Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

361. Gods, Men, and History in the Ancient Near East: Evolution and Transformations of Society and Culture in the Lands of the Fertile Crescent. Part I: From the Beginnings to Alexander the Great (ca. 5000-323 B.C.) Sophomore standing. (4). (HU).

This specifically undergraduate course attempts a combination of approaches to Ancient Near Eastern History, one which stresses cultural and intellectual concerns against the backdrop of necessary political history. Beginning with the decipherment of the first writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the study explores the first organizations of human life and activity in recorded history. The course is as much interested in "capturing" the human perspectives of the era (3000-323 B.C.) as in setting in order consecutive events. We shall be looking at politics, religion, subsistence issues, literature and world-views of ancient Semitic peoples. The course requires no previous background, and is introductory in nature. It will be taught through a combination of lecture and discussion techniques. Grading in the course will be based on two papers of about six pages each, and final examination. Texts will include a collection of paperbacks, such as: S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians; A.L. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia; John Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt; and Frankfort, Wilson, and Jacobsen, Before Philosophy. (Orlin)

365. Using the Iranian Past on the Road to Revolution. (3). (HU).

In addition to introducing students to Iranian history, the course will deal with the issues which have been used in the modern debate over the meaning of the past and its importance for the future. It will sample a variety of viewpoints taken by Iranian scholars and intellectuals, such as those of the liberal nationalists, the monarchical nationalists, the Muslim revolutionaries, the Marxists and the Western orientalists, during a period of colonialism and domination by the great powers. The course will be organized into lectures and discussions of readings from these different viewpoints. There will be occasional movies, as well as slides and tapes from the media. There will be midterm and final exams, plus either a paper or a series of critical book reviews. Materials to be purchases will take the form of a course pack and, possibly, a modestly priced text. (Luther)

397, 398. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3 each). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

This course is an independent study reading course which must be supervised by a Near Eastern Studies faculty member. It is normally taken by a student who would like to study some aspect of a subject within a course already taken in further detail. Arrangements for the course are made directly with the faculty member.

446(346). Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literary figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials in English translation are reviewed wherever possible and discussions relate particularly to genre development and external influences on the literatures of the modern Near East. (Stewart-Robinson)

471/Hist. 441. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (HU).

Survey of political, social and economic developments in the Near East, AD. 900-1300, with special emphasis on the causes and consequences of the crusader and Mongol invasions. (Ehrenkreutz)

474/Hist. 443. Modern Near East History. (4). (SS).

See History 443. (Mitchell)

480. History of Ancient Religions. (3). (Excl).

This course is based upon a "field theory" concerning the nature of religious systems, which always are a complex of a value system community, a system of communication, a varying range of observable functions, and usually a history. The relationships between and among these various factors are examined with particular reference to the ancient Near East, where all of the Western religious traditions originated. No particular background is required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. It is intended as an experience in depth in understanding value systems in civilized societies how they interact, develop, and frequently enough have perished along with the cultures that held to them. Student evaluation will be on the basis of midterm and final exams. There is no text, but primary sources will be studied in translation, especially from Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, and from the Bible. Classes will be a combination of lecture and discussion. (Mendenhall)

488. Traditional Islamic Law and Legal Theory. (3). (HU).

This course is a broad, general survey on the nature, content, and historical development of Islamic law and legal theory in Muslim civilization up to the present day. The course treats the development of various schools of Islamic law both Sunni and Shi'i and it goes into a number of issues of great importance today: the role of women, constitutional and political dimensions of the law, economic theory, criminal law. Because of the central importance of Islamic law in Islamic civilization, this course offers essential background for understanding the contemporary world. There are no prerequisites for the course. Students will be graded on the basis of two examinations, a final exam, and a critical book report on a book the student selects which is pertinent to the course. The course is essentially a lecture course, but discussion is greatly encouraged. Readings for the course are available in course pack and are taken from a variety of sources; there is no text. (Abd-Allah)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LSA Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," "with high Honors," or "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201, 202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent is prerequisite to 202. (3 each). (FL).

An introduction to the language of the Hebrew Bible for the student with no background at all in Hebrew: presentation of grammatical material, vocabulary and exercises in the texts adapted for class use. (Schramm)

282/Rel. 282. Letters of Paul in Translation. (3). (HU).

Fully one-fourth of the New Testament is traditionally ascribed to the Apostle Paul. Though all of his writings are cast in the form of letters, they range from intimate personal confessions through programmatic discussions of church structure and practice to closely reasoned theological treatises. In them, we observe the development of concepts which dominate Western thought. We trace the emergence and early form of the church. And we come to know a man who combined brilliance and intellectual energy with deep personal piety. After introductory lectures on New Testament history and chronology and problems of disputed authorship, we will treat the epistles in the order in which they are likely to have been written. We will correlate each with the narrative of Paul's life in Acts, and discuss in detail passages which illustrate the development of the Apostle's thought on selected subjects. Required readings include the New Testament books of Acts through Philemon (in English translation), a course pack, and F.F. Bruce, Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a midterm, a final, and a paper or project. (Parunak)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101, 102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-4 each). (FL). May be elected for a total of four credits.

