Romance Languages and Literatures

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the middle of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (45 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Students with previous French study in high school are not permitted to enroll in sections 001-006.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 2-3 years in high school) whose proficiency is not yet sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves with a rapid pace, covering about 60 per cent of the French 101 material by mid term, and about 60 per cent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 per cent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

122. Elementary: Alternate. French 121 or equivalent and permission of department. (3). (FL).

This course is part of the alternate first-year sequence 121-122-123. The first-year material, covered in 101-102, is spread over three consecutive terms beginning with fall term. The course objectives and method of instruction are the same as in the regular first-year sequence. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Special permission by the Department is required to enroll in the sequence 121-122-123. (Contact persons: Neu, Mahler, or Hagiwara)

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Section 001.
French 206 is an informal mini-course with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Pass-Fail only, determined on the basis of attendance and participation in classroom activities.

230. Intensive Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 112, 231, or 232. (8). (FL).

This course combines the work of French 231 and 232 in a single term. Its basic objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 231/232. The same amount of grammar is covered, but reading assignments are about 20 per cent less than in French 231 and 232 combined. Classes meet twice daily, four times per week, in sections of 20-25 students. Materials of French 231 are covered by mid term, and those of 232 by the end of the term. The nature of homework is similar to that of 231/232, but the amount of weekly assignment is 80 per cent more than either course. There are weekly quizzes, midterm and final examinations, as well as a speaking test and an outside reading test. The final examination is identical to that given in French 232.

231. Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track.
The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. In addition, French 231 has a speaking test, and 232, an outside reading test, both given toward the end of the term.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track:
see French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one term. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the term students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward mid term students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 18-20 students. They meet four times per week until mid term, and twice per week thereafter (supplemented by individual conferences with the instructor on outside reading). There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and attendance and participation in classroom activities determine the Pass/Fail grades.

325. Practical French Phonetics. French 232 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This course is designed to help students improve their pronunciation of French. A brief theoretical overview of vowel and consonant systems, syllable structure, intonation, liaison, and "mute" will be included, but the majority of class time will be spent on auditory discrimination of sounds and pronunciation exercises. Group and individual corrections will be given. Students will take a diagnostic "test" during the first week and suggestions for specific review will be given to each student. Various styles of spoken French will be examined: poetic, formal, and casual. Materials will be available on tape in the language lab for students to practice on their own. Classes meet three times a week and are taught in French. Regular attendance and participation are required. Students must also demonstrate improvement on the end-of-term pronunciation test, ability to use the International Phonetic Alphabet, and adequate pronunciation in the recitation of a short literary text. (Neu)

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purposes of this course are to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is thoroughly reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits students to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French, and to increase their understanding of French culture. Through weekly compositions students are able to make creative use of the readings and of the grammatical review. Outside readings include two contemporary French novels. Students are expected to write a short paper on one of the two novels and to make an oral presentation on the other one. Students are also required to choose scenes from an assigned contemporary French play and to act them out in class along with other students. Video taped interviews, French popular songs, magazine articles, films, and the like are used to stimulate conversation. Classes meet three times each week in sections varying between ten and fifteen students. The class is taught in French, and all sections take three common examinations.

362. Advanced French. French 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop facility in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture. Through an analysis of recent interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties and to the correction of common mistakes which are revealed through the weekly compositions. Course emphasis, however, is on conversation and discussion. Two contemporary novels are assigned for outside reading. Students are expected to write a short paper on one of the novels and to make an oral presentation on the other one. Dramatic reading of two contemporary French plays is done by students in class. Recordings and video tapes are used in class in an effort to develop an understanding of spoken French of various levels of difficulty. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations.

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The primary objective of this course is to develop the skills necessary for writing correct French. This is done through intensive writing, and students are expected to complete a two to three-page composition each week. The course also includes a grammar review, some translation from English to French, in-depth reading of literary and journalistic passages, and workshop-style sessions centered on improvement/correcting of compositions. This course is a junior and senior level course and is elected primarily but not exclusively by French concentrators. The final course grade is based on a final examination (25%), a midterm (10%), weekly compositions (35%), and class participation (30%). The examinations are combination essay and short answer. (Bilezikian)

