Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

This course is intended to introduce students to the study of political philosophy through the reading of some selected classics in the field, supplemented by appropriate works of fiction. The focus will be on different images of the state and the implications they have for our conceptions of human nature and human relationships, both actual and ideal. Students will be expected not to memorize and repeat the contents of their reading and of the lectures, but to reflect critically on their implications for human relations in the management or self-management of large communities. The emphasis will be more on moral dilemmas than on analytic theory. The instructor will emphasize that he raises many questions but has few if any answers. Active participation in discussion sections will be equally as important as attending lectures. Students will be required to write a number of short papers. (Meyer)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States. It explores two broad topics mass politics and government institutions each of which is divided into several more specific topics. For example, the course will examine how political participation differs from group to group and how public opinion is formed. After discussing various aspects of mass politics, we will look at the national government, how it operates, and how it is affected by various influences. The basis for grading varies somewhat in each section, but there will be a midterm examination and a final examination based on lectures and readings. (Cover)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

Since the course is introductory, no background is assumed except an interest in the material to be covered. This material includes selected a) revolutionary movements and systems (e.g., Iran, China, the Soviet Union), b) authoritarian regimes (Brazil, Mexico, Egypt), and c) politics in advanced industrial societies (U.S., Western Europe, Japan). Comparisons will be drawn on the basis of the interplay among political, economic, and cultural (ideological-religious) forces in this diverse set of nations. The course consists of lectures and discussion sections. Evaluation by exams and short papers. One hardcover text is recommended: Deutsch, Dominguez, and Heclo, Comparative Government: Politics of Industrialized and Developing Nations. Five paperbacks are also recommended: Keddie, Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modern Iran; Chaliand, Revolution in the Third World; Kramer, Unsettling Europe; Brown, Modernization: The Transformation of American Life, 1600-1865; and Harrison, Pluralism and Corporatism: The Political Evolution of Modern Democracies. (McDonough)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

The primary purpose of this beginning course is to expose the student to the core questions that should be asked at any beginning of the study of international politics. Who are the major actors in international affairs? What kind of order exists in relations among nations? What mechanisms exist for change? What regularities exist in the behavior of actors toward one another that give shape and direction to the system? We shall try to get at some of the questions raised by using three of the major approaches students in the field utilize to select the behaviors they wish to study. One approach is to study the process of decision-making in foreign policy. Another approach is to study the effects that differences in national growth have on the politics among nations. A third way is to study the way the international system constrains the actions of individuals and groups. The major elements of the course are contained in four sets of lectures. (1) The decision-making approach; (2) effects of national growth on international politics; (3) problems and consequences of different types of international systems; (4) global trends in contemporary world politics including such topics as imperialism, neocolonialism, international economics and interdependence, developed-developing world relations, international organizations, and the limits to growth. There will be one, possibly two, exams during the term, plus a final. Other requirements may include a 12-15 page essay and such additional assignments as may be made by individual section leaders. (Organski)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

300. Contemporary Political Issues. (4). (SS).

It is recommended that the student has taken at least Political Science 111. The course will focus on the implications of recent political change for the conduct of political campaigns and the governance of the country. Critical issues in the study of political behavior will be addressed by examining the following five questions: 1) How are candidates for political office evaluated by the public? 2) Does the recent increase in political independence indicate that Independents are alienated from political parties or that they think parties are irrelevant? 3) Is the electorate more ideological today than in the past? 4) Are non-partisan group attachments replacing political parties as the mobilizing force in American politics? 5) Does the media select our candidates for high office? Students will be graded on the basis of class participation, a midterm exam and a research paper focusing on one of the five topics. (A.H. Miller)

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.
Section 001 The Politics of Black Liberation.
This course will be concerned with locating and analyzing the major factors in the struggle against racism and oppression in the United States, although some examples may be drawn from the Third World as well. This course is concerned with the Black Struggle. Midterm and final.

