Courses in English (Division 361)

WRITING COURSES : After taking or placing out of Introductory Composition, students may elect English 225 for further practice in the fundamentals of expository and argumentative prose. At a more advanced level, English 325 offers the opportunity for work in a variety of expository kinds of prose.

As many as ten sections of English 223, the beginning course in creative writing, are available each term. More experienced writers may apply for admission to English 323 (several sections offered each term), English 423 (4 hours), or English 523 (4 hours). Admission to these advanced courses is by permission of the instructor, who will require writing samples.

INDEPENDENT STUDY : Independent study in English must be elected under one of the following numbers: 226 (Directed Writing, 1-3 hours), 299 (Directed Reading, 1-3 hours), 426 (Directed Writing, 1-4 hours), 499 (Directed Reading, 1-4 hours). There is a limit to the total hours that may be taken under any one number (3 in 226; 6 in 299, 426, and 499). All elections require permission of the professor, on an election authorization (override) form to be turned in at CRISP and also on a departmental approval form. GSTA's are not normally authorized to supervise independent study.

125. Introductory Composition. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Eligibility for enrollment in Introductory Composition is ascertained by the LS&A English Composition Board, which requires an entrance essay of all students admitted to the College. The purpose of Introductory Composition is to equip students in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts for confidence and competence in the academic kinds of writing required of undergraduates in courses throughout the College. The main work of the course is writing itself, of two related kinds: (1) there are daily written exercises; and (2) there are weekly, graded text assignments - finished, type-written papers on assigned topics. All Intro-Comp students must own an up-to-date desk dictionary, in addition to the textbook required in a given section of the course. Throughout the term, there is much discussion of assigned reading and of samples of students' writing. Some instructors organize discussion by sub-groups of students in a section; others conduct class-wide discussion; most lecture only briefly and infrequently. All instructors respond in writing to the weekly text assignments; during the term they schedule private conferences with each student; and they keep office hours for drop-in conversation.

During Winter Term, 1982, sections 048-054 of Introductory Composition 125 are Pilot Program sections. See the Pilot Program section of this Guide, or the Pilot Program office (764-7521).

126. The Reading of Literature. English 125 or 167, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is an introduction to the reading of literature, to the effects of what we read, and to how we read. What happens to the text as we read it, and what happens to the text after we have read it? How easy is it to transfer spontaneous reactions to a poem or novel into a shared social or intellectual or academic language? We will also want to discuss how the poet or dramatist works. How conscious could he have been of the things that we see, or do not see, in his work? We will stay with no more than 4 texts, in three genres novel, poetry, drama and use them all term to talk about the art of reading, the art of transferring insights, and the art of creating effects. There'll be several short 2-page reports and 2 five page papers. (Johnson)

167. Introductory Composition, Shakespeare. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).
Sections 001-009.
This composition course takes as its subject matter Shakespeare and some of his plays. The course has no prerequisite - not even an affection for Shakespeare (or composition for that matter). Once-a-week lectures will explore aspects of the plays, from structural components like plot design and scene arrangements, to thematic matters like character types and "themes" (love, kingship, deceit, family, obedience, marriage, trust, and, yes, sex and violence), to philosophical concerns like the Shakespearean world view and the nature of tragedy and comedy. These explorations will, in turn, provide topics for conversation and writing in the discussion sections. You will write essays on a weekly basis, including some impromptus, do various (and simple) writing exercises, and keep a journal of your acquaintance with Shakespeare. A final will examine your knowledge of Shakespeare and your ability to present that knowledge in an essay. And, since Shakespeare must be seen to be believed, optional screenings of the BBC tapes or other Shakespeare films will be arranged; you will however, be required to attend the University production of Twelfth Night. Texts: yet to be decided. (Lenz)

Section 010. This is a course for twenty-two freshmen who want to learn how to use their native language well. Nobody who has used the English language except maybe Dickens has used it so well as Shakespeare: so beautifully, so clearly, so effectively. The most important thing humans ever do more important than becoming dean, or czar of football, or chairman of the board, or even English professor is communicate with each other. We're going to study Shakespeare in order to learn how to talk to each other and to learn some things to talk about. We will think a lot, write papers every week, and scribble at the conclusion of every class. We will not be concerned with what is called theory of criticism. The plays we will read are The Taming of the Shrew, Richard III, Measure for Measure, Hamlet, and The Tempest. (Hornback)

Primarily for Freshmen and Sophomores

Courses numbered 200 and above may be elected only after the Introductory Composition requirement has been completed.

223. Creative Writing. English 125 or 167 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Section 004.
This will be a workshop in the writing of fiction and verse, everyone being asked to try each the first five weeks and then to specialize in one or the other. No texts or exams required, but a good deal of output: about 1,000 words a week in fiction, 25 or 30 lines a week for the poets. It is also essential to attend regularly and to take an interest in the work of one's fellow students. The instructor will provide written commentary on the manuscripts and will be available for editorial/critical sessions. He will not play the Muse, and prospective members of the class should feel sure that they have plenty to write about, for that will be up to them to supply. In fiction, any kind of narrative writing will be O.K. (Creeth)

Section 007. This is a beginning course in creative writing, with an emphasis on fiction. Most class sessions will be devoted to discussion of either published or student work, with some introductory exercises. Students will be expected to progress both as writers and readers of fiction, and will be evaluated on those terms. Critical feedback will include written critiques from other students as well as those of the instructor, and individual meetings with the instructor in addition to the in-class sessions. (Shepard)

Section 009. Let's call this a beginning workshop in both poetry and fiction writing. Since the professor is a poet, the angle of approach to writing will be poetic, and those students primarily interested in the craft of poetry might want to enroll in this course. The ideal class, however, will include several fiction writers. All students should be willing to consider both genres. Students will be asked to read selected stories and poems, which they will imitate in the four required exercises: (fiction) fantasy, neo-gothic, myth/parable, and parody; (poetry) quatrains, villanelle, sonnet, and sestina. In addition to completing four of these exercises, students will be required to keep a journal and submit in late spring a collection of independent work: (fiction) two stories, 20-40 pages; (poetry) ten to twenty poems. A combination of poetry and fiction is acceptable. Texts: (fiction) 3 Genres, Super Fiction, and Norton Anthology of Short Fiction; (poetry) Modern Poetics, The Poet's Work, The Branch Will Not Break, Geography III. (Zebrun)

Section 010. This course is for those who wish to write from experience and imagination. Students will be encouraged to experiment and take risks in their writing as well as to practice fundamentals. No special background is required for this course, which is, in effect, a beginning course in creative writing. The process of writing will be examined through reading and discussion, and much of the classwork will focus on student writing. Evaluation will take into account improvement in writing, amount of work turned in, and participation. There will be no exam. We will work with Peter Elbow's book, Writing Without Teachers, and with the anthology by Brooks and Warren, Understanding Fiction. Although poetry and drama are welcome, emphasis will be on personal narrative and fiction. (Holinger)

