Fall Course Guide

Courses in Biology (Division 328)

Fall Term, 1998 (September 8-December 21, 1998)

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100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).
Biology 100 is a one-term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed. This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student instructors. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course. (Goldberg)
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101. Biology and Human Affairs. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).
This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include race, health, and the environment. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. Cost:3 WL:1 (Vandermeer)
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110/AOSS 171/UC 110/NR&E 110. Introduction to Global Change I. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).
Have you ever considered the future consequences of current stresses being put on Earth's environment by humankind's consumption and pollution patterns? Are you interested in discussing critical issues relating to the role of international business, resource economics, human development, and the individual person's responsibility in global change? Funded by grants from NASA and The National Science Foundation, Introduction to Global Change I is an interdisciplinary team-taught introduction to the evolution of the physical Earth and the evolution of life and the human species on our planet. You'll gain state-of-the-art knowledge from some of America's foremost scholars in space physics, biology, geology and Earth ecology. The Web-based course curriculum provides unparalleled opportunities to conduct on-line Internet research. You will even create your own home-page. The interactive laboratory exercises provide you the opportunity to use computers to examine how natural systems function as well as develop projections of the future consequences of the stresses being put on the environment. You will use multi-media tools for graphing and computer researching. And, perhaps most important of all, you will have ample time for discussion of the critical issues in human development and how they relate to the international business community, society as a whole and the individual in global change. All topics are developed in a manner that students will find both accessible and enjoyable. The course grade is based on two midterm exams, a final exam, completion of laboratory modules, and a course poster project based on some aspect of global change. There are no prerequisites for the course and no science background is assumed. The course is appropriate for all undergraduate students, irrespective of intended concentration.

You will learn about . . .

The Universe:

  • Big Bang Theory
  • Birth and Death of Stars
  • Radiation Laws
  • Origin of the Elements

Our Planetary System:

  • Primitive Atmospheres
  • The Age of the Earth
  • Continental Drift
  • Chemical & Biological Evolution
  • The Building Blocks for Life

Earth's Atmospheric & Oceanic Evolution:

  • Life Processes and Earth Systems
  • The Great Ice Ages
  • Atmospheric Circulation
  • Climate and Paleoclimate
  • Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
  • Sea Level Changes
  • El Ni o

The Tree of Life:

  • Emergence of Complex Life
  • Extinction and Radiation
  • The Five Kingdoms
  • Natural Selection
  • Respiration and Photosynthesis
  • Ecosystems

Projected Ecological Consequences:

  • Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Ozone Depletion
  • Likelihood of Global Climatic Change

You will discuss . ..

  • The Role of the Individual as a Citizen of the Planet
  • Case Studies of Regional and Global Change Issues
  • The Historical Context for Current and Projected Global Change

You will create . . .

  • Models of Interacting Systems that Give Insight into the Collision Between Natural and Societal Processes