Section 002 Women. This course will examine several different feminist theories including liberalism, socialism, and radical feminism. In addition the theories of anti-feminists will be compared and contrasted with the feminist theories. Once students are familiar with the theories they will be asked to use them to analyze a variety of contemporary issues such as contraception, affirmative action, and the Equal Rights Amendment. The class will be a combination of lectures and discussion. Requirements for the course are two short papers, a class presentation, and a final exam. In addition students are expected to contribute to class discussions on a regular basis. (Shaw)

361. Current Issues in World Politics. (2). (SS).

The course examines instances of subnational violence linked to the demand for greater identity sometimes including secession - from the ruling elite on the basis of ethnic, racial, religious, tribal, or linguistic associations. The focus is global with specialists on Islam, the USSR, East Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, China, Canada, and the U.S. addressing problems and prospects for "Identity and Conflict" over the next decade or two. Lectures are supplemented by a special television series produced by Professor Whiting with experts from the U-M campus and elsewhere. Readings are in course-pack format from contemporary articles and book excerpts. Two multiple-choice examinations provide the basis for grades. (Whiting)

396/Econ. 396/REES 396/Slavic 396/Hist. 333. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Gitelman)

403. Development of Political Thought: Modern and Recent. Political Science 402 or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

In this course we will survey some of the greatest works of modern political philosophy, beginning with the sixteenth century. The course's philosophical focus will be on the authors' different conceptions of human nature, and on their different interpretations of the meaning of history. Its primary political focus will be on the relevance of their philosophies of nature and history to their arguments for and against limited constitutional government. Readings will be from primary sources exclusively, and will include the following texts: Machiavelli, Discourses, Hobbes, Leviathan, Locke, Second Treatise and Letter on Toleration, Rousseau, Second Discourse, Kant, Conjectural Beginning of Human History and Idea for a Universal History, Hegel, Introduction to the Philosophy of History, Marx, The German Ideology, and Nietzsche, The Use and Abuse of History. The course will consist of lectures with frequent opportunities for questions and discussions. Course requirements will include a midterm and final exam, and a fifteen-page term paper analyzing part of one of the course readings in depth. (Schwartz)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This is a course about American public policies what they are, how they develop, and what difference they make. The purposes of the course are, first, to help students understand the enormous scope and variety of actions taken by the 80,000 or so American governments, and second, to help students learn how to think about public policy in the United States. We begin by examining a variety of government programs, including established programs such as social security and more recent innovations such as environmental policies. We go on to examine the behavior of coalitions that initiate and support government programs. Finally we examine various choice processes associated with program development, including rational, organizational and experimental modes of choice behavior. Course requirements include two essay examinations and a term paper (8-10 pages) on a policy area of your choice. Recommended books include Thomas J. Anton, et al., Moving Money; Gary Orfield, Congressional Power: Congress and Social Change; R. Douglas Arnold, Congress and the Bureaucracy: A Theory of Influence; James E. Anderson, ed., Cases in Public Policymaking. (Anton)

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

The objectives of this course are: (1) Provide an understanding of American electoral politics from both normative and empirical points of view, and from the perspectives of the individual voter and the candidate for office. In plain English: How and why do ordinary American citizens engage in political activity? How and why ought they engage in such activity? How does and how ought the ways that ordinary people participate in politics affect what candidates do? (2) Explore the extent, causes, and consequences of recent changes in mass orientations toward government. Or, is it true that people are sick and tired of "politics," and if they are, so what? (3) Introduce the modes of thinking and the analytical tools employed in the systematic study of mass political behavior. That is, what do political scientists do, and how do they do it? And why? The readings will consist primarily of recently published work in scholarly journals. Two texts that will be used are: Asher, Presidential Elections and American Politics, and Olson, The Logic of Collective Action. Midterm and final exams, plus a term paper. The paper will involve original analysis of national election survey data. No prior statistical or computer experience is assumed. (Markus)

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course describes the behavior of legislators and seeks to explain their actions. There is some emphasis on the U.S. Congress. Topics include decision-making in committees and on the floor, the informal legislative folkways, the place of political parties and leadership, and the relationships between legislators and constituents, interest groups, the executive branch, and the press. Course requirements include midterm and final examinations and a term paper. (Kingdon)

418. Women and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will examine women's participation in the political process. Factors such as socialization, role orientations and structural barriers which contribute to male-female differences in political involvement will be explored in some detail. Although the course focuses on the political role of women in the U.S., some cross-national comparisons will be made. The assignments will consist of several short papers and one longer research project. (Farah)

420/Comm. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Pol. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to expose students to the way the news is made and the consequences for the operation of the political system. The central theme will be shifting roles of the media as objective reporter of events and as public agenda setter. Particular emphasis will be devoted to the importance of the media in electoral politics including the effects of the media on the electorate, the use of advertising in political campaigns and changing patterns of media use and exposure. In addition to readings and lectures, guest presentations will be made by leading journalists and political figures. There will be a midterm and a final examination. (Traugott and Porter)