225. Expository and Argumentative Writing. English 125 or 167 or equivalent. (4). (HU).
Section 013.
This course will provide extensive writing experience in expository and argumentative modes. We will focus on the content, structure, and linguistic realization of an argument in order to investigate how each level can vary independently and also how these levels interact. Specifically, we will be examining such variables as audience, purpose, logic, syntax, and lexical choice. In order to do this, we will use Hairston's A Contemporary Rhetoric supplemented heavily by such books as Young, Becker, and Pike's Rhetoric: Discovery and Change and Christensen and Christensen's A New Rhetoric, as well as by classic and modern examples of particular argumentative styles. Students will write weekly essays of moderate length and at least one long essay that will require research. They will also frequently work in small groups in order to examine writing samples and to evaluate each other's writing. (Varonis)

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course is an introduction to the short story and novel. We will begin by reading a collection of short stories by English and American writers, and we will continue on to read major novels by European and American writers of the 19th and 20th centuries. The emphasis of the course will be on directly confronting the text and learning to distinguish a range of literary techniques. For example, we will read Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, Dostoevskii's Crime and Punishment and Nabokov's Lolita. The course will require three papers, a midterm, and a final. (Kelly)

Section 002. The purpose of this course is to enhance your capacity to like and understand fiction. We will read and discuss a selection of American and British short stories and novels written in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: Twain's Huckleberry Finn, Dickens' Bleak House, and Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, for example. There will be short written exercises, several papers, probably a midterm and certainly a final exam. (Lenaghan)

Section 005 Politics and Society in Twentieth Century Fiction. This course is intended as an introduction to literary studies that will demonstrate techniques of reading, analysis, and interpretation. Our focus will be on twentieth-century short stories and novels animated by social and political themes. While our reading list will include classic works that display the conventional features of the short story and the novel, we will also discuss experimental works, works that explore aspects of the oppression of women and minorities, and some very recent works. Texts to be read will probably include most of the following: "Heart of Darkness" by Joseph Conrad; "The Bear" by William Faulkner; The Awakening by Kate Chopin; 1984 by George Orwell; China Men by Maxine Hong Kingston; Ficciones by Jorge Luis Borges; Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison; Woman on the Edge of Time by Marge Piercy; House Made of Dawn by N. Scott Momaday; Darkness at Noon by Arthur Koestler; The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon. Requirements will include a short paper due early in the term, a longer paper due at the end of the term, a midterm exam, a final exam, and participation in a group presentation to the class. No background courses in literature are necessary. We will have both lectures and discussion. (Wald)

Section 007. A course in the elements of fiction and the techniques of interpretation. We will read eight novels published between the 18th century and our own, and spend about five weeks reading short stories. Two 5-6 page papers and a final examination, plus overnight exercises. The novelists will be Fielding, Austen, Dickens, Dostoevsky, Conrad, James, Woolf and Pynchon. (Schulze)

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
An introduction to the close reading of poetry aimed at discovering as many different kinds of poems as possible. I will group poems of different periods in small clusters according to formal and thematic affinities to encourage a kind of playful meditation on the history of English poetry. For the final paper, I will ask students to select a poem from current periodicals and to defend its merit using the critical skills developed in class. Although required for English majors, no special preparation is needed. Frequent short papers and written exercises, in-class exam. (Ellison)

Section 002. Poets typically produce good poems through some combination of inspiration (Muse, powerful feelings, creativity, craziness) and conscious technique. Accordingly, we shall cultivate, if we can, both our emotional receptivity to poetry and our intellectual awareness of such elements as rhythm, rhyme, syntax, imagery, figures of speech, structure. By the end of the course, students will be expected to know something about the history of English versification and to be skilled both in methods of close reading and in procedures of interpretation that reach beyond the poem itself. In other words, we shall read poems as aesthetic objects, as products of their authors, as subjects of their audiences, and as elements of their literary tradition. Frequent short writing assignments most of these informal, ungraded (but required!) "scribbles," three interpretive essays. Students may be asked to memorize poems or to attempt writing their own verses, but inhibitions in these areas will be respected. Everyone must be willing to discuss and write actively. (Smith)

Section 003. Work in class will be devoted to discussion of particular poems selected from the Norton Anthology of Poetry. The aim of the discussion will be to increase understanding and appreciation of poetry. The first objective will be to develop some common questions on analytic approaches. Then we will spend a few weeks discussing poems mainly for reading practice but also for a general historic orientation. In the final weeks we will read a number of poems by one poet (maybe Yeats, maybe Rich, maybe a class choice). There will be short papers, in-class exercises, and a final examination. Book: Eastman, et al., The Norton Anthology of Poetry. (Lenaghan)

Section 004. In this course, a prerequisite to concentration in English, we shall read and discuss many poems of different times and kinds. Every poem is unique and yet like others of its kind. In studying a particular poem, we shall explore its language, listen to its music, submit as we can to its spell, attend to its human import, have as we can the experience it offers to a good reader, and try to tell each other something of what we find in that experience. Our aim will be to develop our competence as readers of poetry and thus to develop our confidence. With luck, some of us may discover the enjoyment of poetry and those who enjoy it already come to enjoy it more. Short papers, paraphrasing, exercises, hour exams perhaps, journals perhaps, final exam. (Hill)

Section 005. A course in the elements of poetry and the techniques of close reading and interpretations. We will proceed chronologically from the 16th into the 20th century. Text: Norton Anthology of Poetry (complete). Frequent writing assignments; the course is a prerequisite for English concentration. (Schulze)

Section 006. This course is for students who want to learn to read poems both for pleasure and for insight. We will approach this study in the spirit that Czeslaw Milosz hints at in his poem "Ars Poetica?": "poems," he writes, "should be written rarely and reluctantly/under unbearable duress and only with the hope that good spirits, not evil ones, choose us for their instrument." We will study both traditional forms and free verse, techniques of the craft, and a poem's meanings and implications. No exams, but frequent short papers and some creative options to critical analysis. TEXTS: Western Wind (Nims), Norton Anthology of Poetry, The Poet's Work (Gibbons), and Contemporary American Poetry (Poulin). (Zebrun)

245. Introduction to Drama. (3). (HU).

This is a survey course on the development of drama beginning with Oedipus Rex and ending with Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author. Along the way we will explore Euripides' concern with reason and sophistry in Medea; Shakespeare's departures from classicism in Hamlet; the psychological interiority of Racine's Phaedra; the anatomy of deception in Molière's Tartuffe; and the very different modes of realism developing in the modern dramas of Ibsen and Chekhov. To focus our attention on the fusion of theme and technique, we will trace the use of internal play-acting in most of the works under consideration. (Norris)

270. Introduction to American Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
A lecture course in American literature that begins with Walt Whitman's Song of Myself (1855), then focuses on late 19th and early 20th century fiction and some poetry up to William Faulkner's Light in August. The course will be concerned with developing, through literature, students' sense of American archetypes, styles, and values in a cultural and historical context. Two midterms, one paper, and a final. Other readings include Alger's Ragged Dick, James' Daisy Miller, Twain's Adventures of Huck Finn, Crane's Red Badge of Courage, Chopin's The Awakening, Hemingway's In Our Time. (Binder)

Section 002. This course is intended for students interested in learning and understanding some of the major authors who shaped our literature and made it national. We will read, study, and discuss selected works of seven representative writers, all in the 19th century Hawthorne, Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman, Melville, Twain, and Dickinson. Although the instructor will give introductory comments, students are expected to get actively involved in class discussion. There will be three short critical papers (3-4 pages), occasional brief papers in class, and a midterm and a final examination. (Robertson)