Visit our Web Site:  http://www.sprl.umich.edu/GCL (Killeen, Allan, Kling, Teeri, van der Pluijm)
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120. First Year Seminar in Biology. Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (NS). (BS).
Section 001 Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases.
During the age of discovery of antibiotics, medical scientists often expressed confidence in winning the "War on Disease." Microbes have prevailed, however, and recent news is filled with accounts of recurring and previously unknown threats. This seminar will examine clinical victories and failures to contain infectious diseases. Models will include polio, influenza, HIV infections, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, Ebola, hantavirus, E. coli 0157, and mad cow disease. This course is limited to 20 first-year students. The class will be primarily discussion format and will include oral presentations by students. The grade will be based on class discussion, group presentation, and written assignments. Cost:1 WL:1 (Reinarz)
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140. Genetics and Society. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).
This introduction to the impact of modern genetics on society is designed for students not concentrating in the sciences. Students will gain a background in genetics that should enable them to: (1) understand and evaluate reports on the latest advances in genetics that appear in the media; (2) be able to discuss the social history of genetics; (3) have a better appreciation of the "scientific method;" and (4) discuss aspects of genetics that have a bearing on our daily lives. There will be three lectures and a discussion group per week, with topics such as human diversity; genetics and medicine, including cancer, AIDS and complex diseases; gene therapy; DNA and forensic analysis; technological and economic applications of genetics; and biological determinism. Course evaluation is mainly based on a flexible combination of short-answer exams and a term paper. Cost:1 WL:1 (Adams)
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150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152, 154, or 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Small groups of students meet weekly with a faculty member for group discussions on topics selected by the faculty member. Topics may include biological issues in the news, history of biological ideas, and ethical issues in biological sciences. Students will be introduced to biological research through discussion of faculty research projects and tours of active research laboratories and museum collections. Such tours will be coupled with discussion of scientific questions being pursued in the laboratories visited. Introductory students will have the opportunity to interact directly with a faculty member who will introduce them not only to the basic areas of scientific research but also to the structure and opportunities available in biology concentration programs. Evaluation of students will be through class participation and short written assignments. WL:1
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152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.
First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs, or preprofessional studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are: (1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, (2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, (3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology, and (4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology, (b) genetics, (c) evolution, and (d) ecology. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule ) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 or 004 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem. (M. Ammerlaan)
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153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and admission to the College Honors Program. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).
Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture/lab course. The first part of the course will deal with the nature of science and the scientific method. Science will be viewed as an approach to viewing the universe. Subjects that will be covered are the scientific method, hypothesis testing, the roles of logic, creativity, and serendipity in scientific discoveries. From a more practical point of view, the structure of a scientific paper will be analyzed. The topics covered in the second part of the course will vary depending on the instructor. Topics which may be covered are the genetic code and information theory, the revolution of molecular biology, genetic engineering and its ethical and social implications, the evolution of biochemical pathways, the properties of life and the search for life on other planets, the issue of gender, race, and intelligence. Cost:2 WL:1
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154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.
This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) plant biology; (b) development; (c) animal structure and function; and (d) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 or 033 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. plus Bio. 201. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem. (M. Ammerlaan)
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201. Introduction to Research in the Life Sciences. Grade of B+ or better in Biology 152 or 154. (1). (Excl).
This course is designed to help students identify potential mentors for independent lab or field research. This course is particularly appropriate for students in Biology 153 or 154, 195 or 305, 310, or 311 who hope to join the junior/senior Honors Program of the Biology Department. Membership in the LS&A freshman-sophomore Honors Program is not required. This course will introduce students to the diversity of research opportunities and approaches to research in the biological sciences that are available on the Michigan campus, by having a variety of scientists who sponsor undergraduate research visit the class. About 2/3 of the visiting scientists will be from the Department of Biology, while the rest will be from the Medical School and other schools at the University of Michigan. Students in the class will be evaluated based on two short papers, an oral presentation to the class, and on their participation in class discussion. Weekly reading assignments will form the basis of class discussion. Cost:1 WL:1
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207. Introductory Microbiology. Biol. 152. (4). (NS). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
The course consists of three one-hour lectures and one three-hour laboratory session each week. The lectures will trace the history of microbiology, microbial growth and metabolism, microbial diversity, and the importance of microbes in the environment, industry, and medicine. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, aseptic technique, staining, and the isolation, culture, and identification of microbes from the local environment. Grades are based on two lecture exams, a grant proposal, and the identification of unknown bacteria. The course is required for the microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for the biology concentration. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mann)
