Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161(131). Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, Anthropology 161 serves as an introduction to Anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the concept of evolution and the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human "racial" variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. Three weekly lectures and one discussion section which functions as a fourth lecture hour with occasional quizzes will be conducted as review or question and answer sessions. One midterm and final exam: essay and short answer. Text: Weiss and Mann, Human Biology and Behavior. Closed sections will be reopened after registration. To be admitted to a closed section, students should register in section 020, which is a holding section only (not a wait list). All students registered in the holding section will be placed in existing or new sections at the first class meeting. (Wolpoff)

361(328). Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The biological and cultural determinants of human behavior are the major focus of the course. Evolutionary and ecological theory, together with evidence from the human evolutionary past and from humans' closest living relatives among the primates are used to interpret the differences in behavior among human populations. The lectures include several movies on human and primate behavior. There are two exams and several readings. (Livingstone)

368(322). Primate Social Behavior. (4). (NS).

An introductory lecture course which will offer students knowledge of the primate order and its major divisions, together with a detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be on a number of topics such as the social organization, communication patterns, ecology, and socialization of non-human primates. (Wrangham)

371(451). Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited lectures with class demonstrations. Individualized instruction will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individual's interests and skills. (Wolpoff)

466(566). Fossil Evidence and Evolutionary Theory. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course attempts to apply evolutionary theory to the specifics of human evolution. Both the fossil evidence and that derived from the study of man's closest living relatives will be considered in reconstructing the ecological adaptations that the human species has made in the past. The course grade is based on a midterm and non-cumulative final examination. (Livingstone)

471(305). Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although emphasizing cultural anthropology, Anthropology 101 is a survey introduction to basic principles which unify the four subdisciplines of anthropology: biological anthropology, archaeological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. While it is a basic course for anthropology concentrators, Anthropology 101 also aims at a general audience as the course examines several areas of contemporary public interest as well as areas of interest to social and biological scientists. Course topics include warfare and human aggression; sex roles in cross-cultural perspective; American "pop" culture; counterarguments to assertions of interrelationships between race and intelligence; theories of evolution; ecological perspectives applied cross-culturally to human populations; human evolution as exemplified in the fossil and archaeological record; the origins of civilization; ape communication; and kinship, marriage, politics, and religion in primitive, tribal, civilized, industrial, and underdeveloped societies. There are three weekly lectures; a text and paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. The examinations are objective. Three hourly exams. No final. No papers. (Kottak)

272(141)/Ling. 272. Language in Society. (4). (SS).

This course deals with language and with the use of language within social groups. Its content falls into three parts: (1) The Nature of Language. We will begin with a survey of the nature of human language: differences between animal and human communication, the sounds of language, the organization of grammar, the communication of meaning, and what we can learn by watching children acquire language. (2) Variation and Change. The mid section of the course will deal with the varied forms of language used by different social, ethnic and occupational groups, and how we adjust our language to varied circumstances. We will discuss the social and educational implications of stigmatized dialects such as Black English, and consider language policy in other nations. We will also consider the social forces which cause all languages to change through time. (3) Linguistic Media. The final third of the course will shift from the spoken language to alternative linguistic media: writing, printing, manual (gestures, deaf signing) and telecommunications. The social and psychological implications of each medium will be examined. The course has three lectures and one discussion section each week. There will be two hour examinations and a final. There are no prerequisites except an interest in language and society. (Burling)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

404(438). Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to convey the basic economic, social and cultural features of southeast Asian peoples, in terms of upland as well as lowland populations. Focus will be devoted to how cultural systems articulate society, to questions of economic variation and change, to the persistence of cosmological structures under varying degrees of historical impact, and how continuity of structure and change in organization work together. Readings will cover many different societies with an interest in how certain areal features have had an impact on anthropological theory, and in turn, how certain anthropological approaches have been utilized in ethnographic contexts. A short paper and a final examination are required. (Yengoyan)

411(422)/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 422. (Roberts)

421(428). The Immigrant Community in North American Society. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This is an anthropological approach to the history of later immigration to the U.S. and Canada; the formation, acculturation, and perseverance of immigrant communities; and the nature of ethnic boundaries and interethnic relations in American society. We will examine such significant immigrant institutions as the church, press and radio, fraternal organizations and family. Readings are predominantly monographs dealing with particular ethnic groups, supplemented by a variety of visual materials. There will be a midterm and final exam (both one-hour exams consisting of essay type questions) and a short term paper required. (Lockwood)

423(465). Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course covers the culture area of Western Melanesia with a particular emphasis on New Guinea a large island which contains 1000 distinct cultural groups. Many of these have been brought into contact with western civilization only within the past 15 years, and the area therefore offers unique opportunities for the study of tribal society in a relatively pristine condition and has served as a focus of much of recent anthropological research. The course provides general coverage of the social, political, and economic organization of 4 major sub-areas of western Melanesia and explores a number of additional topics of current research interest, viz. male-female hostility and the definition of sex roles, witchcraft, warfare, economic networks, Big Man system of leadership, and millenarian movements. Lecture format; evaluation is based on term paper and take home exam. (Kelly)