280. Thematic Approaches to Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Quest for Identity in Fiction and Drama.
This course will examine the quest for identity in a number of novels and plays including Kobo Abe, The Woman in the Dunes, Edward Albee, The American Dream and The Zoo Story; Jane Austen, Emma; Saul Bellow, Henderson the Rain King; Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man; Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman and The Crucible; Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye; Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar; J. D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye; Leslie Silko, Ceremony; Mark Twain, Huckleberry Finn (or, optional, John Seelye, The True Adventures of Huckleberry Finn). There will be a number of short papers of different kinds and a final examination. Discussion will be the usual class format. (Howes)

Section 002 Monsters and Magicians: The Imaginative Fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien. Our aim will be to understand the imagination and the imaginative world of Tolkien's creation. The major task will be a close reading and discussion of The Hobbit, The Ring Trilogy and his minor works. We will approach Tolkien on location the development of his subcreative imagination by way of his professional preoccupations. We will begin by looking at Tolkien as Professor of Anglo-Saxon and his interests in Germanic myth and languages. Our focus will be the transition from student of language and literature to inventor of languages and myths. Only limited attention can be given to the Silmarillion and current critical evaluations of Tolkien. Classes will be conducted as lecture-discussions; course work will consist of regular (five in total) short papers (2-4 pages). Student panel discussions will be structured around paper topics. Texts will include The Tolkien Reader, The Hobbit and Ring. (Toon)

285. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
It is nothing new, or startling, to say that the twentieth century is a century of Western and non-Western, or European and non-European, cultures in contact and transition. So, for our purposes and discussions, the twentieth century will, after all, include Beckett and Soyinka, Eliot and Neruda, Reed and Bhattacharya, Camus and Kafka as well as Garcia Marquez, Cheikh Hamidou Kane and Derek Walcott. In sum, we should, with authors from sometimes parallel, sometimes different conditions, fashion a cross-cultural, literary introduction to a few of the basic concerns of the century. Class sessions will alternate as lectures (mostly introductory) and discussions. Journal entries will provide the basis for small group discussions in my office. There will be two minor (5-page) papers and a final project of your own choosing. (Johnson)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

220. Intensive Composition. Open to junior or senior transfer students only. Students must take the ECB Writing Assessment before registering for this course. (2). (English Composition). May be repeated for a total of four credits.

English 220 satisfies the Introductory Composition requirement for those transfer students entering the University of Michigan as of Fall, 1981, with sophomore, junior, or senior standing. This course differs from English 125 in the pace of the assigned work, and in the assumed level of transfer students' experience as writers. The work will be intensive, the classes will be small, and most students will follow this course with the ECB-required junior-senior writing courses offered throughout the College. For those reasons, students must receive a B- or better to complete English 220 successfully, and thus to satisfy the Intro-Comp requirement. English 220 is a 2-credit course, meeting three times each week for a SEVEN WEEK (HALF-TERM) PERIOD. English 220 can be taken in either the first or second half of the term. It is necessary, however, to enroll for either half-term before that term begins. Students enrolled in this course will write much and often a minimum of 500 words each week. Texts to be used will be announced by the instructor on the first day of classes each half-term. Students interested in enrolling should secure an override form in 444 Mason Hall before registering at CRISP.

309(409). American English. (3). (HU).

We shall begin the course by discussing what there is in American English worth serious study. This will entail, initially, how distinct our spoken and written idiom is from British English past and present, what is and what is not "colonial" about how we speak and write, and what impact socio-political history has had on our speech. We shall then turn to the lexicon and its peculiar flexibility and inventiveness, to dialects and regionalisms, to the idiom of social and ethnic groups, and to popular and academic conceptions and misconceptions about our language. We shall learn, where necessary, how to describe our pronunciations by the use of symbols, how lexemes are caught and recorded, and where the source materials of the topics to be treated may be found. There will be several exercises (as in the use of phonetic symbols, for example, and in the use of lexical sources and lexical evidence). There will be a midterm and a final. As in the past, we probably shall have two speakers, one on Black English and the other on Canadian English. (The latter, however, is at present only tentative.) There will be two texts, both paperbacks, and two or more outline maps required. (Sands)

316. Intellectual Problems in Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Fate of Reason in the Modern Age.
The modern age dethroned rationality, and explored human irrationality as a clew to a disavowed human animality and an existential condition governed by choice (or unrecognized desire) and chance, but not reason. Yet reason continues to be implicated in the very formation of these ideas and in the production of the literary works that exemplify them. We will explore the intellectual and technical strategies that result from this paradox in a series of prolegomenal works (Freud's Civilization and its Discontents; Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy; Camus' The Myth of Sisyphus) and literary fictions (Mann's Death in Venice; Camus' The Stranger; Dostoevskii's Notes from the Underground; Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Ilych; D. H. Lawrence's St. Mawr; Kafka's Josefine, the Singer, or the Mouse Folk; and Conrad's The Heart of Darkness). (Norris)

317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Literature of Ireland.
This course attempts an introductory study of the literature of Ireland from earliest times to the present. This means that we select from among ancient saga, medieval and modern poetry, modern prose fiction (novel and short story), and modern drama. We shall sample both Gaelic literature (in translation) and Anglo-Irish literature. The course requires no prerequisites and does not presume prior acquaintance with Irish history, though students with some knowledge of that history should find the course particularly rewarding. The course will be conducted by lecture, with discussion when possible. Three papers, two short and one longer one, will be written. Final examination, but no hour exams. (McNamara)

Section 002 Afro-American Short Stories. In this course we will read short stories by Afro-American writers from the turn of the century to the present. We will consider the relationships between the following: folklore and literature; history, society, and personality; theme, character, and technique. Short fiction by the following writers will be included: James Baldwin, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), Toni Cade Bambara, Robert Boles, Charles Chesnutt, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Ernest J. Gaines, Loyle Hairston, Zora Neale Hurston, Kristin Hunter, Paule Marshall, Ann Petry, Ntozake Shange, Jean Toomer, Mary Elizabeth Vroman, Alice Walker, John A. Williams, Shirley Anne Williams, Richard Wright. There will be several exams, oral presentations and a final paper. (Jones)

Section 003 Women's Fiction. In Women's Fiction we will study a variety of short stories and novels by British and American women authors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Students will learn to read fictional texts closely, with attention to the way authors embody the experience of women within specific literary conventions. One overall theme of the course will be the inter-relatedness of women's texts, the commonality of narrative strategy they display. We will study such authors as Sarah Orne Jewett, Jane Austen, Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, Margaret Drabble, and Virginia Woolf. A previous course in literature would be helpful. My teaching method is basically through discussion, although I will lecture on historical backgrounds, literary movements, and critical theory. Students will be evaluated through texts and through papers. (Pratt)

