Winter '00 Course Guide

Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

Winter Term, 2000 (January 5 April 26, 2000)

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Philosophy is about as broad a subject as one can find in a university curriculum. It addresses a wide array of questions, some quite familiar (Does God exist? Why be moral? What is art?), others less so (What is a thing? Is space a substance?). Philosophy includes the examination of its own methods, and its own history.

It also falls within philosophy to examine the methods and practices of virtually all academic disciplines. Because of this breadth, a person can study philosophy in ways involving the styles and techniques of thought of most other fields of inquiry. For example, the work of a philosopher concentrating in logic is much like that of the student of mathematics. A philosopher primarily interested in the philosophy of religion will often be doing much the same things as a theologian or a student of the history of religion. Political philosophy is regarded by some as including political activity itself. Many other such examples exist. In addition, Philosophy examines the practices of other activities, such as the fine arts, that are sometimes thought of as different from typical academic disciplines. However, for the most part the activities characteristic of philosophy are peculiar to the discipline. The only way to know what it's really like is to give it a try.

The Department offers a number of courses that do not carry prerequisites: (A) general introductions designed to acquaint students with a representative sample of philosophical problems (181, 202, 232, and 297); (B) introductions that focus on a particular branch of philosophy or area of human concern e.g., the mind and consciousness, the law, and literature designed for students who, having no previous background in philosophy, want to study these areas in a philosophical way (340, 359, and 370); and (C) introductions to logic and reasoning (180, 201, and 303).

(A) The general introductions deal, for example, with questions concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self and the mind, freedom, morality, society, and religion, but they differ in their instructional format and staffing. Philosophy 202 is taught by advanced graduate students in independent sections of 25 students. Philosophy 181 is taught by faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. In Philosophy 232, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of 25 for discussion sections led by graduate students. Finally, Philosophy 297, "Honors Introduction". is taught by a faculty member to a group of 25 students.

(B) Winter courses not carrying prerequisites that focus on a specific area of human concern or philosophical thought include "Mind, Matter, and Machines" (340), "Law and Philosophy" (359), and "Philosophical Aspects of Literature" (370). These courses do not require previous work in philosophy. Philosophy 370 is taught by a member of the faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 30 students. In Philosophy 340 and 359, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of 25 for discussion sections led by graduate students.

A number of Winter 300-level courses require only a single philosophy introduction as a prerequisite: "Language and Mind" (345), "Continental Philosophy" (385), and "History of Philosophy: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century" (389). All of these courses meet requirements for the concentration.

(C) Among the introductions to logic, Philosophy 180 is designed both to improve critical reasoning skills, and to provide an introduction to formal logic. Philosophy 201, is designed to improve critical reasoning skills, through an introduction to informal logic. Philosophy 303 is an introduction to formal or symbolic logic. Philosophy 180 and 303 are taught by faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. Philosophy 201 is taught by advanced graduate student teaching assistants in independent sections of 25 students.

There is additional information about the Department's curriculum in "The Undergraduate Program in Philosophy." This brochure contains information intended for students interested in taking philosophy courses, whether or not they are considering a Philosophy concentration. The Department also maintains a home page (http://www.lsa.umich.edu/philosophy/). Students considering a concentration in Philosophy are encouraged to make an appointment with a Philosophy concentration advisor; students considering an Honors concentration should consult with the Philosophy advisor for the Honors concentration. To request a copy of the undergraduate brochure, or to schedule an appointment with a concentration advisor, contact the Department Office (2215 Angell Hall, 764-6285). The Office can also provide information about the Department's Undergraduate Philosophy Club and undergraduate e-mail group.


Philo. 180. Introductory Logic.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Brian MacPherson (macp@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is designed both to improve logical reasoning skills as well as to improve analytic reasoning skills. Both skills are essential for doing well on standardized tests such as GREs, MCAT, GMAT, and the LSAT. Thus, in part, this course is meant to help students prepare for writing admission tests to graduate school, law school, medicine, MBA, etc. Also, this course will improve your overall reasoning skills which can be valuable in any field of endeavor whether the humanities or the sciences. In order to improve logical reasoning skills, we will study informal fallacies, how to assess definitions, and diagramming argument structures. To improve analytic reasoning skills, we will study natural deduction and truth-tables for formal logic. In addition, we will solve logic puzzles. This course will be both fun and useful to everyone. The text for the course is Introduction to Logic by Copi and Cohen (10th edition). Evaluation will consist of tests and homework assignments.