372. Problems in Translation. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a course in translation both from French to English and from English to French. The aim of the course is to help students develop a sound method of translation, with proper attitudes toward the task and some knowledge of the tools of the trade. For approximately the first two-thirds of the term, emphasis is on French-to-English translation, while in the last third of the term the primary activity is English to French translation. Some time is also devoted to a discussion of the theory of translation as theoretical problems arise in the rendering of assigned texts. Primary emphasis is on translation of magazine and newspaper articles, although at least one hour every other week is devoted to commercial translation (business letters). If the progress of the class is sufficiently rapid, more sophisticated literary translations will be introduced. Students will be evaluated on the basis of oral work in class, homework and quizzes (75%), and on a final examination (25%). (Mermier)

Civilization

385. Civilisation française, Continued. French 361. (3). (HU).

The first half of the term will be devoted to a comparative analysis of the major French national and regional newspapers, with special emphasis on the political slant of each of these papers, i.e., their respective presentation of a single event, whether political, social, cultural, pertaining to sports or to the average French individual's daily life. During the second half of the term, we will set up a workshop made up of groups of 3 to 4 people. Using what we have learned in the first half of the term, each group will create its own newspaper in French, adopting the political orientation and its corresponding linguistic style which will have been determined beforehand. Each newspaper will cover real as well as fictitious events, but in a French framework. Within the group, each participant will have an opportunity to concentrate on one or two sections of the newspaper. All classes will be conducted in French. Grades will be based on students' creative aggressiveness, imagination and progress made in the language, both spoken and written. There will be three papers aside from the student "newspapers," which will count as a final examination. No more than 18 people may enroll. Course pack; Les Journeaux francais, M. Blondel, Hachette-Civilization; Explorer le Journal, D. Thibaut, Hatier (Profil Formation), Trouvez le Mot juste, A. Rougerie, ed. (Gabrielli)

417. French Culture-An Anthropological Approach. French 362 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is designed for students who are fluent in the French language but are still very much puzzled by the communicational habits of the French. The emphasis of the course is not on the description and study of various French institutions, but rather on the understanding of French culture, i.e., of the highly redundant features and presuppositions of a (somewhat) integrated communicational system. Communication among members of any group depends upon a large body of learned, implicit, shared assumptions. When these assumptions are not shared, there is breakdown of communication - with the ensuing misunderstandings and hurt feelings all too familiar to immigrants, tourists, and visitors. Cultural competence can, however, be acquired by foreigners through the practice of non-judgmental, cultural analysis. The aim of this course is to familiarize students with this type of analysis. The first half of the term will be devoted to reading and discussing selected interpretative literature about the French. The second half of the term will be devoted to exploring certain aspects of French culture through the analysis of various primary texts. By "text" is meant any sort of primary material which will lend itself to cultural analysis films, interviews, ads, literary texts, gestures, humor, rules and regulations, TV programs, TV commercials, art, cuisine, newspaper and magazine articles, folktales, etc.

Grades will be given on the basis of three short papers and two oral presentations. Class participation is essential. Students should have no difficulty understanding spoken and written French, but may use English in their papers and presentations if their field of specialization is not French. The class will be conducted in French. (Carroll)

Literature

386. Themes in French Literature and Culture. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Business French.
This course is designed to familiarize you with the language of business transactions in France. It will tackle both spoken and written commercial French. The course-pack will feature the story and life of a fictitious company, EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with such aspects of the business world as: banking, advertising, exports, claims and disputes regarding products, staff and hierarchy, orders, accounting, etc. It will include a guide to letter-writing that will stress the formalism of written French with regard to business. Most chapters of the course-pack will contain written samples and exercises relevant to the context. The development of EUROSPORT will need to be constantly activated and used as a reference to facilitate the creation of vivid and adequate situations in class, through simulations and other techniques. Occasionally, there will be translation exercises. It is important to note that this course is by no means a course on French economy or on French commercial law. One short paper every three weeks, one final exam, quizzes. (Gabrielli)

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature. The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. French 387, 388, and 389 are offered Winter Term, 1982. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and the possibility of twentieth century re-readings that bestow new interpretations on these "classics." The class will combine lecture and discussion, with the instructor providing necessary background material to facilitate student participation and interpretative activity. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, Le Cid, Molière, Le Misanthrope, Racine, Phedre, LaFontaine, Fables (xeroxed selections), Beaumarchais, Le Barbier de Seville, Prevost, Manon Lescaut, Voltaire, Candide, Micromegas. Grades will be based on four short papers and class participation. There will be no midterm or final examination. The course will be conducted in French. (O'Meara)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course provides an introduction to four of the principal writers of nineteenth-century French literature. We shall study the themes of solitude, ambition, and society in novels by Flaubert and Zola, and in a Maupassant story. We shall also read poems from Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du Mal. Emphasis will be placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty-five pages in a novel with "close reading" of some four or five paragraphs. These pages will then be discussed in class. Students will be required to write some six papers in French of two or three pages in length. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grade will be based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Gray)