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209. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195; college physics recommended. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course is offered for students intending to concentrate in botany and related sciences. It is a required course in the botany concentration program, satisfies the physiology requirement of the biology concentration program, and serves as an elective in other concentrations. The content of the course material falls into three sequential parts: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) cellular and internal transport, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, cell water relations, plant water relations, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development in which a variety of factors that influence plant growth and development, such as hormones, light, photoperiodism, and temperature are discussed. The lectures serve as the major source of information, and are intended to introduce the basic concepts and mechanisms that underlie plant functions. Six exams; two exams per part; take-home format. Students must purchase the assigned textbook and a course pack. Because of the highly empirical nature of plant physiology, students are recommended to take the laboratory (Biol. 210) with this course. This course is offered ONLY in the Fall term. Cost:3 WL:3 (Ikuma)
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210. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 209. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($65) required.
This laboratory course is offered to supplement and complement the plant physiology lectures (Biol. 209), and the laboratory exercises are organized to follow closely the three main sequential parts covered in lecture: i.e., (1) plant cell physiology, (2) cellular and internal transport, and (3) plant growth and development. Plant physiology is a highly empirical science. The lab exercises are designed to have students experience representative experiments in each of the three parts and learn a variety of experimental approaches used in modern plant physiology. This course serves as one of the three lab courses required in the biology concentration program. Offered only in the Fall. Cost:1 WL:3 (Ikuma)
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222. From Message to Mind: An Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS).
An introduction to molecular, cellular, and systems-level neurobiology. Topics include: (1) bioelectricity; (2) intercellular communication; (3) sensory transduction and processing; (4) motor function; and (5) the neural basis of simple behaviors. Students will be evaluated by exams, papers, and participation in discussion. There are two lecture hours and one discussion hour per week. (Easter)
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224. Biology of Cancer. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 124. (3). (NS). (BS).
The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the development of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of exams and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately one week late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but some reading will be assigned from the course pack. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. A weekly hour and a half discussion session will also be held. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kleinsmith)
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252. Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($60) required.
This course teaches the comparative method, using the "three-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, and paleontology. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one-hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kluge)
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281. General Ecology. Biol. 152 and 154 and a laboratory course in chemistry. (3). (NS). (BS).
The course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations, and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the roles of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the dynamics of population growth, species interactions including competition, predation, mutualism, the structure of ecological communities, ecological succession, and applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 281 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There will be lectures, discussions, and computer simulations. Three exams will constitute the main basis of evaluation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Rathcke)
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282. General Ecology Laboratory. Biol. 152 and 154, a laboratory course in chemistry, and concurrent or prior enrollment in Biol. 281. (3). (Excl).
This laboratory course introduces the basic concepts and methods used in ecological research. The laboratories consist of both field and laboratory research projects, field trips, computer simulations, and an independent research project that is designed by each student. Students will write up laboratory reports and a paper on their independent research, give an oral presentation on their independent research, and participate in laboratory discussions. Cost:1 WL:1 (Rathcke)
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301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125. (3). (Excl). (BS).
Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing as professional biologists. Course structure and content have been planned to give students practice in the kinds of writing that biologists actually do, to help them understand the basis for effective writing, and to give them the tools to become their own best critics. The work load of the course consists of a series of assigned paper, critiques of published papers, peer critiques, and short writing exercises. The effectiveness of the course derives primarily from the close interaction between staff and student, both in weekly class sections and in individual conferences. A weekly lecture provides structure and continuity. WL:1 (Martin)
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305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).
This course is intended for students who are concentrating in the natural sciences, or who will apply for graduate or professional study in the biological sciences. The material is divided into two sections; classical studies of how genes are transmitted, and molecular studies of gene structure and regulation. There are three hours of lecture each week, and one discussion section directed by a graduate student instructor. The discussion sections are used to review and expand on lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering both lecture material and problem assignments. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ellis, Brown)
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306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students will analyze patterns of inheritance, gene interaction, linkage relationship and genetic mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila through a series of genetic crosses. By using molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans will be mapped to chromosomal locations. The experiments in microbial genetics include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, recombination analysis by transduction using bacteria and phage, and complementation tests on "his" mutants of yeast. Experiments in Human Population Genetics include calculating allelic frequencies of PTC tasting in the class. Students will also be doing DNA fingerprinting of a VNTR locus using their own squamous epithelial cells. One hour lecture on Mondays 1-2 PM and one three-hour lab are scheduled each week; additional 3-4 hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write three lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are two tests given during the term. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)
