Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, Anthropology 161 serves as an introduction to Anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the concept of evolution and the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human "racial" variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. Three weekly lectures and one discussion section which functions as a fourth lecture hour with occasional quizzes will be conducted as review or question and answer sessions. One midterm and final exam: essay and short answer. Texts: Brace and Montagu, Human Evolution; Brace, Nelson Korn and Brace, Atlas of Human Evolution. Closed sections will be reopened after registration. To be admitted to a closed section, students should register in section 020, which is a holding section only (not a wait list). All students registered in the holding section will be placed in existing or new sections at the first class meeting. (Brace)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Text: A.R. Frisancho, Human Adaptation. (Brace)

368. Primate Social Behavior. (4). (NS).

An introductory course which will offer students knowledge of the primate order and its major divisions, together with a detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be on the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, and special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, behavioral development, kinship systems, sexual behavior and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. Three lecture hours and one discussion section weekly. One midterm and one final exam. Required text is Chalmers, Social Behaviour in Primates. (Wrangham)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Wolpoff)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Only Anthropology 399 is offered Winter Term, 1983. Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

Offered during first half of the term (January 6 to February 17) and followed by Anthropology 462. Intermediate-level introduction to human population genetics, emphasizing application of the basic concepts and quantitative methods of population genetics to anthropological data and human population structure. Course grade based on a final examination held on February 17. A study guide serves as basis for examination questions. (Livingstone)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (2). (NS).

This course is offered during the second half of the term (March 1 to April 19) as a sequel to Anthropology 461 although the latter course is not a prerequisite. The course is concerned with the ecological determinants of human genetic variation, and especially with infectious disease as a cause of natural selection. It will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a final examination. (Livingstone)

470. Undergraduate Seminar in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This course is designed to acquaint the students with the central issues in biological anthropology. It consists of readings and discussion with various faculty members on the issues. It is designed primarily for concentrators in Anthropology-Zoology or Biological Anthropology. (Livingstone)

471. Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

564. Hominid Origins. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for biological anthropology concentrators. (3). (NS).

The African apes are the closest living relatives of humanity. This course probes the common ancestry of humans and the apes. Through an examination of the fossil record and discussion of theories from Darwin to the most modern ideas, focus will be on the divergence of the earliest humans and the earliest apes and the characteristics of the earliest humans (Australopithecines). Two exams and a paper are required. Lecture will be mixed with some laboratory work. (Wolpoff)

567. Forensic Anthropology. Anthro. 566. (4). (Excl).

Forensic anthropology is a specialized branch of biological anthropology that applies the methods of skeletal and dental identification and other techniques of physical anthropology to problems of civil and criminal identification. This course is an introduction to the general field of forensic anthropology, with laboratory training in selected methods and techniques, and field visits to crime labs, autopsy, court, and specialized facilities as appropriate. Requirements: primarily a graduate course but open to undergraduates with prerequisites of Anthropology 566 (Osteology) and/or with permission of the instructor. Recommended background: anatomy, osteology, comparative anatomy. Evaluation: student evaluation will be through demonstrated performance and practical tests. Recommended texts: T. D. Stewart, Essentials of Forensic Anthropology, C. C. Thomas, 1979, and W. M. Krogman, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Other selected readings and materials will be referenced. (Snyder)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although cultural anthropology is emphasized, Anthropology 101 is a survey course in which the principles unifying the four sub-disciplines of anthropology (biological anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology and linguistics) are introduced. It is the basic course for concentrators but also aims to provide other students with fresh viewpoints from which to view the social world and its relationship to nature. The topics discussed include theories of evolution, human evolution as known from the fossil and archaeological records, the concept of race, ape communication, language and culture, kinship, marriage and the economic organization of hunters, gatherers and tribal peoples, the place of religion in human life, the origins of civilization, colonialism, and social pathology. There are three weekly lectures. A text and paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. Three hourly examinations are given during the term, the last on the last day of class. No final. (Rappaport)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. (4). (SS).

This course deals with language and with the use of language within social groups. Its content falls into three parts: (1) The Nature of Language. We will begin with a survey of the nature of human language: differences between animal and human communication, the sounds of language, the organization of grammar, the communication of meaning, and what we can learn by watching children acquire language. (2) Variation and Change. The mid section of the course will deal with the varied forms of language used by different social, ethnic and occupational groups, and how we adjust our language to varied circumstances. We will discuss the social and educational implications of stigmatized dialects such as Black English, and consider language policy in other nations. We will also consider the social forces which cause all languages to change through time. (3) Linguistic Media. The final third of the course will shift from the spoken language to alternative linguistic media: writing, printing, manual (gestures, deaf signing) and telecommunications. The social and psychological implications of each medium will be examined. The course has three lectures and one discussion section each week. There will be two hour examinations and a final. There are no prerequisites except an interest in language and society. (Burling)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

424. Peoples and Cultures of Australia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course is focused on providing an understanding of Aboriginal Australian culture with emphasis on how Aboriginals relate to land, how Aboriginal cosmological structures work as part of social structure, and finally the role of myth in integrating Aboriginals to land, to other humans, and to the problems of classification. Selected readings are provided to cover the basic internal variations among Aboriginal cultures and how Aboriginal culture has related to the coming of the European. A short paper and a final examination are required. (Yengoyan)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

327. Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (4). (SS).

