. *** Physics 401. (3). (Excl).
(BS).
Section 001 – The Physics of Nonlinear Dynamical Complex Systems. *
This course is intended to introduce the study of a variety of
nonlinear-dynamical and complex systems at an undergraduate level.
It should be useful to students is engineering, mathematics, or
one of the sciences. The topics covered will provide an introduction
to

**415. Special Problems for Undergraduates. *** Permission
of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for
a total of 6 credits. *

This course emphasizes experimental or theoretical research under the supervision of a faculty member. Generally a small facet of a large research undertaking is investigated in detail. This is an independent study course, and instructor permission is required. The appropriate form is available in the Physics Student Services Office, 2061 Randall Lab.

**417/Chem. 417. Dynamical
Processes in Biophysics. *** Math. 216, and Physics 340
or Chem. 463 (or 468). (3). (Excl). (BS). *

Topics include diffusion in biology (electrical potentials across membranes, nerve action potentials, neuromuscular synapses, the physics of chemoreception, and reaction rate theory); optical techniques (visible and ultraviolet light absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence); and random processes in biophysics (mathematics of random noise, membrane electrical fluctuations, quasielastic light scattering fluctuations, fluorescence fluctuations, and chaotic processes). This course is intended primarily for biophysics students, but it may be used as one of the two courses needed to satisfy requirement (4) of the physics concentration. (Axelrod)

**418/Macromolecular Science
418. Structural Macromolecular Physics. *** Math. 216
and Physics 340. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This course will provide an introduction to physical techniques
used to study the ultrastructure of macromolecules and biomolecules:
characterization of macromolecular structure; factors influencing
conformational stability; an elementary study of structural techniques;
scattering theory (such as X-ray diffraction, light scattering, * etc.) * and spectroscopic methods (such as infrared, Raman, UV, * etc.) * with applications to macromolecules.

**419/Public Policy 519/NR&E 574/RC Nat. Sci. 419.
Energy Demand. *** Basic college economics and senior
standing. (3). (SS). *

See RC Natural Science 419. (Ross)

**435. Gravitational Physics. *** Physics 390
and 401. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

The Einstein theory of general relativity provides the foundation of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. After an introduction to the theory, experimental tests of general relativity which were performed in the past, the implications of pulsars, black holes, supernovae, and cosmic background radiation as well as the ongoing experimental detection of gravitational waves are discussed. This is an elective course for concentrators in physical sciences. Regular exams as for any elective course in physics are given. WL:4

**441. Advanced Laboratory I. *** Physics 390
and any Physics 400-level course, or permission of instructor.
(2). (Excl). (BS). *

This is an advanced laboratory course. A wide selection of individual experiments are offered, each covering a fundamental physics concept. Students are required to select five experiments in consultation with the lab instructor. Experiments are to be selected from several different areas of physics. Examples of experiments include the photo-electric effect, electron charge/mass ratio, X-ray diffraction, muon lifetime, nuclear magnetic resonance, high Tc superconductors, chaos, and electron microscope imaging. Physics 441 is offered Fall Term and Physics 442 is offered Winter Term. Physics concentrators are required to take both terms and perform different experiments in the two courses.

**451. Methods of Theoretical Physics. *** Physics
401 and Math. 450, or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

This is a course in the mathematical methods used in physics and is considered necessary preparation for graduate school. Among the topics treated are orthogonal functions and vector spaces, complex variables, differential equations and their special functions, Fourier series, and aspects of group theory. Cost:4 WL:3

**453. Quantum Mechanics. *** Physics 390. (3).
(Excl). (BS). *

This course begins with an overview of the experimental and theoretical foundations for quantum mechanics. The theory is developed and applied to simple physical systems, with examples taken from atomic, molecular, condensed matter, nuclear and particle physics. Topics include: basics of the Schrödinger equations and its solutions in rectangular and spherical coordinates; properties, uses, and interpretations of state functions; expectation values and physical observables; coherence, correlation, and interference. Other topics include spin, the exclusion principle, and some quantum statistical mechanics.

**455. Electronic Devices and Circuits. *** Physics
240 and 241. (3). (Excl). (BS). *

An introduction to DC and AC circuits; equivalence theorems; introduction to diodes, bipolar transistors (BJT), field effect transistors (J-FET, MOSFET, IGFET); transistor amplifiers (frequency and pulse response via circuit simulation with SPICE); transistors as switches; integrated circuits (operational amplifiers and logic gates); Computer based circuit testing.

**496. Senior Thesis I. *** Permission of departmental
concentration advisor. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Students get introductory experience and research work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis for a senior thesis project. If work is not completed in the Fall Term, student would register for 497 in the Winter Term.

**497. Senior Thesis II. *** Permission of departmental
concentration advisor. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

A continuation of Physics 496. Students who do not complete their thesis research in Physics 496, may continue to 497. If continuing, a grade of Y is given for Physics 496 and a final senior thesis grade given upon completion of the research.

**498. Introduction to Research for Honors Students.
*** Permission of departmental concentration advisor.
(2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Honors students get introductory experience with research work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis for a thesis used to satisfy that part of the Honors requirement. If work is not completed in Fall Term, the student would register for 499 in Winter Term.

**499. Introduction to Research for Honors Students.
*** Permission of physics concentration advisor. (2-3).
(Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Honors students get introductory experience with research work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis for a thesis used to satisfy the part of the Honors requirement.

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