410. Le cinéma français. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course is conducted in French and is based upon seven or eight French films to be shown in class. The list usually includes two or three classic films from the 1930's (Vigo, Clair, Renoir, etc.), two or three "new-wave" films from the late fifties and early sixties (Truffaut, Resnais, Godard, etc.) and a modern film. Lectures usually concern directors' interests and technical innovations, while discussions concern the application of directors' theories to the particular films seen. Students are encouraged to see and discuss other French films that are being shown in Ann Arbor. Work includes a midterm examination, a course paper and a final examination (concentrators are expected to complete this written work in French). The course seeks to improve students' sensitivity to motion pictures in general, to improve their ability for intelligent viewing of films made in the French cultural context, and to provide insights into the contribution of French directors to cinematographic art. Readings from Eisenstein, Mitry, and other critics and theoreticians, as well as from selected film scripts. (Nelson)

430. Theory and Methodology of Literary Criticism. French 387, 388, and 389, or one literature course at the 400 level. (3). (HU).

Le cours de cette annee sera developpe a partir de lectures collectives de textes critiques portant sur la litterature francaise et parus au cours des trois dernieres annees dans des revues representatives de l'evolution recente des diverses disciplines critiques. Chaque texte sera choisi en fonction de ses qualites propres, mais aussi en fonction de sa situation par rapport a telle ou telle theorie qu'il donnera alors l'occasion d'examiner (poetique, semiotique, psychanalyse, reader-response, etc.). Une partie des articles retenus seront rediges en anglais et publies dans des revues americaines. Le but principal du cours sera de permettra aux etudiants d'acquerir une competence de lecteurs d'essais critiques, afin de les aider a mieux tirer profit des publications actuelles pour leurs propres recherches afin aussi de mieux maitriser leur proper travail critique. (Pierssens)

437/MARC 437/RC Language 437. French Culture and Literature in the Middle Ages with Visual Assistance. French 387, 388, or 389, or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is an introductory course open to graduate and undergraduate students. The aim of the course is to survey the main literary trends of the period against a living visual background, that of the life and civilization of the Middle Ages. The philosophy of the course is that literary creation in order to be appreciated and understood must be viewed as part of the whole atmosphere of life. Slides are used to depict the nature of life at the major points of evolution of the Middle Ages: the higher Middle Ages; the Age of Faith; the Feudal period; the Courtly Age; the Age of chivalry; the Golden Age: XIIth and XIIIth centuries; the XIVth and XVth centuries, periods of change. In class, short representative texts are discussed and linked to the correspondent visual representations. Each aspect of literature is perceived as a part of the civilization of the time, as a moment of the evolution of life and mores. Short exposes and a term paper are assigned. No previous knowledge of the Middle Ages or of Old French is required. Winter 1982 will be dedicated to the Courtly world and particularly to the lyrics of Trouveres and troubadours. The text will be: Frederick Golden, Lyrics of the Troubadors and Trouveres, Anchor Books (AO-72). (Mermier)

451, 452. Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

French 452 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Programme; Louis Aragon, Le paysan de Paris (L'experimentation surrealiste dans le domaine de la fiction), Albert Camus, Noces (Un existentialisme mediterraneen), Marguerite Duras, Le ravissement de Lol V. Stein (L'inconscient, la femme et la fiction), Tony Duvert, Paysage de fantaisie (Une nouvelle avant-garde), Jean-Paul Sartre, Les mots (ecriture et philosphie sur le mode autobiographique), Claude Simon, Histoire (Un chef-d'oeuvre du Nouveau Roman), Textes Poetiques choisis (de Bonnefoy a Deguy). (Pierssens)

481, 482. Literature of the Eighteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

