Courses in Geography (Division 374)

101. Introduction to Geography. (4). (SS).

Aimed primarily at freshpersons and sophomores, this course intends to introduce students to the geographical approach to the study of human society. Geography is explored as the study of the earth, as the home of human beings, as the study of human interrelationships with the natural environment, as the study of human patterns on the earth in their spatial form and interactions among them, of culture as a lens through which people view their environments, of culture variation over the earth, and as the study of specific regions of the world. Settlements, including cities, are examined as examples of the human imprint and as samples of spatial form and spatial interactions. The elements of the natural environment: climate, vegetation, soils, water, resources and landforms are analyzed as people have used, adjusted to and altered them. The concept of "resources" is considered as a series of different appraisals by different cultures at different stages in their evolution and is related to the growth and problems of population and to the origins, spread and consequences of the industrial revolution. "Developed" and "developing" worlds are examined in this context. The course then returns to its basic theme of the earth as the varied home of human beings and their varied sets of adjustments to it. Material is presented in both lectures and smaller discussion groups which meet weekly. Reading is moderate. There is one midterm and one final examination, plus one or two short quizzes in the discussion sections. (Murphey)

202. Physical Geography: Land and Man. (4). (NS).

This course is intended primarily to acquaint and expose students to the basic aspects of the physical environment in which they live. Topics include weather, water, climate, vegetation, soils, landforms, and their related subjects. Lab sessions focus on observation and analysis of weather and climate maps, climatic classifications, interpretation of topographic maps and airphotos, etc. Attendance both in class and in lab sessions is required. There are ten weekly lab assignments. The testing format includes two hourly tests and a final examination. The tests will include material from lectures, slides, and the text. Lab assignments will account for roughly 1/3 of the term's grade. Text: Strahler and Strahler, Elements of Physical Geography, Wiley, 1978. (Noguchi)

245. Population, Hunger, and Economic Development. (3). (SS).

The problems of world food supply, population pressures, and economic development are most often dealt with in a series of narrowly conceived courses in specific disciplines such as demography, economics, public health, etc. While that approach is necessary for research and in-depth analysis it does not serve as well in educating an informed citizenry. This course attempts to integrate the methods and information of aspects of those other disciplines so as to make this basic world problem meaningful and understandable to the non-specialist. While the focus of the course is on population and economic development this is dealt with in the broader context of both colonial and indigenous history. The impact of colonial intervention on various societies throughout the world is discussed and contemporary effects of such intervention evaluated. In format the class is a combination of lectures by me and various guests from other disciplines plus a series of informal papers and presentations by members of the class. These presentations deal with research themes developed by the students along lines of their own interest or expertise. Typically each student presents two ten minute informal talks; one on research in progress and one on research findings. Students are also expected to take an active part in classroom discussion of both readings and lectures. There is a midterm examination based on lecture material and readings. The final research paper, usually 8-10 pages counts for about 50% of the grade. (Clarkson)

381. Elementary Cartography. (4). (SS).

Maps organize, record and present uniquely information about our earth, its history, its people, its resources, its cultural and physical features and distributions of varied geographical phenomena around us. We encounter maps in many forms as city maps, road maps, weather maps, wall maps and atlases. We use maps as planners, historians, engineers, teachers, researchers or as travelers in our daily lives. Maps contribute to a wealth of information about the environment in which we live and the world around us. Geography 381 is an introduction to the mapping process, with particular emphasis on the techniques of map design to display spatial data, map drawing, map reproduction and map use. Students will obtain a basic understanding of the processes and problems involved in map making and develop basic skills to design, draw and produce a map. The course consists of two one-hour lectures and two, two-hour laboratories each week. Students will be expected to spend some time outside regular laboratory periods for completing projects. Elements of Cartography by Robinson, Sale, and Morrison will constitute the main text supplemented by additional reading assignments. The course grade will be based on two midterms, one final, and the laboratory exercises. (Aggarwala).