503(583). Japanese Society and Culture. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

A basic introduction to postwar Japanese culture. The course will develop a perspective from which to contrast and compare a wide variety of present day Japanese social organizations. The focus is on culture viewed as interaction, communication and meaning. We will develop the cultural perspective through case analyses of small-scale organization of household groups and network systems. We will then contrast and compare these smaller organizations with medium and large-scale business enterprises; government, bureaucracy, and business networks, and large-scale "new" religious organizations. Finally, we will consider some of the by-products of industrialization and some non-mainstream aspects of Japanese society including illness and healing practices, pollution problems, the Buraku and Korean minorities, and the situation of women. The course format will be lecture-discussion with class participation encouraged. Course requirements include readings, 2 short papers and a final, essay exam. (Bachnik)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

327(223). Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (4). (SS).

In this course students read a number of classic ethnographies and write four comparative essays on them. About 13 of the lectures and all of the recitation sections deal with these readings or with the general historical background of the books. The readings and assigned essays are selected so as to allow the students themselves to draw comparisons and deduce the trends in theoretical development. The other 23 of the lectures range over a variety of topics such as sex roles, swidden agriculture, witchcraft, and personality and culture. Anthropology 327 is particularly well suited to anthropology concentrators, but anyone who has had Anthropology 101 is free to take it. Anthropology 222 and 327 cover much of the same material, but students must have had Anthropology 101 in order to elect 327. (Kelly)

352(315)/RC Soc. Sci. 352. Social Perspectives: Cross-Cultural Study of Women. One social science course or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See RC Social Science 352. Also jointly offered with Women's Studies 345. (Larimore)

398(498). Honors Course in Anthropology for Ethnologists. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.

Cultural anthropology students in the Honors Program undertake an individual senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students will do their work with an ethnologist whose interests are close to their own. Students who are interested in the senior Honors program in ethnology should consult with the cultural anthropology Honors advisor, Professor Carroll. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participation in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

426(449). Principles of Anthropology. Junior standing. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 222. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (3). (SS).

This is a lecture/discussion style course. It is an introduction to the breadth and variety of the discipline of anthropology. The course will touch on all of the major subdisciplines of Anthropology: cultural, linguistic, archaeological, and physical. The theoretical models, methodologies, and inter-relationships of the subdisciplines will be discussed. The course will present the diversity of human culture throughout the world from hunting and gathering bands to industrial society. Regular ethnographic film showings will supplement lectures and readings. For comparison purposes, the course will focus on specific themes such as religion, kinship, and sex roles in different cultures. The course is intended for students with no prior background in Anthropology. It will stress the ways in which Anthropology can be applied to other disciplines and to the professions according to the career goals of class members. Evaluation will be based on two essay exams and a short term paper. Readings include a series of short, descriptive monographs, and theoretical articles. (Johnson)

431. American Kinship. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

The main contours of an anthropological (cultural and 'cross cultural') approach to the study of kinship, marriage, and the family will be presented in lectures, discussed in class, and pursued on an individual (or small group) basis by students, who will present reports on their investigations. Enrollment is limited. (Carroll)

437(461). Anthropology and Economic Systems. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course reviews some of the main issues in economic anthropology, using both case studies and theoretical writings. The purpose is to explore the differences between industrial and preindustrial societies. Topics will include technological/ecological limitations on production, the social organization of production, modes of exchange and distribution, factors in economic decision-making, innovation and change. Materials will cover hunter/ gatherer societies, simple agricultural societies, pre-capitalist complex State societies, and the peasant sector in modernizing countries. The course format will consist of lectures and discussion. Students will be asked to write one long paper (about 20 pages) on a topic of their choice and to make a brief oral presentation in class. (Diamond)

495(474). Cultural Resource Management. Anthropology 101 or 282, concentration in natural resources, or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Although the scholarly aims of research carried out under C.R.M. laws are broadly consistent with history, folklore, architecture and anthropology as academic disciplines, the investigations themselves are constrained by regulations, statutes, and bureaucracies of national, state and local scope.