French 482 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

This course will serve as an introduction to various types of French eighteenth century narrative prose. It will be a combination lecture/discussion class in which we shall study samples of prose forms including the novel, letter, autobiography, essayistic history, and sociology. All works, whether fictional or non-fictional, will be studied primarily as texts and the art of their construction and expression will be closely examined. We shall also consider the "artfulness" of prose, i.e., how carefully constructed texts are able to transmit certain messages, reflecting and accomplishing individual, political, and social aims. Special attention will be paid to the relation between fictional and non-fictional genres in the works of the philosophes. Texts will be chosen from the following: Diderot, Jacques le Fataliste, Laclos, Les Liaisons dangereuses, Montesquieu, L'Esprit des lois (selections), Rousseau, Confessions (selections), Reveries d'un promeneur solitaire, Voltaire, Romans et contes; Essai sur les moeurs (selections); Lettres philosophiques. The course will be conducted in French. Each student will present one oral report and will have the option of writing three medium length papers or one 15-20 page term paper. Non-majors may elect to submit their work in English. (O'Meara)

487, 488. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

This course, conducted in French, will focus on those writers who emerge around 1660, on the classical generation per se. We shall examine Boileau's critical position in an effort to determine the nature of French classicism and will then proceed to read four of Racine's tragedies, viewing them in the light of recent critical commentaries (Barthes, Goldmann, Odette de Mourgues). In addition we shall study La Fontaine's Fables, Bossuet's Oraisons funebres, and La Bruyere's Caracteres as examples of classical poetry, prose and social criticism. Careful reading of texts under discussion is expected. Students will be required to write three papers in French of three or four pages in length. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, more especially, for content. The final grade will be based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. (Gray)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Speroni and Golino, Basic Italian through Chapter 20 is generally covered. Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers Speroni and Golino, Basic Italian from Chapter 21 to the end of the text plus selections from a reader. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination.

107. Italian for Voice Majors. Open only to students enrolled in the School of Music. (4). (Excl).

An elementary Italian course stressing basic comprehension and pronunciation of the language, especially as it is used in musical literature (libretti, etc.).

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Italian 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Italian 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

A continuation of Italian 111, taught on a tutorial basis. Advanced reading of critical materials in the student's field of specialization, designed to teach translating skills. Satisfactory performance in Italian 112 fulfills the graduate language requirement at the basic level (Rackham interprets this as a grade of B).

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

388. Italian Literature, Seventeenth-Nineteenth Century. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).
Italian Literature, Seventeenth to Nineteenth Century.
Examines the major currents in Italian literature, within a European context, from the seventeenth century to the First World War, concentrating on the original contribution of Italy's greatest poets, dramatists, and novelists to Western literature. Some attention may be given to the importance of the Italian literary tradition in the development of modern opera from Monteverdi to Verdi, depending on the interest and preparation of the students. (Marsh)

390. Dante in Translation. A knowledge of Italian is not required. Not open to Italian concentrators. (3). (HU).

Through lectures and slide talks, an introduction is offered to the world of Dante and to his masterpiece, the Divine Comedy, read in the outstanding Ciardi translation. A survey of the culture and history of the later Middle Ages prepares the way for a critical reading of Dante's poetic allegory. Slides of Italy will be used to illustrate the art and civilization of Dante's world as an essential means of understanding this highly visual poet. Some attention will be given to Dante's literary influence in English poetry. Students with some knowledge of Italian will have the opportunity to read excerpts in the original. Course requirements include several short papers, a midterm, and a final examination. (Marsh)

468. Modern Italian Novel. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Representative Italian fiction of the period 1940-1970: primarily, neo-realism and works of the "Secondo Dopoguerra." Lectures and class discussion, short papers and reports. Authors include Vittorini, Moravia, Levi and Calvino. (Olken)

472. Italian Theatre from Alfieri to Pirandello. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Discussions of Pirandello's impact on contemporary theater and his importance as an innovator of the modern stage. Study of his major dramatic works such as Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore and the specifically Pirandellian characteristics of his teatro sul teatro technique. Study of his major novels (Il fu Mattia Pascal) and his short fiction within the context of his theory of humor. The course is conducted in Italian with discussions and occasional summaries in English. (Budel)

475, 476. Dante. Italian 232 or equivalent is prerequisite for 475; Italian 475 is prerequisite for 476. (3 each). (HU).