Section 004 Writers of the Two World Wars. The two World Wars in particular, the first "Great War" - had the most profound influence in shaping the character of at least two literary generations and the work they produced. The course will be devoted to a study of that influence, the effect of the war experience in determining attitudes toward life, literary preoccupations and styles, the ironic, cynical, satirical, and "Black Humor" modes. The similarities and differences between the responses of the World War I and World War II generations will be examined through readings in the works of Hemingway, Dos Passos, Remarque, Fitzgerald, Mailer, Heller, Vonnegut, and others. Lectures and discussion. Two short papers will be required, and there will be a final. (Aldridge)

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Documentary Words and Images.
What does it mean to describe a work as a "documentary novel" or, for that matter, as a "documentary"? This course will investigate those questions and study the attempt, in some of the best imaginative writing of recent years, to reinvent the connection between literature and "fact." We will consider, for example: best-sellers that claim to inform us about social or historical truths; contemporary "meta-fictional" novels that lead us to question the very distinction between truth and fiction; documentary elements in the early novel; the new journalism; the special importance of documentary forms in Black American literature. While this is not a film course, we will spend some time looking at and discussing still photography and film and television documentary. Readings will include: Studs Terkel, Working; Alex Haley, Roots; Norman Mailer, The Executioner's Song; John Hersey, Hiroshima; Michael Lesy, Wisconsin Death Trip; James Agee and Walker Evans, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men; Richard Wright, Black Boy; Daniel Defoe, A Journal of the Plague Year; Upton Sinclair, The Jungle. Students will be asked to take a midterm and a final and to produce an analytical paper or a documentary of their own and a self-analysis. Class meetings will include both lecture and discussion. (Howard)

323, 324. Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3 each). (HU). May be elected for credit more than once with permission of the undergraduate chairman.

English 323 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Section 001. This is an intensive (intermediate to advanced) workshop in poetry writing. Although the professor may assign exercises from time to time, the focus of workshop sessions will be on the independent work of the students. Students will be asked to read several collections of contemporary poetry, to keep a journal, and to submit a final collection of work (between 10 to 20 poems), which has gone through extensive revision. N.B.: Writing samples and permission by professor are required prior to final registration. TEXTS: The Poet's Work (Gibbons), Modern Poetics, (Sculley), A Branch Will Not Break (Wright), Geography III (Bishop), Lord Weary's Castle (Lowell), Life Studies (Lowell), American Journal (Hayden), The American Poetry Anthology (Halpern), Contemporary American Poetry (Poulin). (Zebrun)

Section 002. This is an advanced course in creative writing, with an emphasis on fiction. Class sessions will be devoted to the study of both published and student work. Students as well as the instructor will provide written critiques of student work, and there will be individual meetings with the instructor in addition. Evaluation will take into account improvement, quality of work, and amount and quality of participation. (Shepard)

Section 003. This is an intermediate fiction workshop for experienced student writers who wish to have their work read and discussed by others. Applicants should submit a sample of their writing to 2623 Haven Hall. (Holinger)

325. Intermediate Exposition. (4). (HU).
Section 001 Rhetorical Strategies and the Art of Persuasion.
Students will discover how to evaluate their own writing as a means of developing more forceful and effective rhetorical strategies. In particular, students will be alerted to the ways in which writers have succeeded or failed to assert their views of the world. The class will analyze the strategies by which writers present their personae and points of view. Why in certain instances does an author choose a subjective, self-conscious mode, while another author prefers a more distanced framework for his/her argument? By understanding how these options relate to the writer's consciousness the reader can determine authors' attitudes toward their subjects, their themes, and their audiences. The class will then contrast the degrees of rhetorical assertiveness writers express through their uses of tone, irony, metaphor, and substantiating evidence. In these ways the class will develop, individually and collectively, the criteria by which they may test the rhetorical effectiveness of their own writing. Assignments: one graded writing assignment per week, and various daily writing and revision assignments. Texts: Smart, William, Eight Modern Essays. Course pack, one Rhetoric and Composition text to be decided. No prerequisites. (Lassner)

Section 002. Writers in this course will exercise two kinds of writing skill: that of informing an audience and that of persuading it. You will be asked to write pieces of journalism and persuasive appeals. We will read non-fiction books which use techniques of journalistic and polemical writing. Students will be expected to write approximately ten papers. (Kelly)

Section 003. This section is designed to encourage students to explore the full range of imaginative and non-imaginative possibilities open to the writer of the expository essay. The course is based on the assumption that all good writing is persuasive and that the writer of the expository essay is offered the unique opportunity of combining both the techniques and approaches normally reserved for the writer of either fiction or non-fiction. Throughout the course, students will be asked to consider the themes of tradition and traditional values, "Who I am" and "What I believe," as they appear in various forms in the different types of writing of selected American essayists: in editorials, in place, character, or personality studies, in reviews and in scientific, political, or moral inquiries. Just as these essayists used different forms to explore the world around them, so students will be encouraged to experiment with a variety of ideas, techniques, and forms as they write or revise their weekly five to seven page papers. Class time will be devoted to discussions of model essays, small group evaluations of classmates' writings, reviews of Sheridan Baker's The Complete Stylist and Handbook, and exercises, in which students will evaluate grammatical, syntactic, semantic and larger organizational units for clarity, precision, beauty and persuasive potential. (Golson)

Section 006. In this section of intermediate exposition we shall take as our models prose evident in current periodicals and shall probably start off with the non-fiction in current issues of The New Yorker, although other publications may later be used, such as Esquire, The Atlantic, and The Michigan Quarterly. At some point as close to the initial weeks as possible, we can begin using personal experiences as subject matter. Whether written treatment of these remains factual or is somehow transmuted into what resembles fiction is immaterial. The instructor will strive to establish a readiness on the part of class members to be one another's best and most acute critics. Eventually we shall write on topics near and known to us academic offerings, career opportunities, Ann Arbor, current cinema, parents, personal contacts, anything, in fact, about which anyone has a genuine urge to discuss, evaluate and display writing. There will be five to seven papers of gradually increasing length. No final. (Sands)

Section 009 Perception and Evaluation: Writing to Develop Thinking Skills. This section seeks to develop students' ability to use writing as a thinking tool, and is designed for students from a variety of disciplines. They will examine intuitive, analytical, and evaluative activities as they appear in the language of personal experience, then identify and engage in the same activities in their academic modes. Finally, they will apply these analytic skills to writing tasks drawn from the working world. The course will concentrate on identifying the thinking and language appropriate to various disciplines and purposes rather than quantitative. Thinking/writing tasks will include observation/description, experimental design/journal article, examination of values/evaluative essays. Class will combine lecture, discussion, and workshop. All papers (approx. 7) go through preliminary stages, and students will be evaluated on the basis of preliminary as well as final drafts. There will be no exam. Text will be a course pack. (Kirscht)

355. Core I (Great English Books). (4). (HU).
Section 002.
An intensive study of major English Medieval and Renaissance works, including parts of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the romance Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Shakespeare's sonnets, selections from the poems of John Donne, the play Dr. Faustus by Marlowe and Volpone by Jonson. The course ends with the reading of Milton's Paradise Lost. Class discussion will be supplemented with lectures, and two in-class essays will be required with an optional outside paper and possible short quizzes. There will be a final examination, either in-class or take-home, to be decided. The course is part of a sequence required for English majors. Texts: Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, Cawley, ed. (Dutton, Everman); Sir Gawain, Borroff, trans. (Norton); Shakespeare sonnets complete in any edition or Barber, ed. (Laurel Shakespeare, Dell); Donne, The Complete Plays of Marlowe, Ribner, ed. (Odyssey); Volpone, Barish, ed. (Crofts Classics); Paradise Lost, Hughes, ed. (Odyssey). (Garbaty)