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Philo. 180. Introductory Logic.

Section 002.

Instructor(s): Mark Letteri (letteri@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Thebes/5740

This course is designed to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning, some of the elements of formal (symbolic) logic, and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. The course gives some attention to issues in branches of philosophy germane to logic, for example, the theory of knowledge, philosophy of language, and metaphysics. There will be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. The course is limited to 50 students, which should permit opportunity for discussion. Texts and methods of evaluation to be determined.

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Philo. 181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Peter Ross (pwross@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

We will discuss the following questions: does God exist? What, if anything, can we be certain of? Do we have free will? What is the nature of the self? What is the nature of morality?

We will find that in discussing the question of God's existence, a number of other questions arise, which are important issues in themselves. Arguments for the existence of God rest on premises or assumptions which, even if they seem to be obvious at first, turn out to be controversial. So the following question becomes pressing: what can we be certain of? Can anything that we are certain of be used to prove that God exists?

Also, God is commonly described as all-powerful, all-knowing, and perfectly good. But if God exists and fits this description, how can it be that God allows there to be morally evil people? If God creates us, isn't God responsible for our morally evil acts? One solution to this problem appeals to the claim that we have free will, and thus that we ourselves, not God, are responsible for our morally evil acts. But this solution raises further problems. Do we have free will, or are all of our actions determined? What does it mean to have free will? This question will naturally lead to another, namely, what is the nature of the self? Finally, we will consider what the nature of moral evil is, and how we determine what behavior is morally wrong.

We will read classical as well as current authors. Evaluations will be based on papers and essay exams.

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Philo. 181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction.

Section 002.

Instructor(s): Don Asselin (dasselin@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course examines some of the main problems of philosophy, such as:

Students will write papers discussing a number of these topics.

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Philo. 196. First Year Seminar.

Section 001 The Mind/Body Problem

Instructor(s): Laura Schroeter (bugge@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

What is the mind? Is it an immaterial soul, a brain, a complex computer program? Can you ever really know what another person's experiences are like? What makes you the same person from childhood through old age? We'll look at some answers which historical and contemporary philosophers have proposed to these questions. The focus of the class will be on helping students to develop their own answers and to hone their critical and argumentative skills.

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Philo. 196. First Year Seminar.

Section 002 Philosophical Ethics

Instructor(s): Nadeem Hussain (nhussain@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

We will take up several questions concerning the foundations of ethics. Can we justify our moral values or is it all just a "matter of opinion"? Could we go through life without values? Why do values seem to play such a central role in the thoughts of humans? We will examine various philosophical views on these matters. Development of critical thinking and writing skills will be emphasized.

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Philo. 201. Introduction to Logic.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course aims to give students a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument, and to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. Some elements of formal (symbolic) logic might be introduced. Though students will be expected to master some technical detail, the course emphasizes informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving and argument in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. The small section size (25 students) is conducive to informality and considerable student participation. There will also be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. Normally, there are weekly assignments and short, periodic quizzes.

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Philo. 202. Introduction to Philosophy.

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course introduces students to philosophy through an examination of some central philosophical problems. Topics might include: Are minds immaterial spirits, or are minds brains and hence nothing but complex physical objects? If human actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is there any moral responsibility? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Is the nature and extent of our moral obligations determined by our feelings, self-interest, social convention, Divine commands, or something else? What are the reasons for preferring one kind of social, political, and economic organization to another? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? How do we know that anything exists, other than ourselves? In addressing these questions, some sections focus on major historical figures, e.g., Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, and Kant; others focus on writings of twentieth century philosophers. Requirements usually include a number of short, critical papers.

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Philo. 230/Buddhist Studies 230/Asian Studies 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Luis Gómez (lgomez@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (HU). May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy.

Foriegn Lit

Credits: (4).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Buddhist Studies 230.001.

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Philo. 232. Problems of Philosophy.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Ian Proops (iproops@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course provides undergraduates with a broad overview of philosophy by means of a study of some of philosophy's deepest problems. Topics to be covered will include the following:

Students will be asked to read about 20-30 pages of material per week, to write three 5-6 page papers, and to take a midterm examination and a final exam.

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Philo. 296. Honors Introduction to Logic.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Allan Gibbard (gibbard@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203, 303, or 296. (3). (MSA). (BS). (QR/1).