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310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).
Introductory Biochemistry is designed to be a general introduction to the chemistry of biological systems. This course will furnish basic information concerning the organization of chemical reactions in cells and will include information on the enzymes that catalyze these reactions as well as on the interactions between different pathways. Topics covered include: amino acid structure and nomenclature, protein structure and function, enzyme kinetics, nucleic acids, intermediary metabolism, photosynthesis, and regulation of metabolism. This is a lecture based course. The final grade is based on a midterm, a final, and quizzes and presentations in discussion.
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311. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 310, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).
This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. The student takes both a written and an oral quiz for each of 12 units which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed and performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Cost:3 WL:1 (Osgood)
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320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 427 or 428. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This lecture course aims to provide (1) understanding of basic functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, (2) appreciation of the experimental evidence that has established our current understanding, (3) through study of how evidence is used, inferences about how science works, and (4) awareness of how cellular and molecular biology contribute to human affairs. Interdependence of intracellular structure and function is stressed, along with efforts to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms. Course content includes: introduction to cell functions and diversity; membrane structure and function; organelle function and biogenesis; properties of cell surfaces; intracellular transport; secretion; cell cycle; cytoskeleton; and methods for study of cell function. The aim is to provide a selected background in cellular and molecular biology for biology concentrators and others. Most students enrolling have a foundation in biology, and may have completed either genetics or biochemistry. For more detailed treatment, students should take Biology 427 or 428. There is a textbook; purchase is optional, but recommended. Recommended readings are on reserve in the Shapiro Library. Exams include questions which require interpretation of data, formulation or test of hypotheses, and interpretation of experiments. Students whose introductory biology course lacked contents of Biol. 152 or 195 may have greater difficulty with this course, but difficulty can be overcome via prior study of biochemistry and genetics. Cost:2 WL:1 (Shappirio, 764-1491)
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355/NR&E 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biol. 152 or 195. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($45) required.
The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Woody plants are studied in their natural ecosystems including upland (oak-hickory, beech-sugar maple, lake plain), wetland (swamp, bog), and floodplain forests. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in the Saginaw Forest, Stinchfield Woods, Nichols Arboretum, and main campus. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology; woody plant biology, ecology, and diversity; variation and genetics; systematics of woody plants; ornamental plants; and winter conditions. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., China, and the tropics. Field trips are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 once a week. Michigan Trees (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Grading is based on 60% on plant identification (field quizzes and exams and indoor identification exams); 40% on lecture material (two hour-exams). Cost:1 WL:2, at SNRE Office of Academic Programs, 1024 Dana. (Wagner)
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380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and at least one term of college chemistry or physics. (3). (Excl). (BS).
Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. This course teaches physical and chemical aspects, but concentrates on biological aspects of oceanography, and applies ecological and evolutionary principles to the study of marine life. Lectures introduce the major groups of marine organisms and cover the interrelationships of marine organisms and their environments. Organisms and communities from the following habitats are discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea, and the open ocean. The course treats organisms as different as bacteria and whales. Fulfills the undergraduate Biology concentration requirements for a course in Biological Evolution and Diversity, and is required for the Marine Biology option of the undergraduate Oceanography concentration. Grading is based on two one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Lehman)
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390. Evolution. Biol. 152-154. (4). (Excl). (BS).
This lecture course covers the fundamentals of evolutionary biology with a focus on living organisms. It includes a historical survey of the development of evolutionary theory from ancient philosophers to the present, and critical examination of phylogenetic systematics, natural selection, population genetics, molecular evolution, microevolution, and macroevolution. Weekly discussions will focus on primary literature. Two midterm tests and one cumulative final exam will test students' knowledge of lecture material. Writing assignment(s) based on readings from the primary scientific literature will be required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Tucker)
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406. Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415), and Genetics (Biol. 305). (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course is focused on the molecular basis of plant development. Emphasis is placed on the genetic and molecular mechanisms employed by plants to generate regular patterns of cells, tissues and organs, and to modify those patterns in response to internal and external signals. Following a general introduction to plant molecular biology methods and approaches. The topics will include embryogenesis, meristem function, organ formation, gametogenesis, cell differentiation, plant hormone action, developmental responses to the environment, and signal transduction. These topics will be explored through lecture material and class discussions based on the primary literature. Students will be exposed to the design of experimental approaches and the critical evaluation of research papers. Emphasis is placed on the use of model plant species for the dissection of developmental processes at the molecular and genetic levels. Student evaluation is based on participation in the class discussions and presentations. One midterm and the final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Schiefelbein)