Section 003. In this the first jewel in the English triple crown we will range through medieval and Renaissance literature. Although the course will give special attention to the poetry of Chaucer, Spenser, and Milton, it will also feature plays by Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson, prose by More and Sidney, and selections from the sonneteers and metaphysical poets. I hope to investigate a variety of topics, ranging from "literary" matters, like the demands genre places on its author and audience, to more thematic concerns, like the developing sense of self; the transition from "medieval" to "Renaissance"; the spirit, the flesh, and the devil; the notions of honor, of hierarchy, of policy, of man's role in nature (or nature's role in man), and, of course, of truth and beauty as much a part of physics then as now. Course work: three 5-7 page papers, a journal of your reactions to your reading, occasional exercises to facilitate class discussion, and a final exam. Texts: The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Vol I, 4th edition and Thomas More, Utopia (Penguin). (Lenz)

Section 004. The course will focus on important literature of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Selections will include narrative, lyric and dramatic works of Chaucer, Marlowe, Shakespeare, Jonson, and Milton. Class procedure will involve some background lectures, discussion, oral reading by both instructor and students, and class performance of a medieval play. Required: three papers, a midterm, and a final examination. Texts: D.R. Howard, ed. Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, A Selection; S. Barnet et al., eds. The Genius of the Early English Theater; W. Burto, ed. William Shakespeare, The Sonnets; E. LeComte, ed. John Milton, Paradise Lost and other Poems. (Downer)

Section 005. In this course we will read and discuss a variety of texts of different literary kinds and periods: Beowulf, the General Prologue and selections from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Everyman, The Second Shepherd's Play, Marlowe's Dr. Faustus, King Lear, The Tempest, selections from Milton's Paradise Lost. In addition to these major works we will read some shorter poems: medieval lyrics, some Spenser, and sonnets by Shakespeare and Donne. Students will write two papers, midterm, and a final exam. (McSparran)

356. Core II (Great English and American Books). (4). (HU).
Section 001.
In this course we will study representative major works and authors from the Restoration (1660) to the early 19th century. Some of Dryden's poems, Congreve's "The Way of the World," Pope, Johnson, Benjamin Franklin, Fielding's Joseph Andrews, Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, Wordsworth, late 18th and early 19th-century essays will be among the works and authors under discussion. This is not a lecture or a correspondence course: I expect you to come to class ready to talk about the works, and if you cannot meet that expectation you should not take the course. Much responsibility for the success of the course rests on you. Two papers, midterm, and final exam. (Cloyd)

Section 003. A reading class with placement of works read by broad social, philosophical, aesthetic, and literary ideas and movements in British and American history, 1660-American Civil War. The course is the second in the English Department core sequence. Two midterms, one paper, and a final. Readings will include Fielding's Tom Jones; Pope's Essay on Man; essays by Swift; Austen's Pride and Prejudice; Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner; poems by Burns, Blake, Keats; Melville's Moby-Dick; and Whitman's Song of Myself. Lecture and discussion. (Binder)

Section 004. The course will deal with major English and American writers of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, writers of fiction, drama, poetry, and non-fiction prose. The aim will be to show the course of change from neo-classicism to romanticism, and to develop at the same time concepts of comedy and of such genres as prose fiction and lyric poetry. The works of the following authors will be read (in individual texts, not anthologies): Congreve, Swift, Pope, Johnson, Blake, Wordsworth, Byron, Jane Austen, Emily Brontë, Emerson, and Hawthorne. Class sessions will be predominantly discussions of the readings, not lectures. (Super)

Section 005. The course will depend on two basic contrasts: between the classical literature of wit and control in the eighteenth century and the romantic literature of dynamism and discontent in the nineteenth; and between British and American forms of romanticism. Thus, for example, Blake will be considered in relation to Pope on the one hand and to Whitman on the other. We will proceed in five stages. 1) The Age of Reason: Satire and Hate (Pope, Swift, Austen); 2) The Revolt of Energy: Romantic Radicals (Blake, Emerson, Whitman); 3) Natural Supernaturalism: The High Romantics (Wordsworth, Coleridge, Thoreau); 4) The Dark Underside: Romantic Evil (Hawthorne and Melville); 5) The Last Romantics: Toughing it Out (Keats, Dickenson, Brontë). At the beginning of each stage I will offer a lecture and debate. In addition, I hope to organize some optional guest-lectures on the art and music of the periods. Written assignments: three essays of about 6 pages each; a final examination. (Weisbuch)

357. Core III (Great English and American Books). (4). (HU).
Section 001.
This is the third of three Core courses, required of English concentrators but open to any interested student. It will include James' The Portrait of a Lady, Forster's Howards End, Ford's Parades End, O'Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra, Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom!, Laurence's The Diviners, Baldwin's Another Country, and a representative selection of English and American poetry of the period. The course will depend on a few introductory lectures and regular class discussion. Three or four essays (ca. 1500 words each) and a final exam will be required. (Powers)

Section 002. This course, the final in the Core sequence, will treat representative works of British and American literature from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. The major theme of this section will be the role of the victim in society. We will be centrally concerned with the social and political views of each author and will also consider their contribution to the development of fictional or poetic technique. I expect that our reading list will be: Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities; Twain, Huckleberry Finn; Faulkner, Spotted Horses, Old Man, and The Bear; Joyce, Dubliners; Forster, A Passage to India; Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway; Miller, Death of a Salesman; Nabokov, Lolita|e; Morrison, The Bluest Eye; and a selection of poems by Arnold, Frost, Yeats, Eliot, Stevens, Berryman, Lowell, and Plath. Classes will be mainly discussion, with some lecture. There will be three papers and a final exam. (Hannay)

368. Shakespeare's Principal Plays, II. (3). (HU).

This section of English 368 is a self-contained course that is part of a two-term curricular offering. In it I will offer 10-12 Shakespeare plays organized thematically to provide an overview of his work. Students may choose to elect either term individually as Shakespeare's Principal Plays, or both consecutively as an approach to the complete works. Newcomers this term will begin analysis and writing at a fairly basic level; students from last term will continue at a more advanced and individualized level. Last term we focused especially on the themes of hierarchy, order, and government through intensive study of Richard III, Richard II, I and II, Henry IV, Henry V, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Measure for Measure, King Lear, Coriolanus, and The Tempest. This term we will personalize and enrich these themes through consideration of Shakespeare's treatments of love in Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, Troilus and Cressida, Othello, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, and The Winter's Tale. Uniting both terms is the central problem of the relationship between the given order of things and man's shaping activity: in short, nature and art. Prerequisites: none, although some background in close reading helpful. At least 3 short to medium (5-7 pp.) papers. Optional midterm; required final. (Bono)