In this course students read a number of classic ethnographies and related articles and write comparative essays on them. The readings and assigned essays are selected so as to allow the students themselves to draw comparisons and deduce the trends in theoretical development. Anthropology 327 is particularly well suited for Anthropology concentrators, but anyone who has had Anthropology 101 may take it. (Owusu)

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature and development of law. Social control in societies lacking courts: cultural mechanisms coercive and persuasive (socialization, public opinion, taboo, religious sanctions, etc.). Arbitration as a judicial process. Composition and procedure of courts in preliterate societies. Ordeals and oaths. Criminal and civil law. Responsibility and punishment. Comparison between folk and modern systems of law. Course requirements: four 3-5 page student papers. (Owusu)

352/RC Soc. Sci. 352. Social Perspectives: Cross-Cultural Study of Women. One social science course or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See RC Social Science 352. (Larimore)

359. Workshop in Cultural Analysis. Anthro. 330. (2). (SS).

This course is complementary to Anthropology 330 in that it provides an opportunity to do cultural analysis of familiar materials (from one's own culture) in a small seminar format. Course requirements consist of: (1) a final paper containing data and analysis; (2) a preliminary version of the paper; and (3) a prospectus for the project (early in the term). The materials assembled by each participant will be discussed thoroughly in class, and the methods of analysis will be elaborated upon in detail by the instructor. (Carroll)

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second term of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first term of their senior year. Interested students should consult with Prof. Carroll, the Department Honors Adviser. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. Anthropology 399 is a continuation of Anthropology 398. Both constitute the senior Honors sequence for students who are accepted into the Anthropology-Archaeology Honors Program. Anthropology 399 is devoted to completing an individual Honors research project and to writing and defending an Honors Thesis. (Ford)

426. Principles of Anthropology. Junior standing. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 222. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (3). (SS).

This is a lecture/discussion style course intended for students with no prior background in Anthropology. It is an introduction to the breadth and variety of the discipline and touches on all of the major subdisciplines of Anthropology: cultural, linguistic, archaeological, and physical. The theoretical models, methodologies, and interrelationships of the subdiscipline will be discussed. The course will present the diversity of human culture throughout the world from hunting and gathering bands to industrial society. For comparison purposes, the course will focus on specific themes such as religion, kinship and sex roles in different cultures. It will also stress the ways in which Anthropology can be applied to other disciplines and professions according to the career goals of class members. Ethnographic films will supplement lectures and readings. Readings include a series of short, descriptive monographs, and theoretical articles. Evaluation will be based on two essay exams and a short term paper. (Peletz)

437. Anthropology and Economic Systems. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course reviews some of the main issues in economic anthropology, using both case studies and theoretical writings. The purpose is to explore the differences between industrial and preindustrial societies. Topics will include technological/ecological limitations on production, the social organization of production, modes of exchange and distribution, factors in economic decision-making, innovation and change. Materials will cover hunter/ gatherer societies, simple agricultural societies, pre-capitalist complex State societies, and the peasant sector in modernizing countries. The course format will consist of lectures and discussion. Students will be asked to write one long paper (about 20 pages) on a topic of their choice and to make a brief oral presentation in class. (Diamond)

442/Bot. 404. Ethnobotany. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

Ethnobotany is the direct interaction between human populations and their plant environment. The course describes the many beliefs, attitudes, and uses of plants by people around the world. Specific topics considered are the origins of agriculture, folk botany and classification, plant conservation, foods, beverages, medicines, psychoactive and ritual plants, technology, and contemporary American uses of plants. Examples will be world-wide although American Indian ethnobotany will be emphasized. The course format includes lectures, classroom demonstrations, and films. Student evaluations are based upon papers and examinations. Graduate students and undergraduates conduct separate projects. Students in all colleges will find this course useful for understanding human uses of plants and universal environmental problems and solutions. (Ford)

457. The Film and Other Visual Media in Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This is primarily a course on ethnographic film, although we will also consider and compare the use of still photography, video-tape, and television, as these are relevant to the portrayal of society and culture. Much of class time will be devoted to the viewing and discussion of particular visual materials. There will be one evening session each week, during which we will view 1-2 hours of ethnographic films (these will be open to the public and free of charge). In addition, there will be two class meetings a week devoted to lectures, discussions, and some more visual materials. The text is Heider, Ethnographic Film, plus shorter articles. Class requirements will consist of two essay type exams and a video production. (A workshop to teach all video skills necessary will be arranged.) The class is intended for students of (and those with a serious interest in) both anthropology and film. (Lockwood)