Full QR

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This is a course in modern symbolic logic. The guiding idea is to use a symbolic language to examine such logical properties and relations as valid inference, consistency and inconsistency, and logical truth. We will study ways of reasoning about reasoning. There will be two in-class exams and a final exam. Homework will be assigned weekly, and satisfactory completion of the homework is a requirement of the course. Many good Honors students will find this course challenging, and working with course material should help students to develop skills in understanding concepts and methods of argumentation that are initially difficult.

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Philo. 297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Thomas Hofweber (hofweber@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

An introduction to philosophy, focusing on five major topics:

  1. Can the existence of God be proven? Can there be an all-powerful and good God in a world with suffering?
  2. What is it to be the same person over time? Is it possible to survive the death of one's body?
  3. Are we ever free? How, if at all, does freedom fit into a material world?
  4. Can we know that there is anything other than ourselves? Might the world around you just be an illusion, or a dream?
  5. Why, if at all, should you ever do something other than what is in your best self-interest? What is it to be a good person, and why should one care about being one?

Readings will be partly from major historical figures, and partly from contemporary authors. Evaluations will mostly be based on papers.

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Philo. 297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.

Section 002.

Instructor(s): Kendall Walton (klwalton@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course will introduce the student to several major areas of philosophy, including ethics, epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind, concentrating on issues concerning values and morality, our knowledge of the external world, the nature of persons, and relations between the mental and the physical.

We will explore such questions as:

We will discuss what a number of philosophers have said on these topics, including important historical figures such as René Descartes, David Hume, and J.S. Mill and a variety of recent and contemporary philosophers. There will be two assigned papers and two or three exams.

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Philo. 303. Introduction to Symbolic Logic.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Jamie Tappenden (tappen@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 203, 296 or 414. (3). (MSA). (BS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~tappen/303syl99.htm

Symbolic logic is the application of formal, mathematical methods to human reasoning. Its goal is to determine which forms of reasoning must produce true conclusions when applied to true premises. This course will introduce students to the two simplest, but most important systems of formal logic: the propositional calculus, which classifies forms of reasoning that involve the truth-functional operations of negation, disjunction, and conjunction ("not," "or" and "and"); and the monadic predicate calculus, which characterizes inferences involving the quantifiers "all" and "some." The first half of the course will focus on the propositional calculus. A system of inference rules will be developed, and students will be shown how it can be applied to the evaluation of ordinary arguments. A series of "metatheorems" will then be proved to show that the system developed indeed captures all and only the valid truth-functional inferences. During this portion of the course, students will also be asked to master proofs by mathematical induction. The second half of the course will be dedicated to the study of first-order logic. There will be regular homework assignments, assigned weekly, as well as a midterm examination and a final.

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Philo. 340. Mind, Matter, and Machines.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Eric Lormand (lormand@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is about the mind/body problem and related philosophical challenges to our understanding of human minds. The main aim is for students to understand the difficulties with a number of initially attractive models of mind as brain, computer, soul, and social construct and why this matters to our conceptions of ourselves. Each of these models has been the subject of some of the most lively and accessible works in contemporary philosophy; we will supplement these with some ingenious science fiction short stories. Some questions considered are:

Your grade will depend on several short papers and class participation.

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Philo. 356. Issues in Bioethics.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): J. David Velleman (velleman@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No prerequisites; one philosophy introduction is recommended. (4). (HU).

Upper-Level Writing

Credits: (4; 3 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~velleman/356/

This course introduces areas of philosophical ethics that are relevant to decision-making in health care. It is NOT, however, a course in "medical ethics," since it focuses on philosophical theory rather than medical practice. There will be little or no discussion of specific medical cases, court decisions, or news items. The course will concentrate instead on theoretical questions such as:

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 369. Philosophy of Law.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Vincent Wellman

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Law is both an important institution of modern life, shaping how we plan and act, and also a focus of intense and vigorous philosophical debate. The philosophy of law lies at the intersection of moral, political, and social philosophy. It is the effort to apply philosophical methods and insights to some of the issues that are raised by the importance of law and legal systems.

This course will examine questions about the nature and value of law.

We will also examine questions raised by the processes of modern legal systems.

In the process of investigating these questions, we will need to explore certain basic features of our own legal system, but I do not assume that students have any special familiarity with law or legal concepts.