393. Honors Survey: Milton to Blake. (3). (Excl).

Omitting the drama, we will look at the Age of Reason through its poetry and prose, reading its representative writers and studying its giants in this remarkable transition and breathing space between medieval certainty and modern uncertainty. A term paper and a final exam will constitute your achievement. Daily discussion will also weigh. Swift, Pope, Johnson, Fielding, Sterne, and Blake will focus our attention. (Baker)

413. Studies in Film Genre. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
The Horror Film.
We shall focus on the horror film as a specific genre of motion picture, discussing a number of films from diverse perspectives. We shall be concerned with: 1) the psychological impact of these films why certain motifs continue to be popular and how they affect the viewer; 2) their cinematic techniques - how directors use certain kinds of setting, lighting, shots, and editing to achieve particular effects; 3) their cultural background - the history of certain character types and subject matter in fiction, poetry, and painting; 4) their social background variation and change according to the contemporary scene; 5) their place in the history of the genre. These films will often be a starting point for an examination of what people fear and how they attempt to handle their fear through superstition, religion, and art. On Tuesday afternoons we shall discuss the psychological, cultural, and social themes of the course, or analyze one of the literary texts; we shall also introduce material relevant to the week's film. The film will be shown on the same evening and discussed in some detail Thursday afternoon, when we shall screen certain portions of it for detailed analysis. Among the films to be seen are The Haunting, Psycho, King Kong, Bride of Frankenstein, The Horror of Dracula, Carrie, The Exorcist, and Targets. Students will be required to read a number of literary texts and write several short papers. (Konigsberg)

417. Senior Seminar. Only open to senior concentrators in English. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This will be a study of the results of undertaking a wide variety of approaches to a single play by Shakespeare, the tragedy Macbeth. Some of the approaches are these: in terms of play's poetic imagery, in relation to its sources (what Shakespeare worked from), in relation to historical context (the new reign of King James, etc.), in considering the deployment of Shakespeare's acting company in staging such a play, in psychological terms, in its place in Shakespeare's development, in relation to Jacobean tragedies by other writers. All students will do some reading in criticism or scholarship from each approach. Each student will specialize in one and deliver a report on it. Finally, each will write a 15-page essay assessing to what extent the play is really illuminated by being seen in all these different ways. Each will get to know the text of Macbeth pretty well, too. (Creeth)

Section 002 Contemporary Fiction/Theory. In the past twenty years, even though the intellectual gap between novelists and literary theorists often seems wider than ever, writers from both camps have created a large body of self-consciously avant-garde texts that reflect similar and profound changes in our modern philosophical conception of human life. We will study the common themes of contemporary novels and theory, as well as the diverse attitudes writers have taken toward them. Tentative reading list: Robbe-Grillet, For a New Novel; Barthelme, Snow White; Hawkes, Structuralism; Barthes, S/Z; Garcia Marquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude; Borges, Labyrinths; Sennett, The Fall of Public Man; Hawkes, The Blood Oranges; Calvino, On a Winter's Evening, Perhaps, a Traveller.... Paper, final. (Kucich)

Section 003 Tragedy, Philosophy, and the "Death of God. " Nietzsche's famous pronouncement in the Gay Science on the "death of God" pulls the rug out from under a certain tradition of humanistic Platonic thinking. My course this term will study some of the ways in which Greek tragedy (and to various degrees later European drama) already confronts in full the problem of nihilism and how the succeeding tradition of philosophic and literary critical thinking (as it emanates from Plato and Aristotle) has worked systematically to subvert and displace this tragic encounter. We will read Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus and Antigone, Euripides' Medea and The Bacchae, Shakespeare's Hamlet, Beckett's Waiting for Godot, and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. We will also read selections from Plato (The Republic, III and X), Aristotle (The Poetics), Hegel, Nietzsche, Freud, Heidegger, as well as from more recent theorists Levi-Strauss, Lacan, Derrida, Foucault, Girard, and others. Class will proceed by lecture and discussion. There will be one long paper. (Goodhart)

Section 004. I.A. Richards' Practical Criticism drew its conclusions from the kinds of misreadings that occurred when students were asked to give a written response to a poetic text presented without any indication of author or period. More recently Harold Bloom, in The Anxiety of Influence and A Map of Misreading, has argued that great poets often achieve their originality through a kind of forceful "misreading" of the works of their predecessors. Both men became central figures in the criticism of their generations, Richards for the "New Criticism" of the 40's and 50's, Bloom for the so-called "Yale School" of the present. Our task will be to understand the ideas of Richards and Bloom and to apply them to a small number of literary texts of various periods and genres, with the aim, first of improving our own reading (or misreading) and, second, of acquiring some sense of the direction of literary criticism during the period in question. There will be several short papers or exercises, a substantial critical essay due near the end of the term, and a final exam. (English)

Section 005. This course will explore drama and fiction as ways of showing and telling. Works read will include Kobo Abe, Inter Ice Age 4; Aeschylus, The Oresteia; Jane Austen, Emma; Saul Bellow, Henderson the Rain King; Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman and The Crucible; Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye; Eugene O'Neill, Mourning Becomes Electra; William Shakespeare, King Lear and The Tempest; John Kennedy Toole, A Confederacy of Dunces; Virginia Woolf, Orlando. In addition some critical works will be read, and the class will see and discuss one or two films. There will be a number of short papers of different kinds and a final examination. Discussion will be the usual class format. (Howes)

Section 006 Issues in English Education. This seminar is for those who plan to teach English at college or secondary level. Its premise is that a teacher is more secure and effective for having considered some basic issues that underlie curriculum. We will first examine what philosophy has to say about mind, especially knowing and learning. Plato, Dewey, Whitehead and Gilbert Ryle will get special attention, and we will test their ideas against teaching situations. Next we will look into two problems in aesthetics which have implications for teaching. The first of these has to do with representation. What is it to be a fiction? How does one treat fictions? Louise Rosenblatt's Literature as Exploration will invite our agreement or dissent. A second area of investigation will concern aesthetic and moral evaluation. Do we mean "good" in the same way when we talk of "good literature" as when we talk of "good acts?" Next we will assess the concept of "creativity," read accounts of the creative act, discuss writing, and consider the activity of criticizing, as exemplified in I.A. Richards' Practical Criticism. If time remains we will take a brief look at the history of English instruction and consider Richard Ohmann's recent radical attack, English in America. (Clark)

Section 007. The classics of the "American Renaissance" include remarkable tales of what Emerson called "creative reading." They also demand creative reading on our part, for such works teach us to be self-conscious interpreters. We will participate in readings of language, nature, and mind: Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym, essays by Emerson and Margaret Fuller, Thoreau's Walden, Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, Melville's Moby-Dick (and possibly Pierre or The Confidence Man), and readings in Miller's anthology, The Transcendentalists. These writers, heirs to a Protestant tradition of reading God's Word, raise questions fundamental to the literary criticism of human words. These questions will be the themes of the course: is language a truthful image of nature or a barrier between man and the world? Is it possible to arrive at a single valid interpretation of an event, or are our responses inevitably multiple and partial? How can we honor earlier writers without suppressing our own desire to interpret originally? Requirements: an on-going journal on the reading and a 15-page term paper. (Ellison)

423, 424. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3 each). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of the undergraduate chairman.