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411. Protein Structure and Function. Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course is a practical hands-on approach to extract information about protein sequence analysis tools available on the web. Students in the course will also identify 3D protein strucural motifs, discuss how they are related to the proteins' functions and discuss how proteins fold. (Bardwell)
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412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (EXPERIENTIAL).
Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TA's for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 311). TA's meet with the instructor for a two-hour class each week for lectures, presentations, and discussions of teaching and biochemistry. TA's also prepare a report on a recent advance in biochemistry which they present to their peers and the instructor. The major roles of the TA's are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the students with explanations supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TA's learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Osgood)
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422/Anatomy 422. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195, one year of physics, prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course deals primarily with the properties of individual nerve cells, and small groups of nerve cells. This provides the basis for understanding information processing by the nervous system, learning and memory, development of neurons, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Considerable emphasis will be placed on understanding the molecules that endow the nervous system with these properties. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kuwada, Oakley)
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427. Molecular Biology. Biol. 305; and Biol. 310 or 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl). (BS).
Comprehensive coverage of the general principles governing the structures, synthesis, and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the context of the cell. Emphasizes understanding methods and interpretation of data. Topics include genome organization, DNA replication and transposition, chromosome segregation, transcription and translation, the processing of macromolecules, signal transfer, and regulation at various levels. Three lectures per week are supplemented by a 1.5 hour discussion section. There will be two examinations during the term and a final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Helling, Pichersky)
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433. Ornithology. Introductory biology. (4). (Excl). (BS).
Introduction to the birds of Michigan. This course examines the physiology, ecology, social behavior, systematics, history, and conservation of birds. Lectures include flight, physiology, visual and vocal communication, adaptations for different life styles, individual and social behavior, migration, breeding biology, cooperative breeding and brood parasitism, and the origin and speciation of birds. Field trips to observe wild birds in different habitats, and laboratories are on identification, morphology and behavior. Background: a course in biology, or permission of instructor and an interest in birds. Student evaluation is based on field and lab quizzes, lab exams, two topic papers, two lecture-reading exams, and a written final exam. Textbooks: F.B. Gill, Ornithology, 2nd ed., W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, and National Geographic Society, Field Guide to the Birds of North America, 2nd ed. Methods of instruction: Lecture, laboratory, and field trips. Labs will include both field trips and working with museum specimens, as well as a day long field trip to Point Pelee, Canada on Sept 19 (rain date Sept 20). Cost:2 WL:4 (Payne, Root)
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436(336). Introductory Immunology. Biol. 305 and biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415). (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course is intended to introduce pre-professional and biology concentrators to the experimental and theoretical principles of immunology. Topics covered will include a detailed study of the organs, cells, and molecules that constitute the immune system; the humoral and cellular immune responses; antibodies as biological and biomedical research tools; and the role of the immune system in organ transplants, cancer, and AIDS. Grades are based on three exams. The course is appropriate for concentrations in biology, microbiology, and cell and molecular biology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)
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440/NR&E422. Biology of Fishes. Introductory biology and one additional biology course. (3). (Excl). (BS).
Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of lower vertebrates known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology, and reproduction. The systematic position of fish among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages examined. Special attention is given to the effect of the physical properties of water on form, function, and modes of life of fishes. Evaluation of students is based on two take-home exams, a cumulative closed-book final exam, and class participation. All exams emphasize essay questions that will require a synthesis of class material, and logic examination of novel problems. Take-home exams may include numerical problems. An optional laboratory course (Bio 441/NR&E 423) examines field methods, classification, and identification of Michigan fishes. Cost:3 WL:4 (Fink)
Course Homepage: http://www.umich.edu/~bio440/
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459. Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, or Biol. 255. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($30) required.
Plant biodiversity taught with lectures, color projection slides, specimens, living plants, and laboratories. Emphasis at level of orders, families, and genera, temperate and tropical, to familiarize students with all parts of the world. Focuses mainly on flowering plants but also gymnosperms and pteridophytes. Phylogeny provides the framework: Hypothetical ancestors and different lines are analyzed, e.g., pinks (Caryophyllidae), roses (Rosidae), trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae), etc. Subjects like habitats, endangered species, geography, biosystematics, cladistics, floral biology are given special lectures. Plant biosystematics is essential to botanists but the course is needed also by conservationists, ecologists, zoologists, foresters, and ethnobotanists. Some students take the course simply because they enjoy plants. Two midterms, a final, and lab quizzes. (Anderson, Wagner)
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477. Laboratory in Field Ecology. A course in ecology. (5). (Excl). (BS).
This course will meet from September 18-Oct 26, each weekend beginning Friday evening at 7:00pm and concluding Sunday evening at 7:00 pm. An organizational meeting will be held on Monday September 14 @5:00 pm in Nat Sci.