Linguistics

472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

The course will review recent work on anthropology, linguistics, psychology, and philosophy on the relation between "knowledge of language" and other sorts of knowledge (culture). From the perspective of linguistics we will examine whether this distinction constitutes a necessary limit of our inquiry, given the goals of linguistic theory. From the perspective of other fields, especially anthropology, we will look at various approaches which view language (and linguistics) as a model for an investigation of the form and organization of knowledge both in the individual and in society, and, more generally, the relation between knowledge and behavior. Some prior experience with linguistics will be useful as only a brief review of current linguistic practice will be possible in the course. There will be no single textbook but a few short paperbacks will be recommended for purchase along with a course pack of additional readings. Evaluations will be based on a short answer midterm and a more substantial take-home final. (Moylan)

474/Ling. 410. Non-Standard English. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Fodale)

475/Ling. 411. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 411. (Keller-Cohen)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Anthro. 475 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

See Linguistics 417 for description. (Markey)

Archaeology

390. Primitive Technology. (4). (SS).

A look at the material culture of non-Western, non-industrial societies. We will examine raw materials available to non-industrial societies (e.g., stone, clay, basic metals, leather, bone, wood, etc.) and alternative ways of using them. We will look at how the inherent properties of such raw materials affect their human use as well as how technological systems (hunting, agriculture, transportation, architecture, etc.) are affected by environment, social organization, and cultural preferences. The role of technology in human society and culture will be discussed and a variety of ethnographic, historic and prehistoric technologies will be compared and analyzed. The course will consist of three lectures per week plus a two-hour lab session in which students will have the opportunity to familiarize themselves directly with different materials and technological applications. There will be two examinations (midterm and final) and one laboratory report. Anthropology 101 is recommended as background but not required. Students with widely different interests and backgrounds are encouraged to enroll. (Hutterer)

488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

Archaeology of Mexico from earliest times to Spanish conquest; late Pleistocene hunters, early farmers, rise of cities; and Aztec state. (Flannery)

491. Prehistory of the Central Andes. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course attempts to describe and explain prehistoric cultural evolution in Andean South America between the earliest definite human occupation about 12,000 years ago and European contact in A.D. 1532. The course is primarily in lecture form, and it presupposes some general familiarity with basic anthropological concepts. Student evaluation will be in the form of two take-home exams. There is no required text, but packets of key journal papers will be made available at local copy centers. (Parsons)

494. Introduction to Analytical Methods in Archaeology. One course in statistics or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the application of analytical techniques in archaeology and to provide an understanding of the role of numerical analysis in archaeological research. Course coverage will range from the most basic use of numbers in data presentation to the consideration of a variety of more complex techniques which have been developed specifically to cope with the unique character of archaeological research. The course will be organized around sets of lectures and class exercises, and a basic familiarity with archaeological research and common statistical methods will be assumed. Students will require a good hand calculator for regular class use. Readings for the course will be drawn from a variety of sources, and as such no core text will be assigned. Evaluation of student performance will be based on a series of assigned projects designed to highlight the student's control over the subject of the course. (O'Shea)

582. Archaeology II. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This is the general introduction to the anthropological study of the evolution of civilization. The theoretical perspectives, assumptions and methods needed to study cultural development from the level of established tribal societies to the rise of the first state-organized societies are presented. Examples of research in Eastern North America, Mexico, Peru, Mesopotamia, Pakistan and China will be discussed. Some background in anthropology and/or archaeology is useful, and the course is usually taken by seniors or first year graduate students. Archaeology I (Anthropology 581) and II constitute a sequence, but it is not necessary to have had Archaeology I before taking Archaeology II. Students in this lecture/seminar course are asked to undertake two structured research projects requiring short papers and a final essay examination. Any queries about the course should be directed to the instructor, Henry Wright, in room 4044 Museums. (Wright)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

497. Museum Research Techniques. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

Anthropology 496 is offered in the Fall Term, 497 in the Winter Term. Content of both courses is the same. These courses are designed to give the student an introduction to the principles of museum management, policies, and practices. In conjunction with these lectures, individual instruction and laboratory experiences are offered on the recording, cataloging, care and preservation, and analysis of museum collections of material culture. There is a one hour lecture per week, with the remaining time being devoted to work with museum curators or graduate research assistants studying museum collections. Students who elect this course for a second time prepare public exhibits of objects based on anthropological concepts and themes. For each credit hour elected, 3 hours participation are required. There is a text and some reserve reading. Grades are based on lecture requirements, an examination, and directed laboratory work. Emphasis will be placed on a museum experience within a research framework. (Ford)

499. Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor; for undergraduates only. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.


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