This course will explore the relationships between governmental rule- making and organization on the one hand and archaeology and historic preservation on the other. To this end Federal and selected state statutes and the rules and procedures stemming therefrom will be examined. Noteworthy projects and publications which have resulted from legally mandated environmental impact research will be analysed. (Ozker)

529(511). Recent Ethnological Theory. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

An appraisal of theoretical and analytic issues in anthropological thought within the past forty years. The course, through lectures and class discussions, will cover developments in contemporary British social anthropology, the question of cultural evolution and materialism, structuralism in anthropology and linguistics, interpretation and hermeneutics in anthropology and the humanities, and the meaning and impact of the culture concept in regards to behaviorism. Issues and problems will be analysed both in terms of theoretical arguments and a selective reading of ethnography. Open to seniors (anthropology and non-anthropology concentrators), but it is recommended only to those with a solid background in anthropology. (Yengoyan)

552(522). Women in Traditional and Modernizing Societies. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is concerned with the roles and status of women in societies at different levels of socio-economic development. It deals with sex roles in hunter/gatherer societies, subsistence farming economies, and in peasant and post-peasant societies as well as with women in the modern industrial sector. The course is open to advanced undergraduates and to graduate students. At least one introductory course in cultural anthropology is required as a prerequisite. The course is given partly as a lecture course, with the last 1/3 of the term devoted to presentation of student papers. All students are required to write a research paper and give an oral presentation on it: grades are based on that requirement plus participation in discussion of the weekly readings. Assigned texts are Reiter, R. Toward an Anthropology of Women, Rosaldo and Lamphere Women, Culture and Society with other assigned readings on reserve. (Diamond)

554(542). Structuralist Approaches to the Analysis of Praxis. Concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

We will begin with an examination of core texts which present basic concepts shaping structuralist thought. Once familiar with the approach, we will go on to examine its implications as these have been developed by "post-structuralist" thinkers. Stress will be on the insights to be derived from an application of the structuralist method to the analysis of social action. This term I will be particularly interested in delineating the concept of the subject of the self as it appears in structuralist and post-structuralist texts. Levi-Strauss, Foucault, Lacan, Devita and Culler will be among the authors we will read. Evaluation will be based on class participation and a term paper on a topic developed by the student in consultation with me. (Roberts)

Linguistics

578(543)/Ling. 543. Field Seminar in Sociolinguistics. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This term the sociolinguistics field seminar will give students the opportunity to design and carry out individual field projects in sociolinguistic variation. The seminar will serve as a forum for discussing projects, sharing knowledge and experiences that stem from them, and for investigating related technical and theoretical issues. Students must meet with the instructor before the first meeting of the seminar to define their projects. (Eckert)

Archaeology

386(332). Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course takes an evolutionary perspective on the early civilizations of Mesoamerica, the Andes, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. Our basic concern will be: how and why did the cultures that we know as Maya, Aztec, Inca, Sumerian, Hindu, and Chinese develop from simple beginnings through a series of successive stages to levels of impressive social complexity and artistic sophistication? We will consider how archaeologists infer political, economic, and religious behavior from the non-perishable remains of these prehistoric societies. There will be an attempt to define general developmental processes common to all the situations we examine. In conclusion, we will discuss some implications for our own society of the rise and decline of these early civilizations. No special background is required. Instruction will be primarily lecture. Student evaluation will be on the basis of two take-home exams. The course text will be R.J. Wenke, Patterns in Prehistory, Oxford Univ. Press. (Parsons)

387(487). Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).

The course will trace the development of North American Indian cultures north of Mexico from the first entry of big game hunters into the New World 10,000 to 15,000 years ago through the origins of agriculture and the appearance of the first sedentary farming villages to the emergence shortly before European contact of complex socially stratified political systems The course will focus especially on the Eastern U.S. and the American Southwest. Emphasis will be given to the importance of the prehistoric record for understanding Native American cultures at the time of contact, and to the value of historic and ethnographic descriptions for understanding the past. 3 hourly exams and final; lecture with discussion. (Speth)

397(497). Honors Course in Anthropology for Archaeologists. Permission of instructor. Open to seniors with approval of the Honors concentration adviser. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course sequence is divided into two parts. During the first term, students meet together once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. These sessions provide background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors adviser may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis adviser. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

582(518). Archaeology II. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is for senior concentrators and graduate students with permission of instructor. It introduces theories of the origin of agriculture, the development of ranked and stratified societies, and the origin of states and empires. Exemplary data from Mesoamerica, the Central Andes and Mesopotamia are used to test these theories. (Parsons)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

497(437). Museum Research Techniques. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

Anthropology 496 is offered in the Fall Term, 497 in the Winter Term. Content of both courses is the same. These courses are intended to give the student an introduction to the principles of museum management, policies, and practices. In conjunction with this introduction, individual instruction and experience is offered on the recording, cataloging, care and preservation, and analysis of collections of material culture. There will be 1 hour of lecture per week, with the remaining time being devoted to work with museum curators or graduate research assistants working in the museum with the collection. Students who elect this course for a second time prepare public exhibits of objects based on anthropological concepts and themes. For each credit hour elected, 3 hours participation are required. There is a text and some reserve reading. Grades are based on lecture requirements, examinations and directed laboratory work. Emphasis will be placed on the nature of museum work within a research framework. (Ford)

499(306). Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor; for undergraduates only. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.


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