Study of the Divina Commedia within the context of its diverse figural and allegorical implications and the historical realities of the time. The course is conducted in Italian. Open to both undergraduate and graduate students. (Budel)

485. Directed Reading. May be elected only with permission of concentration adviser in Italian. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

The course will study the rise of the Medici from their beginnings in the Mugnone valley and their impact on the cultural scene in Florence during the fifteenth century from Giovanni di Bicci, Cosimo, Lorenzo il Magnifico to Leo X and Clement VII; the restoration of Medici rule in the sixteenth century from Cosimo I to Gian Gastone, Platonic Academy, San Marco, Orti Oricellari. Firsthand readings from the writings of artists of the time such as Leon Battista Alberti, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo; Ficino, Pico and the discussions on the dignity of man; literary endeavors of Poliziano, Lorenzo il Magnifico, Pulci, and the writings of revolutionaries and reactionaries such as Savonarola and Machiavelli. The course is conducted in English. Open to both undergraduate and graduate students. (Budel)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101, 102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101 is a prerequisite for 102. (4 each). (FL).

Portuguese 102 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Portuguese 102 is an introductory course in the Portuguese language as spoken in Brazil and is designed for beginning language students. The approach is audio-lingual and cognitive with oral and written exercises, weekly examinations. Required text: Ellison et al., Modern Portuguese. (Bernucci)

231, 232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent is prerequisite to 231; Portuguese 231 or the equivalent is prerequisite to 232. (4 each). (FL).

Portuguese 232 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Students will read selected short stories and novels by Brazilian authors, do grammatical exercises, write guided essays and converse in Portuguese. There will be bi-weekly examinations. Texts: Larry King, Para Frente (grammar) and Jorge Amado, Gabriela, Cravo e Canela (novel). (Bernucci)

462. Portuguese Literature from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century. A reading knowledge of Portuguese. (3). (HU).

In this course students will read and discuss major works in Portuguese poetry, drama, and prose fiction of the 17th through 20th centuries, with emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Undergraduates will be graded on their participation in discussions. Graduate students, in addition to their oral duties, will write one short essay. Required texts: William Irmscher, The Nature of Literature. The remaining texts will be ordered at the beginning of the term. (Brakel)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

481/Spanish 481. Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (HU).

See Spanish 481. (Dworkin)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

For students with no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish; composition skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students whose previous study of Spanish did not occur within the preceding two years. Students cover the equivalent of two terms in one; see the descriptions of Spanish 101 and 102 for an indication of general course content and format.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. Spanish 206 may be elected prior to Spanish 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Section 001.
The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week; grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements. (Dvorak)

230. Intensive Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 112, 231, or 232. (8). (FL).

This course covers in one term the same material that Spanish 231 and 232 cover in two terms. Normally, only students with grades of "A" or "B" in first year Spanish (101, 102 or the equivalent) are encouraged to take this course. Students receive eight credit hours, and the class meets two hours per day, four days per week. Arrangements are frequently made for interested class members to meet during the noon hour for informal conversation in Spanish. The course is designed for students whose interest in Spanish goes beyond the level of merely satisfying the foreign language requirement.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100, 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to provide conversation practice in the language structures learned during the first year; to improve the reading ability of students; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, culture, and outlook of Spanish-speaking peoples. Generally a short novel or play is required course reading. The class meets four times a week in sections of approximately twenty students. Short compositions are occasionally required.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. The course centers around discussion in Spanish of selected Spanish and Spanish-American works of literature. The class meets four times a week in sections of approximately twenty students. Compositions are frequently required. All examinations are given by the individual section instructors.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

A continuation of Spanish 111 with more individualized instruction. Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 306 may be elected prior to Spanish 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to acquire the linguistic habits (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. Students share their knowledge with one another, and more advanced students help to maintain the continuity of the course as well as to encourage and to motivate less proficient class members. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. The course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

361, 362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent is prerequisite to Spanish 361; Spanish 361 is prerequisite to 362. No credit granted for 361 or 362 to those who have completed 360. (3 each); III in Ann Arbor: (2 each). (Excl).

Spanish 361 and 362 are offered Winter Term, 1982.