English 423 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

This course is intended for seniors and graduate students whose written work already shows considerable achievement, but who feel they could improve their stories or novels within a fiction workshop. Class members will read each other's fiction and will make editorial comments and suggestions in addition to writing at least 50 pages of their own. Reading lists will be recommended, but the sole method of student evaluation will be through appraisal of the submitted work. Class size will be limited to 15. Registrants should submit a short story or chapter at 2633 Haven Hall before December 15th. (Hansen)

429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (HU).

In the "short half" of the course we will focus on exercises designed to give practice with several voices, forms, and levels of diction. One exercise will be imitations and adaptations of poems by a "poet-hero" selected by the student. During the second half, each student will write a sequence of original poems (perhaps six or eight) that explores a specific theme, or setting, or persona. Class will meet together once each week for reading and criticism. In addition, students will schedule occasional conferences with the instructor. Grade will be based on the written work half on the exercises, and work related to them, and half on the original poems, introduced by a note setting the context and intent. Readings will be from a general anthology and a collection of poems by the student's poet-hero. Students interested should submit three or four poems to Stephen Dunning, English Department, Haven Hall, by November 16th (for early registration) or by Dec. 14 for regular registration. Include name and phone. List of students accepted into class will be posted outside 2605 Haven Hall the day before registration. Students accepted can pick up signed overrides from Jona Ramey in the English Department office, 7607 Haven Hall. (Dunning)

431. The English Novel from Dickens to Conrad. (3). (HU).

Using discussion method mixed with a certain amount of lecture, the course will carry on the history of the development of the English novel from a point around or slightly before 1850 up to the emergence of Modernism (earlier courses in the development of the English novel are not a prerequisite to this one). Since a couple of the novels are long, the total list will be kept fairly short. Depending on availability of texts in paperback editions, the list will be as follows: either Little Dorrit or Bleak House (Dickens); George Eliot, The Mill on the Floss; Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights; James, The Princess Casamassima; Butler, The Way of All Flesh; Conrad, Under Western Eyes; Hardy, The Mayor of Casterbridge. Students who have read a work which is on the eventual list may substitute another by the same writer. Written work: two bluebooks, a final, and a term-paper on a subject of the student's choosing but related to the novels or novelists discussed or possibly to another novelist of the period. (Barrows)

432. The American Novel. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
The course will include a representative selection of novels which illustrate the richness and variety of the genre as well as pervasive themes and attitudes that characterize our fiction: Hawthorne, The House of the Seven Gables; Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; James, The Portrait of a Lady; DeForrest, Miss Ravenel's Conversion; Chopin, The Awakening; Hemingway, In Our Time; Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury and Absalom, Absalom!; O'Connor, Wise Blood; Baldwin, Another Country. The course will depend on a few introductory lectures and regular class discussion. Two or three short exercises and a term paper of ca. 3,000 words will be required. There may be a final examination. (Powers)

433. The Modern Novel. (3). (HU).

This course will cover representative novels written on the continent and in Great Britain during the period 1880-1940. Our major themes will be illicit passions and the decadence of rational codes of behavior. We will examine the fictional techniques invented by the great moderns for presenting these themes: techniques such as surrealism, expressionism, and stream-of-consciousness. Our reading list will be Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, Mann's Death in Venice and other short works, Kafka's The Trial, Joyce's Ulysses, Lawrence's The Rainbow, and Woolf's Between the Acts. Classes will be mainly discussion, with some lecture. There will be two papers and a final exam. (Hannay)

434. The Contemporary Novel. (3). (HU).

A reading and discussion of fiction since 1945, probably including one novel each by writers such as Sartre, Camus, Beckett, Robbe-Grillet, Grass, Barth, Bellow, Heller, Iris Murdock, Doris Lessing, Angus Wilson, Fowles, Updike, Pynchon, and Mailer. Perhaps not all of these will be included or students will have options. General method is the interruptible lecture, as well as discussion. Two papers, a midterm, and a final. (Gindin)

441. Contemporary Poetry. (3). (HU).

The course will survey the work of poets, both American and English but more predominantly American, who have established themselves as central figures since 1950: among them such figures as Robert Lowell, Allen Ginsberg, James Dickey, Gary Snyder, Sylvia Plath, Robert Hayden, A. R. Ammons, Robert Bly, and, for the English Philip Larkin, Thom Gunn, Ted Hughes, and Jon Silkin. Method of instruction will be class discussion and lecture. Although the course follows chronologically on English 440 (The Poetry of Modernism), that course is not a prerequisite; in fact, the only prerequisite is some experience of and interest in reading and studying poetry. Text will be The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, ed. by Ellmann and O'Clair. Written work: two one-hour bluebooks, a final exam, and a term-paper on the work of a single poet, the poet to be chosen by the student individually. (Barrows)

445. Shakespeare's Rivals. (3). (HU).

English 445 will focus on some of the major playwrights whose work developed in the great period of English drama dominated for us as readers and playgoers by the figure of William Shakespeare. Marlowe (in tragedy) and Jonson (in comedy) are the chief subjects of our attention, but we shall be reading plays by Middleton, Marston, Chapman, Webster, and Tourneur as well. From day to day a mix of lecture and discussion will constitute the staple activity of the course. Students will also be expected to offer special reports on such topics as stage history, bibliography, biography, social and literary backgrounds. Requirements for the course will include special reports, a midterm and a final exam, a major essay, and (for some) participation in a significant production activity involving either a single play or scenes from several plays. (Jensen)

448. Contemporary Drama. (3). (HU).

Careful reading of representative British and Continental European plays since World War I (the province of American Drama is covered in English 449). Consideration of plays in their relationships to dramatic (and cinematic) movements, theatrical backgrounds, social forces, world events, and trends of thought. English 448 complements English 447 (Modern Drama from Ibsen to World War I); the earlier course is not a prerequisite, but a knowledge of the early modern masters won't hurt. Readings will be chosen from among (not all) these playwrights: Pirandello, Brecht, O'Casey, Sartre, Camus, Giraudoux, Anouilh, Beckett, Ionesco, Genet, Osborne, Pinter, Storey, Orton, Durrenmatt, Hochhuth, Weiss, Stoppard and several others. Lectures and discussions, the quantity of the latter dependent upon class size. Some secondary reading and "outside" play reading in addition to about 20 basic plays. Students will write one major paper, keep a reading log, and take a final exam. (Bauland)

455. Medieval English Literature. (3). (HU).
Heroic, Courtly and Popular Modes.
The course consists of an intensive study and close reading of the English epic Beowulf, the romances King Horn, Havelok the Dane, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the popular allegory Piers Plowman, Miracle Plays and the Morality Play Everyman, and ending with Malory's The Death of King Arthur. Class discussion and reading are interspersed with background lectures. The harder pieces are of course read in translation, but part of the pleasure of the course is to attempt easier works in the original with the help of extensive glosses. Two in-class essays on topics to be assigned, possible occasional short quizzes and a take-home final. Beowulf, Kennedy trans. Oxford Univ. Press; Donald Sands, ed. Middle English Verse Romances, Holt, Rinehart, Winston; A. C. Cawley, ed. Pearl and Gawain and the Green Knight, Everyman's Library; Goodridge, trans. Piers the Ploughman, Penguin; A. C. Cawley, ed. Everyman and Medieval Miracle Plays, Dutton; D. S. Brewer, Malory: The Morte D'Arthur, York Medieval Texts, Northwestern Univ. Press. (Garbaty)