402. Geography of North America. (3). (SS).

A survey of North American geography (emphasis on the U.S.). The general format covers (1) physical geography and geographic provinces, and (2) a survey of the historical patterns of settlement with special attention to human ecosystems and resource use. (Kolars)

411. Geography of Europe. (3). (SS).

The objective of the course is to offer a general survey of the physical, economic, and urban geography of Europe; in other words, to answer the question: What is Europe? The method employed is the selection of one or more nation-states from each of the major regions of the continent: North (Scandinavia), West (Atlantic Europe, Britain, France, Low Countries), Middle (Tidal lands of Europe: Germany, the Alpine countries, the lands of the Danube Valley), and South (Mediterranean countries). There is a substantial-and-optional reading list for the course. Requirements include a midterm and a final exam. (Kish)

415. Geography of the Soviet Union. (2). (SS).

The objective of the course is a survey both of the general characteristics of the Soviet Union, including its European and Asiatic parts: physical features, agriculture, transportation, industry, population characteristics and a region by region survey of each of the major components of the USSR. Besides optional reading, requirements include a midterm and a final exam. (Kish)

419. Environment and Society in China. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This lecture/discussion course begins by setting China in geographic context within Eurasia, including a comparison with European civilization, the role of isolation and China's distinctiveness. Traditional and contemporary Chinese society is viewed as a series of adaptations to its geographic base. The course then considers the origins, spread, and evolution of Chinese civilization, its incorporation of Tibet, Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Manchuria, and the constraints of the physical landscape within China Proper. The second half of the course then analyzes the nature and current problems of the agricultural system, the growth of population, industrialization and its resource base, and the urbanization process, concluding with an analysis of the Maoist blueprint for development and its vision of the good society. Readings are varied but moderate in amount; grades are based on two take-home essay exams, one at midterm and one at finals time. (Murphey)

421. Problems in Southeast Asian Development. (3). (SS).

The course examines selected problems of economic development in Southeast Asia with emphasis on the impact of modernization on the lives of the rural population. Economic and ecologic problems of agricultural development including the Green Revolution, will be discussed with stress on the adjustment problems of village people. Rural to urban migration and the adjustment of rural population to urban conditions will be included. The course will make use of case studies of current problems, including the impact of road construction and the relocation of people displaced by reservoir construction, rural poverty and war. Slides and films will be used. A midterm and final examination can be supplemented by a term paper, annotated bibliography or project initiated by the student if the student wishes. (Gosling)

423. Geography of the Near East. (3). (SS).

This course deals with an overview and survey of ecological problems in the countries of North Africa and southwest Asia, particularly where semi-arid and arid conditions are encountered. It attempts to discuss such problems from a geographic (spatial) point of view. Examples are chosen from many countries, but no country by country survey is attempted. Much of the course is based on the professor's own first-hand experiences in Turkey, Iran, the Levant and North Africa. Nomadism, peasant agriculture and economic development schemes are emphasized. Testing consists of four take-home essay questions based on lectures and outside readings; people desiring A-level grades are also expected to write a short research paper in consultation with the teacher. (Kolars)

428. Geography of Oceania and Australia. (3). (SS).

This course examines the physical environments of the Pacific islands, Australia and New Zealand, in which man has developed a wide variety of life patterns. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which Pacific Islanders utilize their narrow range of natural resources. A large section of the course deals with external impacts on the Pacific island peoples and the demographic, economic and political consequences. The current social and economic conditions in each of the major Pacific island groups is discussed in detail, with attention paid to the problems of economic and political development in the current period of "decolonization." Problems in the development and maintenance of the Australian and New Zealand economies are the focal point of lectures on these nations. Grades are based on three examinations, one of which is optional. Reading is moderate. (Gosling)

431. Economic Geography. Geog. 212 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This intermediate level economic geography course focuses on the basic principles of the location of economic activities. Part one of the course reviews the classical location models as they were developed on the single variable of distance. Part two investigates the location of economic activities as the variables held constant in part one are relaxed: transportation costs, spatial variation in demand and production, economies of scale, and agglomeration. Manufacturing regions in the United States and Europe are also discussed. Part three investigates the impact of uncertainty on the locational decisions of single and multi-plant firms. Finally, national development policies of selected Western and non-Western countries are discussed in connection with the development of urban growth centers and regional cores and peripheries. In addition to three lectures every week, a homework problem, designed to assist you in understanding the material, will be assigned every other week. Because of the amount and nature of the material, a series of bi-weekly quizzes are given in lieu of a midterm exam. The text is Location in Space: A Theoretical Approach to Economic Geography by P. Lloyd and P. Dicken (1977). This course is well suited for majors in economic and urban geography, regional development, economics, business, and urban and regional planning. (Brown)

433. Urban Geography. (3). (SS).

This course is an examination of the spatial factors affecting location, organization and functioning of cities. Both the internal arrangements and external connections of cities are analyzed. Throughout the course contemporary urban problems will be utilized as examples. Topics of study are: the state of cities; urbanization, evolution of U.S. cities; the way geographers look at cities - basic concepts and the spatial viewpoint; city structure preindustrial and postindustrial forms definition of urban areas; the role of transportation and communication in urban systems. (Nystuen)