424. Metropolitan Problems. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to familiarize students with political processes and trends in American metropolitan areas. It will cover such topics as forms of local government and effects on who gets what in urban areas, the place of the city in the federal system, trends toward metropolitan and local control solutions, levels and trends in citizen participation, and the exercise of power by political leaders. The primary readings will be available at the Undergraduate Library and books will be available through local bookstores. There will be two term examinations as well as various writing assignments. Other forms of course contribution are recognized and encouraged, especially in-class discussion and presentations based upon student expertise. Class format will generally be lecture with some time for questions and discussion. (Goldenberg)

428/Phil. 428/Econ. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass or graduate standing. (4). (SS).
China's Evolution Under Communism
is the university's introductory interdisciplinary course on contemporary China. Although it gives credit toward majors in philosophy, economics, Asian studies, sociology, and political science, the course also is aimed at undergraduates in the sciences, engineering, business administration, education, and so on. The emergence of China as a major factor in world affairs increasingly affects our country. What are the implications of China's rise, both for the Chinese people and for us? That is the central question of this course. To answer it, we will explore China's historical background, its cultural traditions, the beliefs of its leaders, its economic and political systems, the social conditions of its people, and its foreign policy. Guest lecturers will come from UM's distinguished faculty of China specialists. Grades will be based on an hour exam, book report, final exam, and optional paper. Required books will include John Fairbank, The United States and China and James Townsend, The Politics of China. (Oksenberg)

441. Comparative Politics of Advanced Industrial Democracies. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course will be devoted to the analysis of political cleavages, party systems, electoral behavior, ideologies, values, elites, and generational differences in advanced industrial societies, especially in Western Europe and the United States. Particular attention will be devoted to changing conceptions of representation and participation. The course will avoid duplicating courses that focus on the political process and institutions of particular countries or sets of countries. The course is being left open to students with upper-class standing even if they have not taken 100-level courses. Sessions will follow a combined lecture-discussion format. There will be midterm and final exams. A term paper will be required. (Barnes)

444. Government and Politics of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is an intensive survey of Soviet politics and society, designed to provide students with a knowledge of the structure and dynamics of government and politics in the USSR, and an understanding of the major successes and problems of the USSR in politics, economics, and culture. The course begins with consideration of tsarist political culture and how it affected the evolution of the Soviet state, and with a survey of the fundamental tenets of Marxism-Leninism. Against this historical and ideological background, the course then moves to the politics of modernization, analyzes the dynamics of Stalinist totalitarianism and of de-Stalinization, and then shifts to a topical survey of Soviet government and politics today. Subjects treated include institutions, the role of the Party, elite politics, interest groups, nationality problems, political socialization and public opinion, and political dissent and change. Readings and lectures are emphasized, with some films shown. There are midterm and final examinations. A short book review is also required. (Z. Gitelman)

446/Women's Studies 446. Women and Socialism. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course will begin with a survey of the relationship between feminist and socialist ideologies, movements, and leaders. In the main, however, it will examine how women's concerns have been met (or not met) in the socialist systems of the USSR, Eastern Europe, China, Cuba, Vietnam and Korea. Stress will be laid not only on acquiring new information but also on sharpening students' judgment concerning the crucial questions to be asked of the material; for this purpose, the initial discussion of different ideological positions provides an essential framework; and at the end of the course we will return to it. Lectures at the beginning, as much discussion as the class size permits later in the course. Several short papers and one lengthier term project. (Meyer)