These language courses are the only required courses in the Spanish major. No other study of current linguistic usage can be assumed beyond these two terms, unless the student is a candidate for a secondary school certificate. Consequently these courses are designed to further develop fluency in current Spanish through performance in real situations (or closer to real Spanish situations) and to develop skill in writing expository prose. Spanish 361 takes as its first goal to lay down a firm foundation in the Spanish grammar rules, and to apply them in conversation and composition exercises rather than to memorize them. A general explanation on the formation and combination of the Spanish sentences in undertaken in this section. The study of Spanish style and paragraph construction are presented in Spanish 362. Every attempt is made to insure that the discussions, which usually focus on aspects of Hispanic life, culture, society, politics and literature, are conducted on a high level. Periodic compositions in Spanish (a minimum of six per section) are required in order to improve each student's writing ability. Classes meet three times a week in sections of 10-15 students, and are conducted in Spanish. Because this course sequence is required and taught in several sections by varied personnel, there is a departmental midterm and final grammar examinations. Individual instructors prepare their own quizzes.

481/Rom. Ling. 481. Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (HU).

This lecture course surveys the historical, social, and literary background against which the Spoken Latin of the Iberian Peninsula evolved into Spanish. The emphasis is on the external rather than the internal history (historical grammar) of Spanish. The topics treated include the influence on the development of Spanish of such diverse languages as Basque, Gothic, Arabic, French, Italian, and English. Although the course is taught in English, the ability to read Spanish with ease is essential. There will be a midterm, a final exam, and a written report. English or Spanish can be used for the exams and report. (Dworkin)

Literature

376. Latin American Civilization. Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

This course will examine the development and present state of the cultural area known as Latin America: Spanish America, Brazil, and the American Southwest and urban areas. There will be subsections dealing with language, history, race relations, art, economics, and religion. It will be taught predominately in Spanish, although English will be used. Students will be required to give l in-class presentation and to take two exams (which may be take-homes). Required reading will be: Wolf, Sons of the Shaking Earth; Degler, Neither Black nor White; Paz, El labirinto de la soledad; Amado, Gabriela, Clove and Cinamon; Garcia Marques, Cien anos de soledad; plus a course packet. (Brakel)

381, 382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

Spanish 382 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

Section 001 Historical Survey of Latin American Literature II (20th Century). Covers the main Spanish American contemporary authors in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Asturias, Borges, Carpentier, Mallea, Yanez, Huidobro, Neruda, Vallejo, Paz). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. Second course in the sequence 381-382-463. Conducted in Spanish. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports, (b) midterm exam, and (c) a final examination. The reading list is Jorge Luis Borges, Ficciones; Julio Cortazar, Final del juego; Vicente Huidobro, Poemas articos; Cesar Vallejo, Trilce; Pablo Neruda, 20 poemas de amor. (Goic)

421. The Spanish Mind from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The course offers a panorama of Spanish thought, in its social, literary, and cultural contexts in the periods of the Enlightenment, 19th-century liberalism and romanticism, and 20th-century ideologies and literary trends. A central question is asked: what patterns of thought and value persist in Modern Spain and are manifested in literary texts? In the search for an answer, such issues as artistic freedom, political repression, individualism, national sentiment and character, cultural decay, and social values will be analyzed through textual commentary. Readings are taken from essayists, poets, and novelists. Lectures, class reports, written papers, and a final examination comprise the course format and criteria for grades. Conducted in Spanish. (Ilie)

470. The Spanish Comedia. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the most popular literary genre of the Spanish Golden Age. Representative plays by the most talented authors are read and discussed according to their literary, social and political context. Students are expected to participate actively in these discussions. The work for the course includes reading supporting bibliography, presenting brief reports, writing short papers, and taking a final examination. (Casa)

471, 472. The Modern Spanish Novel. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3 each). (HU).

Spanish 472 is offered Winter Term, 1982.

This course studies the novel as a genre in the twentieth century. Many aspects of nineteenth-century Realism continued into our century as novels sharply critical of political, religious, and other institutions of Spain. Many writers, however, considered Realism an exhausted vein of inspiration, vulgar in its esthetic and trivial in its intellectual content. Experiments in new kinds of novel writing continued up to the great disruption in Spanish life caused by the Civil War. The novel since 1939 explores the human factors behind that catastrophe in stimulating and innovative works of fiction. Conducted in Spanish. (Hafter)

489. Case Studies in Latin American Literature. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

I understand by "conversation about literature" an institutionalized way for intersubjective comprehension of works of art. I understand by "the works of J.L. Borges," what he wrote and published between 1923 and 1970. Although generic division is not the best way to capture Borges' literature, the "conversations" will be organized around (a) Essays; (b) Short story; (c) Poetry; (d) Borges and foreign literature (Anglo American and French criticism). For more details contact the instructor. (Mignolo).


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