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Philo. 383. Knowledge and Reality.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): James Joyce (jjoyce@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One course in philosophy. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~joyce/phil383.htm

This course will provide students with a broad overview of modern epistemology and metaphysics. Epistemology is the philosophical study of knowledge and justified belief. We will be concerned with two main epistemological issues: (1) Is all knowledge based on a foundation of "basic" self-evident beliefs that themselves require no justification? (2) To what extent must a believer have access to the facts that justify her beliefs? Metaphysics is the study of very general concepts and properties that apply to all existing objects. We will be primarily concerned with the following two questions: (a) Is our division of objects in nature into different kinds a matter of pure convention, or do some of these divisions exist in nature itself? (b) More generally, what does it mean to say that facts about the world are independent of us? Students will be asked to read about 40 pages of material per week, to write two 10-12 page papers, and to take a midterm and a final exam.

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Philo. 385. Continental Philosophy Since 1900.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Nadeem Hussain (nhussain@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One course in philosophy. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is an introduction to some of the most important issues and influential thinkers in twentieth century continental philosophy. The thinkers we will consider closely include Husserl, Heidegger, Saussure, Derrida, and Foucault. Investigating the writings of these thinkers will help us understand some of what might be meant by labels such as phenomenology, structuralism, poststructuralism, and deconstruction. Students will be expected to write three papers and take a final.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 389. History of Philosophy: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Glenn Hartz

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course examines the development of modern philosophy in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Among the figures covered are Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. The primary emphasis will be placed on philosophical and interpretive issues that arise in connection with their works-including those surrounding such topics as perception, the external world, mind, personal identity, causation, God, free will, knowledge, and truth. Students are evaluated on the basis of three papers and three exams (one of which is the final exam). There are three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

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Philo. 397. Topics in Philosophy.

Section 001.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Permission of concentration advisor and instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice with permission of concentration advisor.

Credits: (1-4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course number is designed to permit philosophy concentrators, upon recommendation of a concentration advisor, to elect a course a second time for credit when it has a different instructor and covers substantially different material.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4: Permission of instructor and Honors in Philosohy

Philo. 399. Independent Study.

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected twice for a total of eight credits with permission of concentration advisor.

Credits: (1-4).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Independent study of a topic not otherwise available through a regular departmental offering.

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Philo. 402. Undergraduate Seminar in Philosophy.

Section 001 Ancient Skepticism

Instructor(s): Travis Butler (travisb@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Open to junior and senior concentrators and to others by permission of concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Some ancient Greek skeptics thought of their skepticism not as a doctrine about knowledge, but as a method for attaining psychological health. By contrast, moderns tended to think of skepticism as a darkness which must be pierced, and skeptical arguments as tools for producing in the philosopher the self-image of an uncouth monster. In this course, we will consider the goals and methods of ancient and modern skepticism. Should skepticism be understood along ancient or modern lines? Should we embrace it, or do all we can to defeat it? Authors to be read include Sextus Empiricus, Descartes, and Hume. Students will be asked to write papers and give a seminar presentation.

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Philo. 406. Aristotle.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Travis Butler (travisb@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

In this course, we will pursue themes in Aristotle's metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. Special attention will be paid to his account of the objects of thought and knowledge, and the corresponding account of scientific progress. Texts to be read include Categories, De Interpretatione, Posterior Analytics, De Anima, Metaphysics and Nicomachean Ethics. Students will be asked to write a few papers and to take a midterm and a final examination.

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Philo. 420. Philosophy of Science.

Section 001 Meets with Nursing 520.

Instructor(s): Jamie Tappenden (tappen@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: A course in logic. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course provides upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students with a broad overview of the philosophy of science. It seeks to clarify the nature of the "scientific method" and to explain its success. Topics to be covered include: the process by which scientific hypotheses are confirmed by empirical evidence, the nature of scientific laws and their role in explanation, the logical and semantic structure of scientific theories, the "realism/anti-realism debate" concerning the nature of unobservable entities and processes, the objectivity of science, the distinction between science and nonscience. Students will be asked to read about 50 pages of material per week, to write two 10-12 page papers, and to take a midterm examination and a final.