462. Victorian Literature. (3). (HU).

We will read selections from the poetry of Tennyson and Browning, the poetry and criticism of Matthew Arnold, and the critical essays and short fiction of Walter Pater. These writers did their work between 1830 and 1890. During these years of England's greatest national confidence, achievement, and pre-eminence, many thoughtful people nonetheless felt a deepening awareness of spiritual and cultural crisis. Stirred and disturbed by the strains of rapid social change, scientific and technological innovation, threats to the traditional faith, and increasing material prosperity, they asked what was happening to the human spirit. We will try to get a sharp sense of the different ways in which each of our writers encountered the anxieties of the age and, "gaiety transfiguring all that dread," worked out his own more or less hopeful response to them. Short papers, hour exams, a final exam. (Hill)

471. Nineteenth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (HU).
In a Land of Promise and Broken Promises: American Literature 1865-1914.
The fifty years between the Civil War and the First World War transformed American life rapidly and completely. The growth of the cities, the spread of industry, immigration, economic depressions, contrasting extremes of wealth and poverty, labor unrest, agitation for women's rights and other reforms, the impact of science on intellectual life these and other factors seemed to threaten the very foundations of social order. New ideas of the self and new ideas of society ideas which are, arguably, the basis of our own thinking came into being. In this course we will study the most significant imaginative responses to this turbulent era. We will read (tentatively) Emily Dickinson, Mark Twain, Henry James, W.D. Howells, Sarah Orne Jewett, Henry Adams, E.A. Robinson, Theodore Dreiser; we will also study utopian fiction and the rise of mass literature. There will be a midterm (no final), a journal or class presentation, and a term paper. The class will be primarily discussion, with some lectures (usually directed to placing books in their historical and intellectual context). (Howard)

478/CAAS 476. Contemporary Afroamerican Literature. (3). (HU).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 476. (Jones)

482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 002 Virginia Woolf.
It seems appropriate during the term of Virginia Woolf's 100th birthday (January 25) to take a fresh and thorough look at a wide variety of her writings, both fiction and non-fiction. Our readings will include Woolf's short stories, most of her major novels, some of her literary criticism, diaries, and letters, as well as Three Guineas. There will, in addition to examinations and papers, be an outside reading assignment in the memoirs and biographies of the Bloomsbury circle. My basic approach will be through close textual readings of Woolf's fiction, my concern the innovations in language through which she sought to express meaning. Discussion will predominate in the classroom, with additional lectures on history, psychology, and the relationship between modern art and Woolf's experimental techniques. A course in literature previous to this course should be required. (Pratt)

Section 004 Dr. Johnson and His Circle. Whether considered as an author or as a subject for other authors, Samuel Johnson is one of the true monuments of English literature. Poet, essayist, and lexicographer, he was also a biographer whose life inspired what is probably still the greatest biography in English, Boswell's Life of Johnson. He was at the center of a group of artists, actors and authors, both men and women, who excelled in their own right and who shone as a group, making London in the mid- and late-eighteenth century brilliant with their works and their wit. Our approach will be primarily but by no means exclusively, biographical: the principal handbook and guide will be Boswell's Life of Johnson, to be read as we follow the life and work of Johnson, Reynolds, Goldsmith, Burke, Fanny Burney, Hester Thrale, Hannah More, David Garrick, and others whose lives were powerfully affected by Johnson. (Cloyd)

483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit if different works are studied.

This one-credit course will afford students a chance to savor Shakespeare's sonnets, some of which are amazingly rich in feeling(s) and meaning(s) and hence well read at some leisure. We'll consider the sonnets both as individual lyrics and as a sequence having an evolving "plot" of love and literary expression. We'll also consider background (e.g., sonnet sequences Shakespeare may have reacted to), cultural contexts, and subsequent reputation (e.g., how generations of readers have taken Shakespeare's sonnets, how poets have responded to them). Course work will consist of either memorization, essay-writing, or oral report the choice will be up to the student. Everyone, however, must take a final exam, which will test detailed knowledge of the sonnets, background knowledge, and the interpretive skills developed in the course. Our weekly meeting will be devoted mostly to discussion of individual poems, but the instructor will lecture on backgrounds from time to time. (Smith)

484. Issues in Criticism. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

My course this term will explore the questions "what is literature?" and "what is criticism?" We will begin by reading closely two great literary works (one by Shakespeare and one by Dostoyevsky). Then, taking these two works as examples, we shall study the ways in which critics have talked about great literary works. We will look at "new" criticism (Wellek, Wimsatt, Warren, Brooks, Krieger, etc.), some of the structuralist and post-structuralist writing coming recently from France (Levi-Strauss, Barthes, Lacan, Derrida, Foucalt, Girard, etc.), and we will end the term with a survey of some of the more recent voices in American critical theory (Poulet, Bloom, DeMan, Hartman, Fish, Miller, Abrams, Culler, Searle, and others). Class will proceed by lecture and discussion. There will be a final and 20-25 pages of critical writing. (Goodhart)

486. History of Criticism. Required of students in the Honors Program. (3). (HU).

This course is designed as an introduction to the study of relationships between literary criticism and philosophic writings. It explores relationships between certain prime concepts of literary theory in the history of literary criticism and their sources in philosophic systems from Plato to the early Nineteenth Century. The concepts of literary criticism include imitation, nature, imagination, genre, and beauty which will be traced primarily in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Sidney, Dryden, Pope, Johnson, Blake, Coleridge and Shelley. Philosophic contexts and sources of these ideas will be traced in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Bacon, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley and Hume. The philosophic concepts to be studied include human nature and its faculties, experience, theory, nature, method, value and deity. The aim of the course is to illuminate the criticism and the philosophic writings and traditions leading to and from them. The course will proceed by lecture, discussion and paper writing. (Wright)

489/Educ. D 440 (School of Education). Teaching of English. Engl. 305 is prerequisite, and concurrent election of Educ. D 592 is required. (3). (HU).
Section 061.
This cross-listed course is the required methods course for English concentrators who seek certification. The course tries to provide practical, school-related pedagogy within the subjects of English literature, writing, and language. Special topics include diagnosis and materials for reading instruction; junior literature; outside reading; marking/grading student writing; dialects; and ways to motivate writing. But the central concerns are approaching reading-of-literature, writing, and literacy tasks with understanding and effectiveness. (Dunning)

495. Honors Survey: Meredith to the Present. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This last segment of the Honors Program in English will be a survey of modern English literature in all its various forms, types, and genres. In honor of the Joyce-Woolf centenary, we shall give considerable attention to Ulysses and two novels by Virginia Woolf. In addition, a play by Bernard Shaw, the poetry of Yeats, Eliot, and Spender, a work of non-fiction prose by George Orwell, and some recent fiction by Doris Lessing will be required reading. Lecture-discussion format. Two short papers, a midterm, and a take-home final. (Goldstein)

496. Honors Survey: Meredith to the Present. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This is a tutorial course in which the student writes a thesis. It is open only to members of the Honors Program in English. (Goldstein)


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