452. Israeli Society and Politics. (4). (SS).

Based on the premise that a political system both influences and is influenced by its social context, this course will focus on the dynamics of this relationship. Guided by conceptual themes central to comparative political analysis, the Israeli socio-political system will be analyzed as we look at Zionism, political culture, the party system, political elites and leadership, socialization, religion and politics, multiethnicity within the Jewish sector, the Arab minorities, women, the military, and the Israeli economy. The course will be geared to lectures although it is hoped that class-size will permit structured discussion as well. Students will be responsible for midterm and final examinations as well as a short research paper whose topic will be chosen in concert with the instructor. When possible, guest lecturers will share their special expertise with us. Much of the course reading will be devoted to articles and selected chapters in books. Among readings to be included are selections from the following: Sachar, A History of Israel; Hertzberg (ed.), The Zionist Idea; Fein, Politics in Israel; Aronoff, Power and Ritual in the Israeli Labor Party; and Smooha, Israel: Pluralism and Conflict. (Green)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This course deals with the shifts in superpower relations during the post-1945 period, and, in particular, their effects on the international system. The historical record of détente and confrontation as well as explanations for changes are important. The impact of changes on arms control, disarmament, armaments and arms trade are included. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the relationship for local conflict patterns, conflict resolution, alliance cohesion and internal political developments. European and Third World perspectives on superpower relations are covered as are general problems of measurement and causal explanation. (Wallensteen)

471. The American Foreign Policy Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course focuses on the content, context, and conduct of American foreign policy. Some lectures will deal with generalizations on the subject, but others will embody the case approach. America's experience in Vietnam, for instance, cuts right across the three dimensions cited above and is a practical example of policy in action from Roosevelt to Reagan. Time will be devoted to discussion. During the first period of the course the texts are: Walter LaFeber, America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1980 (be sure to get the fourth edition) and Marian Irish and Elke Frank, U.S. Foreign Policy: Context, Conduct, Content. During the latter period the texts are Stanley Hoffmann, Primacy or World Order: American Foreign Policy since the Cold War and America and the World, 1981, an up-to-date issue of Foreign Affairs which cannot be purchased until the course has started. One short paper will be required late in the course an exercise in the making of national security policy along the lines of a model used in Washington. A midterm and a final will be held. (Fifield)

473. Foreign Policies of the European Powers. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course deals with the foreign policies of NATO and non-NATO member states in Western Europe, emphasizing relations with the superpowers on the one hand and Third World countries on the other. Developments during the post-1945 period are in focus, and the policies of some of the smaller West European states are covered as well, notably those in Northern Europe. Issues concerning alliance membership, alliance status, defense policies, European security matters, aid policies, and views of Middle East questions are central. Some time is devoted to conflict and consensus in U.S.-West European relations. (Wallensteen)

478. International Relations of the Far East. Pol. Sci. 160 and one other course in political science; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the major international developments of East Asia from the perspective of the major and minor powers including the United States, China, Japan, the Soviet Union, and North and South Korea. After a brief historical review of key past events particularly as remembered by decision makers in these countries, the class examines present day problems and current power relationships. From this foundation, the class moves into the major activity of the course a political game in which each student participates as a member of a particular country team.

There is no midterm examination. Instead each student prepares a position paper analyzing what the student's country should do in the context of a hypothetical political game set in the very near future and involving all of the powers in Northeast Asia. This paper is then merged with those of other students through bureaucratic negotiation into a country team position. This sets the game plan for that country, and the last two weeks of the course focus on the interaction among the country teams. A final examination concludes the course.

This course draws on the instructor's seven years of experience with the State Department in Washington and Hong Kong and places particular emphasis on decision making and political interaction among nations. It provides a real-world framework despite the classroom context, with special attention given to the major problems that may confront Northeast Asia during the next ten or twenty years. Course material and content should be readily grasped by any upperclass LSA student although slightly more background reading in history or political science will be necessary for those with no course work in these two areas. (Whiting)

484. The Politics of Disaffection. Two courses in political science including Pol. Sci. 411 or 486; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a course on why people oppose, or support, political incumbents, governments, and regimes. We shall examine a broad set of causes of disaffection, ranging from the motives of those who express it to economic and political factors the disaffected might be unaware of. The political and social consequences of alienation will also be examined. The course will be run as a seminar. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, a term paper which employs the analysis of empirical evidence and a midterm exam. (A.H. Miller)

489. Advanced Topics in Contemporary Political Science. Two 400-level courses in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Poverty and Inequality.
This course covers four topics: (1) the extent and measurement of economic inequality; (2) major theoretical arguments and empirical research on the causes of class, race-based and sex-based inequality; (3) philosophical arguments about conflicts between redistributive policies and other societal goals such as freedom of choice; and (4) discussion and evaluation of national policies aimed at alleviating economic inequality e.g., welfare or food stamps. This course will involve either weekly or biweekly papers. The course will be run as a one-hour lecture, followed by a half-hour discussion period unless size of the class prohibits discussion. (Corcoran)