Ecology students require intensive practice in making field observations and systematically exploring the implications of those observations. One vehicle for doing so is the "field problem" based course, in which a faculty member chooses a general topic and works with a small group of students exploring that topic for an entire day. The field problem-based course is distinct from the laboratory course in that field problems seek to explore an unknown area. The course does not include "set labs" or repeats of well-known patterns. The professor and students seek to explore a specific research question that has not been examined before. The exercise of working through the details of a new problem along with the professor gives the student practice in the creative part of the scientific endeavor. Working with a variety of faculty members the student experiences several "styles" of doing science. The general structure of the course, centered around the field problem, encourages a great deal of discussion among students and between students and faculty. A major goal of the course is to facilitate that discussion. In addition, there is a relatively large lecture load, with an average of four lectures per week. (Curran, Vandermeer, Perfecto)
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481. Population Dynamics and Ecology. A course in ecology. Calculus is strongly recommended. (4). (Excl). (BS).
An examination of the principles of population ecology. Theoretical and empirical research on population dynamics and regulation of managed and natural populations are emphasized, as well as the development of the mathematical and computer skills for modeling dynamics of single and interacting populations. Specific topics include concepts of linear and nonlinear dynamics, demography, life history evolution, density-dependence and population regulation, and basic models of competition, mutualism, predator-prey, host-disease, and other population interactions. A background in ecology or permission of the instructor is required. There will be two 1.5 hour lectures and one two hour discussion section a week. Discussion sections will cover original readings from the literature and techniques for modeling populations. Course requirements include computer modeling projects and writeups, a midterm, and a final. (Goldberg, Vandermeer, Wilson)
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489/NR&E 430. Soil Properties and Processes. Introductory biology and chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($10) required.
Soil as a central component of terrestrial ecosystems, with a particular emphasis on physical, chemical, microbiological processes as they are related to plant growth. Quantitative analysis and interpretation of field and laboratory data are stressed throughout the course. Temperate forest ecosystems are the primary focus of the course; however, numerous examples are drawn from boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems. Knowledge of plant ecology is beneficial and prerequisites include introductory biology and chemistry. Cost:4 WL:2 (Zak)
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499. Dynamic Systems in Population and Community Ecology. A course in calculus and Biol. 481. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course will first cover classical notions of dynamic systems theory (e.g., Rayleigh's model of musical instruments, Duffing's non-linear oscillator, the Van der Pol oscillator, Poincare's three-bodied problem) and elementary notions of dynamic systems in ecology (Lotka-Volterra-style equations of predation, competition, and mutualism, 1-D models of logistic and higher order maps). Second, the course will explore the more recent developments in dynamics, as applied to population and community ecology. Some of the topics include chaotic behavior of 1-D maps, strange attractors and chaotic behavior in classical systems, new analytical techniques for analyzing experimental data (e.g., Poincare sections, Lyapunov exponents), pattern in chaotic systems. Each student is expected to develop a model of an ecological system and explore whatever complicated dynamics are contained therein. Cost:1 WL:1 (Vandermeer)This course will first cover classical notions of dynamic systems theory (e.g., Rayleigh's model of musical instruments, Duffing's non-linear oscillator, the Van der Pol oscillator, Poincare's three-bodied problem) and elementary notions of dynamic systems in ecology (Lotka-Volterra-style equations of predation, competition, and mutualism, 1-D models of logistic and higher order maps). Second, the course will explore the more recent developments in dynamics, as applied to population and community ecology. Some of the topics include chaotic behavior of 1-D maps, strange attractors and chaotic behavior in classical systems, new analytical techniques for analyzing experimental data (e.g., Poincare sections, Lyapunov exponents), pattern in chaotic systems. Each student is expected to develop a model of an ecological system and explore whatever complicated dynamics are contained therein. Cost:1 WL:1 (Vandermeer)
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521. Bacterial Physiology II: Carbon Metabolism. Biol. 305, and Biol. 310 or 311 or Biol. Chem. 415. (1). (Excl). (BS).
This course will focus on central metabolism especially the catabolism of glucose, lactose, and amino acids. Among the topics considered will be (1) "The memory paradox" where bacterial cells remember how they were grown 40 generations ago in the absence of external reminder; (2) the integration of pathways and how changes in one effect the flow of another, and (3) global regulators (known and unknown) that integrate complex signals and transmit them into gene expression responses. Biochemistry shows that pathways exist, physiology asks the questions of how they function and why they are important. The key theme of the course will be regulation rather than memorizing pathways. Bacterial Physiology II is entirely independent of the related Bacterial Physiology I and III courses and can be taken without either of the others. (Bender)
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522. Bacterial Physiology III: Nitrogen Metabolism. Biol. 305, and Biol 310, 311, or Biol. Chem 415. (1). (Excl). (BS).
This course will focus on the interconversion of various kinds of nitrogen sources. Topics will include the reduction of nitrate and atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia and the catabolism of urea and amino acids. Emphasis will be on the regulation of these pathways and the regulatory features that allow cells to use only the "appropriate" nitrogen sources to supply their needs. For example, how does a cell know to use the urea before porline as a nitrogen source (and ammonia before urea)? The key theme of the course will be regulation and the logical methods used to figure out how regulation functions. Bacterial Physiology III is entirely independentof the related Bacterial Physiology I and II courses and can be taken without either of the others. The course is intended for graduate students and upper class undergraduates with an interest in microbiology or biochemical regulation. (Bender)
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