Arabic 102 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Course Objectives : This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of contemporary modern standard Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and using the Arabic dictionary. Texts : (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Arabic Phonology and Script by E. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction by McCarus et al. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. (McCarus)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

Arabic 402 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Arabic 402 is a continuation of Arabic 401. Again the course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. Passages in Arabic are translated sometimes with and sometimes without the use of a dictionary. There are also dictionary practice drills which are intended to aid vocabulary acquisition and discussion of specific morphological problems based on extracts taken from Arabic newspapers. This is an intensive course which meets eight hours a week. With the aim of achieving a practical command of spoken modern standard Arabic, there is an application of the fundamentals of grammar through drill sessions with a native speaker two hours each week. In order to develop a command of written Arabic, students produce (in Arabic) weekly summaries, commentaries, and composition. Arabic 402 is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for students who expect to learn the language for use in related fields. Weekly quizzes, Midterm and Final. (Abdel-Massih)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

403, 404. Arabic of the Communications Media. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2 each). (Excl).

Arabic 404 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

This course covers the language of the Media: Radio-TV and Newspapers. Classroom discussions are based on reading Arabic Newspapers such as Al-Ahram and Al-Akhbar and on radio broadcasts from various Arab countries with emphasis on Radio Cairo. Classes are conducted in educated spoken Arabic. Aims at practical mastery of Spoken Modern Standard Arabic. (Translations, discussions in Arabic, commentaries in Arabic, summaries, comprehension composition.) Weekly assignments, Midterm and Final. (Abdel-Massih)

413, 414. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 202 or 232; or permission of instructor. (3 each). (Excl).

Arabic 414 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Primary concentration is on phonology and morphology of Egyptian Arabic as well as on vocabulary buildup and sentence structure. (Drilling by a native speaker.) Then students will concentrate on conversations and cultural texts in transcription, with extensive oral drills. Aim: to achieve fluency in this dialect of Arabic. (Stories, cultural, ethnic, and historical texts, customs and habits of the Egyptian people as well as life and thought in Egypt.) Weekly assignments, midterm and final exams. (Abdel-Massih)

434. Arabic Historical Linguistics and Dialectology. Arabic 402 or equivalent or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

Development of Arabic from Proto-Semitic and Proto-Arabic origins to interrelationships of contemporary literary and dialectal forms of Arabic. Classroom procedure: lecture-discussion. Grade based on class participation, homework problems and term paper. (McCarus)

551, 552. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2 each). (HU).

Arabic 551 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

This course presents, for translation, analysis and commentary, works representative of the major Arabic writers of the modern age. The readings, of selected short stories and from novels, demonstrate the recent development in the art of fiction in Arabic; they show how this literature expresses the social and political concern and philosophical orientations of its authors. (LeGassick)

553, 554. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2 each). (HU).

Arabic 554 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

This course introduces the work of major Arab writers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Variable in focus according to the interests of the class, readings are selected for translation, analysis and commentary. The course explores the historical progression in the development of political and societal theories in modern times in the Arab world. (LeGassick)

555. Modern Arabic Poetry. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Readings from major modern Arab poets. Texts will be selected appropriate to the competence in Arabic and to the interests of the class. Discussion will explore problems of syntax and interpretation, and the philosophical, societal and political orientations of contemporary Arabic poetry. (LeGassick)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201, 202. Elementary Persian. (4 each). (FL).

Persian 201 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Persian is an Indo-European language distantly related, and grammatically similar to English, thus it is ideally suited to fulfilling the foreign language option while at the same time opening insights into one of the leading Near Eastern cultures. Persian 201/202 are designed to develop a working knowledge of Contemporary Standard Persian. The student is systematically introduced to the sound and writing systems and the grammar of Persian and an active vocabulary of some 1000 items. There is equal emphasis on listening and speaking, reading and writing. The language of the classroom will be increasingly Persian. By the end of the year, many students are able to conduct simple conversations and write brief compositions on a variety of topics. The textbook used is newly developed, covering a large variety of topics, accompanied by tapes. Quizzes are given intermittently; in addition there will be a 2-hour examination at the end of the term. Textbooks: Modern Persian. Elementary Level. Windfuhr-Tehranisa, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1979. (Windfuhr)

401, 402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4 each). (FL).

Persian 402 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

This sequence is designed to lead the student to the near independent study of Persian. Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: Modern Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I, Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Windfuhr)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201, 202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent is prerequisite to 202. (4 each). (FL).

Turkish 202 is offered Winter Term, 1982. This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elementary Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of Modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, Turkish for Foreigners. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. (Stewart-Robinson)

401, 402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent is prerequisite to 401; 401 or equivalent is prerequisite to 402. (4 each). (FL).

Turkish 402 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Comprehension, oral and written expression will be developed with stress on facility in reading Turkish. Special needs of the students as to subject matter will be taken into consideration. There will be a midterm and a final examination; evaluation will also include class performance. Required text: G.L. Lewis, Turkish. (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (HU).

Part of sequence in required language courses for majors, M.A. and Ph.D. candidates. The objective is to continue to develop comprehension ease in modern Turkish through the reading of the literary products of modern Turks. Recitation type course includes reading, translation, and discussion of content and style. Quizzes and a final exam are required. The texts are: A. Tietze, Turkish Literary Reader; and specially selected xeroxed material. (Stewart-Robinson)

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