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Philo. 422. Philosophy of Physics.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Lawrence Sklar (lsklar@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction or logic introduction or 12 credits of science. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

The course will be directed to philosophical issues that arise at the foundations of quantum mechanics. First we will briefly look at the origins of the theory in experiment theorization. Then we will outline the basic structure of concepts of the theory. After that we will explore a number of foundational issues in quantum mechanics including the meaning of the uncertainty relations, the meaning of probability in quantum mechanics, the measurement problem in quantum mechanics, the issue of hidden variables and the issue of non-locality in the theory. There will be a term paper and an exam in the course. Texts will (probably) be D. Albert, Quantum Mechanics and Experience and R. Hughes, The Structure and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

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Philo. 433. History of Ethics.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Stephen Darwall (sdarwall@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 361. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sdarwall/Phil433.html

The modern period in moral philosophy began with Thomas Hobbes, whose Leviathan (1651) shook the traditional foundations of ethics and forced those who would defend ethics against (what they saw to be) Hobbes' nihilism to do so in a broadly naturalistic framework that took serious account of recent advances in science. Thus began a period of exciting and fruitful moral philosophy that stretched through the end of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth. Indeed, even debates now current in moral philosophy almost always can be traced back to origins in this period. This course will be a study of several of the central writers and texts of this "enlightenment" and post-enlightenment period. In addition to Hobbes, we shall read some of Hutcheson, Butler, Hume, Kant, Bentham, Rousseau, Nietzsche, Fichte, and Hegel. We shall end with a radical critic of this broad tradition: Nietzsche. Course requirements: short paper, long paper, final exam.

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Philo. 456/Chinese 466/Asian Studies 466. Interpreting the Zhuangzi.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Philip Ivanhoe (ivanhoe@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 263 or another introductory philosophy course is recommended. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Chinese 466.001.

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Philo. 457/Asian Studies 480/Buddhist Studies 480/Rel. 480. Topics in Buddhism.

Section 001 Buddhist History and Culture in Burma

Instructor(s): Pranke

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 230. (3). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy.

Foriegn Lit

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Buddhist Studies 480.001.

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Philo. 458. Philosophy of Kant.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Ian Proops (iproops@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 389, 461, or 462, or permission of instructor, or concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

A detailed introduction to Kant's mature philosophical system. We'll look at Kant's effort to work out the scope and limits of possible human knowledge, his effort to sum up morality in a single categorical imperative, and his effort to give a purely moral basis and significance to religious faith. But the bulk of our time will be devoted to the account of human experience and human factual knowledge in the Critique of Pure Reason. There Kant argues that the world of our experience must possess certain very general features if experience is to be possible for example, that every event must be caused. And he argues that behind the familiar world of our experience is a second, more fundamental world about which we can know next to nothing. Readings will be drawn both from Kant's works and from some of the more accessible secondary literature.

Written work is three short (7-9 page) papers. There will also be a final exam. Class participation will be strongly encouraged.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 463. Topics in the History of Philosophy.

Section 001 The Philosophy of Leibniz

Instructor(s): Glenn Hartz

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 388 or 389. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Leibniz remains a seminal figure in the history of philosophy because of the intrinsic interest of his complex and subtle metaphysical system, and his influence on subsequent thought. In this course we will read many of his most important metaphysical papers (including some of the Arnauld, De Volder, and Clarke correspondence) and discuss them intensively. Towards the end of the course we will focus more narrowly on Leibniz's view of the material world. We will read some of the leading Leibniz commentators as they try to explain his view to us. Our quest will be greater understanding. Evaluation will be based on the student's performance on four short "workhorse" papers, a longer research paper, and midterm and final exams.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Philo. 482. Philosophy of Mind.

Section 001 Perception

Instructor(s): Eric Lormand (lormand@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is about perception, including how it works and how it relates to neighbors such as knowledge, introspection, skills, and so-called secondary properties (colors, sounds, etc.). What if anything makes a mental process perceptual as opposed to cognitive? What if anything are the direct objects of perception? What if anything are the direct products of perception? How if at all does thought influence perception? Why if at all should we consider our perceptual systems to be reliable? Is introspection a kind of inner perception, or is the name misleading? And sure enough... if fall comes to a forest and no one is there to see it, do the leaves change color? We will draw readings broadly, and at a fast pace, from philosophers of mind (both analytic and continental), from epistemologists and metaphysicians, and from scientists of mind and brain.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 499. Senior Honors in Philosophy.

Prerequisites & Distribution: By departmental permission only. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Students who wish to elect the Philosophy 498-499 sequence should consult with the departmental Honors advisor by the end of the preceding academic year.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4

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