490. Political Socialization. Pol. Sci. 111, 400, or 486. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on how people learn political beliefs, attitudes, and behavior, throughout the life cycle. It examines the limits of different learning models said to underlie behavior; early learning; the influence of the family, peer group, school, job, organizational memberships, and adult socialization. The relevance of socialization for the political behavior of both elites and the general population is considered. While the literature comes primarily from the United States, cross-national comparisons are examined. Method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Evaluation is based on final exam and optional paper and midterm exam. (Langton)

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Freud and Politics.
In this seminar we will study the Freudian conception of human nature with particular attention to its possible relevance to the understanding of political phenomena. The course will begin with an overview of Freudian psychology, drawing on Freud's Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis, The Interpretation of Dreams, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, and The Ego and the Id. We will then undertake a systematic study of Freud's social psychology, during which we will read Totem and Taboo, Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, The Future of an Illusion, Civilization and its Discontents, Moses and Monotheism, and various shorter works dealing with art and politics. No previous knowledge of Freudian psychology will be assumed; some familiarity with the history of political philosophy would be desirable but is not required. Each student in the seminar will be expected to prepare a brief (fifteen-minute) oral presentation once during the term, introducing the reading for the week. Apart from active participation in seminar discussion, the only other requirement will be to write a term paper of approximately twenty pages. (Schwartz)

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 American Electoral Behavior and Campaign Practices.
This seminar focuses on a variety of topics in the general field of American electoral behavior. The class considers such questions as the following: Have there been changes over time in the characteristics of the American electorate? Is voting rational? What is the impact of campaigning? How useful are pre-election surveys? Students are required to write short papers which discuss assigned readings. There is a take-home examination, and each student is responsible for a brief class presentation designed to stimulate discussion. (Cover)

Section 002 Politics of the Bureaucracy. This course should familiarize students with political and organizational "facts of life" facing policy analysts and managers in the federal bureaucracy. Political analysis matters because public policies are made in systems of widely shared power by participants with diverse goals, only one of which may be policy effectiveness. Organizational analysis matters because public policies are formulated and implemented by large organizations whose behavior is often unexpected. Illustrative material will draw heavily on the recent reform of the federal civil service system. Primary readings will be available at the Undergraduate Library. In addition, books have been ordered through local bookstores and are recommended for purchase. Seminar requirements include one oral presentation, participation in class discussion, examinations, two short papers on topics assigned, and one more extensive paper on a topic chosen by the student and approved by the instructor. (Goldenberg)

Section 003 Problems of Social Inequality. The course will look at social inequality in the U.S. The first part of the course will focus on various theories which have been advanced to explain social, political and economic stratification in the U.S. The second part will look at the condition of life of those who are most socially, politically and economically disadvantaged. Here the particular groups to be studied are laborers, welfare recipients, Blacks and aliens. Student performance will be based on a midterm exam, a paper, and class discussion. Students will be required to present summaries of their research papers to the class. The paper's length will be roughly 20 pages. Any questions may be addressed to Professor Stone at 764-6882 or 764-5513. (Stone)

Section 004 Interest Groups and the Future of American Democracy. The seminar will begin with discussion of general trends toward increased political activity in America during the past thirty years. The rise of public interest groups and the changes in the educational and age profiles of the public will be examined. Several weeks will be devoted to the theory of group formation and maintenance and to estimates of the power and influence of interest groups of different types. The course will conclude with discussions of the future of American democracy. Each student will be expected to write a paper on interest group activity in a given policy area: housing, education, environment, for example; or on groups representing a constituency, such as women, business, or consumers. Several articles and books will be read by all seminar members and each student will be asked to present a report in class on a book about interest groups and its implications for American democracy. Requirements will include the book review, term paper, and a final examination. (Walker)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Comparative Participation and Political Elites.
A senior seminar for advanced concentrators in Political Science. The course is focused on political involvement and elite-mass linkages in modern democracies. We will review the literature on political elites and mass participation, the major theoretical works and the major empirical studies which seek to test these theories. Topics to be discussed: the modes of participation, the variations in cross-national patterns, the social bases and attitudinal correlates of participation, the policy and system consequences of mass participation, particularly the relevance of mass participation and activism for elite behavior. The seminar will draw on research in the U.S., Western Europe, and where possible from Third World countries (such as India). Discussion in a seminar context is the method of instruction. Student reports and seminar participation plus a seminar paper are expected. (Eldersveld)

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