449. Regional Analysis. Geog. 212. (3). (SS).

This course introduces the student to the study of regions and the methods of regionalization. The course is divided into three sections: Part One reviews the regional concept as it developed through time. Part Two explores the regionalization problem as one of classification. Here, appropriate mathematical techniques such as grouping techniques and factor analysis will be discussed. The last part of the course focuses on the definition of administrative regions and the methods for delimiting them: center of gravity, index of regional efficiency, linear programming solutions, to name a few. Consideration will be given to regions of cultural, physical, and economic phenomena. There will be a midterm and final as well as a term paper requirement. The nature of the material should be of interest to social planners and scientists as well as to geographers. Texts are Locational Models (Part I) and Locational Methods (Part II) by Haggett, Cliff and Fry (1977). (Brown)

456(222)/Environ. Studies 456. Biogeography. (3). (NS).

The focus of this course is on the plant-environment relationships. We will first look at various environmental factors which affect the growth and distribution of individual plants and plant communities, ranging from climatic to human factors. We will then review and examine various concepts and classification schemes of plant communities and finally look at world vegetation in terms of biome units. There will be two hourly exams and a term paper. (Noguchi)

466. Urban Environment. (3). (NS).

Many urban problems are in part the result of the physical environmental setting and its alteration by man. It is unrealistic to study the economic and political processes within urban centers without an understanding of their interaction with the physical environment. This course will essentially examine the influence which urban systems have upon the physical environment and the effect of physical processes upon urban systems and human activities. Questions and class discussions welcome and expected. Three hours of lectures. Evaluation will be based on one paper/project and two examinations. Tentative text: T. R. Detwyler and M. G. Marcus, Urbanization and Environment, 1972. (Brewster)

475/College Honors 204. History of Geography. (2). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to describe, within the general framework of the history of science, the development of geography as a science, and in a sense as an art, over the past three millennia. Emphasis is placed on the following periods: Classical (Greek, Roman, Hellenistic), Medieval (400-1400 AD), Age of Discovery (1450-1600), Enlightenment (1650-1750), Formative Period of Modern Geography (1750-1850). There will also be a discussion of the independent development of geography in the world of Chinese civilization. Discovery analysis, and synthesis are the main headings of discussion. A substantial bibliographical essay, and a final examination are part of the course requirements. (Kish)

482. Analytical Cartography. Math. 116 and 117. (3). (SS).

Cartography, like many other fields, has been greatly influenced by the computer. Automated techniques have provided new opportunities and possibilities for the display and analysis of geographic information. Geography 482 is designed to introduce the student to computer applications in cartography. Emphasis is placed on the nature of cartographic problems and the way in which the computer can be used to help solve these problems. The course is organized into a one hour lecture and a two hour lab period each week. Discussions will cover spatial sampling, geocoding, spatial data structures, manipulation of geographic information, and automated mapping. Laboratory exercises will familiarize the student with computer graphics equipment and with several "canned" mapping programs. No prior cartographic or computer experience is required, although knowledge of MTS will be helpful. The course grade will be based on the laboratory exercises and three examinations. (K. Clarke)

554. Physical Geography Seminar. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

Science involves the development of predictive methodologies, which produce generalizations, theories and laws. These apply not to particular instances or events but to classes of phenomena, we develop theories and laws not for one individual, but for certain groups of individuals. This seminar will investigate the methods and techniques used in classification: the objective assignment of individuals into and to groups. Some of the questions which will be answered during this course include: Why assign to Group A and not Group B? How is Group A constructed? What are its limits? What are its members? Text: R. J. Johnston, Classification in Geography, 1976. Additional readings will be assigned. Grading will be based on one or two problem oriented assignments plus a substantial paper which will deal with some applied aspect of classification, classification problems, and classification solutions. (Brewster)

568. Seminar on Environment and Society in China. Permission of instructor. A knowledge of Chinese is not required. (3). (SS).

This is a research seminar for those who have already done some work in the China field and are ready to do research, with or without knowledge of the Chinese language. There are no other prerequisites, and students from other disciplines, or in areas of Asian Studies, are welcome. The course centers on the writing of an article-length research paper, in a seminar setting. (Murphey)

570. Seminar in the Geography of Southeast Asia. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The seminar will examine population redistribution and economic development in Southeast Asia. Sessions will involve background lectures, discussion, and presentation of student research. A research paper and class presentation are required. (Clarkson)

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