Biological Sciences

Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

Additional descriptions for many 400 and 500 level Biological Science courses may be found in Room 2083 Natural Sciences Building.

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to concentrators in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is designed to introduce students both to the current intellectual content of biology and to the human implications of biological knowledge. The course is intended for students who are not planning to concentrate in biology; thus, course content is selected on the basis of its general intellectual significance or its practical relevance, and not on the basis of its importance as preparation for more advanced courses. Nevertheless, a firm scientific background is established in each area studied before the human implications are discussed. Topics scheduled for coverage include the evolution of life; human nutrition and the world food problem; the biological effects of alcohol, drugs, and environmental pollutants; genetic diseases, birth defects, and genetic engineering; infectious disease; organ transplants and allergies; cancer; basic ecological principles and their implications for current environmental problems. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week and a two to three hour discussion section (twenty students). Lectures assume no background in science; high school biology and chemistry are helpful but not required. Discussion sections observe demonstrations, perform experiments, view films, and discuss social and ethical issues raised by course material. Memorization is not emphasized, but students are expected to apply the conceptual knowledge gained to solve various biological problems. Readings are from the text (G. Hardin and C. Bajema, Biology: Its Principles and Implications), Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, and several short articles from Scientific American and similar publications. Grading is based in part (about 2/3) on performance on examinations based on lecture material and readings, and in part (about 1/3) upon performance in discussion section (quizzes, a short paper, and quality of discussion participation).

105. Introduction to Biology. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). Students who elect Biol. 105 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (5). (NS).

This is a one-term, fast-paced alternative to the Biology 112/114 sequence, covering essentially the same material. It is open to students who have completed at least one term of introductory college chemistry and have a strong background in high school biology. Biology 105 may be substituted wherever Biology 112/114 are prerequisites, but it is closed to students who have completed Biology 112 or 114. Note: Reading, writing, and verbal skills play important roles in this course; students weak in these skills or not motivated to rapid, self-disciplined study habits are advised against taking this course. Biology 105 differs from Biology 112/114 sequence in the format of course offering. It is run on a self-instructional format with a strong emphasis on student initiative to study material from assigned readings and to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, of Organisms, and of Populations). Assigned readings, laboratory material, and a study guide are given for each unit. The entire class meets once a week for 2 hours, for a lecture/movie or examinations. The laboratory (3032 Natural Resources Building) is open about 24 hours weekly during which each student spends a 3-hour block of time on laboratory work. Students meet in small sections twice a week with instructors, before the laboratory for one hour, and after the laboratory for two hours, to discuss questions arising from the assigned readings and laboratory work. Examinations on each unit of the course are given in several levels, with each level graded separately. In addition, each student is required to submit two written laboratory reports. These examinations and laboratory reports plus staff evaluations decide the final course grade. The course textbook will be listed at bookstores. A laboratory kit must be purchased in the Chemistry Store. For further information inquire at 3060 Natural Resources Building. (G. Nace)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 112 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable prerequisites are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be two course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Winter Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The textbook and laboratory manual required for Winter 1983 are both available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course. Lecture notes and diagrams will be available when classes start.

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is required, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course must be completed prior to enrollment in Biology 112. (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). High school chemistry is not suitable as a prerequisite unless a student has obtained Advanced Placement credit for Chemistry 123, or has obtained other certification of college-level equivalency in general chemistry. Concurrent election of Chemistry 123 and Biology 112 is not advisable. Students who have completed Chemistry 123 with a grade below C- would be well-advised to repeat the course before electing Biology 112. Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. Students who elect Biology 112 after completion of Biology 100 will lose credit for the earlier course. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1570 C.C. Little Building. (Shappirio, Gay, Anderson)

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 114 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. For information concerning the textbook and laboratory manual, contact bookstores. Further information about this course can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office in Room 1570 C.C. Little Building. (Easter, Nussbaum, Rathcke)

123. Human Sexuality. Not open to students concentrating in the biological sciences. (3). (NS).

Human Sexuality is designed to introduce students to the biological and social factors which determine and regulate their sexuality. Approximately two-thirds of the course deals with the anatomical, physiological and genetic determinants of sexuality. In this section the sexual anatomy of men and women, hormonal regulation of sexual function, fertilization, pregnancy, birth, lactation, conception control, and venereal diseases are examined. In the latter third of the course emphasis shifts to behavioral and social factors. Here, human sexual behavior, sexual response, orgasm, psychosexual development, homosexuality, rape, and the genesis of sex roles are examined. The evolution of sexuality in both humans and other animals is a recurrent theme in this course. Biology 123 is designed for students with a minimal background in biological science. Even so you will profit more from this course if you have had some exposure to high school biology. Biology 123 is a logical counterpart to Biology 100 and Physiology 101. The text to be used in the course will be Katchadourian and Lunde, Fundamentals of Human Sexuality, 3rd ed., 1980. (J. Allen)

202. Biology of Aging. Biol. 100, Physiol. 101, Psych. 170, or Anthro. 161, or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS).

This introductory course considers problems of aging from biological points of view. Among topics covered are evolution of species longevity, population and age structure and growth, maturation and senescence in the nervous, immune, reproductive and endocrine systems, age dependent changes in cell cycle, molecular correlates of aging in nucleus and cytoplasm, and biochemical and genetic models of aging. Course organization: two lectures and one discussion per week. Readings will be assigned in an appropriate text and also in original research or review papers available on library reserve. Grades are based on two hour exams and a final exam. (Brown, Doneen)

222. Energy and Ecology. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (2). (NS).

This study of the use of energy and its impact on the world ecosystems and climate treats the basic question of how to supply the energy needs of mankind while maintaining ecological integrity. The following sources of energy are considered: solar, biomass, wind, tidal, ocean thermal, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear, including their mining and manufacture, transport, utilization, and ecological principles and conservation practices that are essential for a healthful and stable world. (Gates)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for admission to medical or dental school. Students who have an interest in genetics but who do not intend to concentrate in a science area may find this course unsuitable for their needs. Another course, Human Genetics 324, emphasizes the societal aspects of genetics and is more appropriate for these students. Enrollment in Biology 305 requires some prior knowledge of basic genetics. The course is oriented toward molecular genetics and is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. In each of these segments, the emphasis is on the current state of knowledge in the field. Every year the lectures are changed to keep pace with the rapidly changing aspects of the field of genetics. There are three lectures a week plus one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used primarily to expand on the lecture material, but new material is also presented. There is no laboratory connected with the course, but, in the past, two demonstrations have been held each term. These demonstrations are intended to illustrate certain principles and features of the course through the use of biological materials and instruments utilized in genetic research. The examinations emphasize problem solving in genetics, and practice problem sets are handed out or assigned throughout the course. (S. Allen)

392. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (3). (NS).

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of developmental biology. Emphasis is placed on new discoveries in molecular and cellular biology and how they relate to classical observations on developing systems. Morphological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects of both vertebrate and invertebrate development are considered although the approach is selective rather than exhaustive. Particular stress is on the integration of cellular and morphological observation with the underlying molecular mechanisms. Lecture material includes: genome organization, chromatin structure, RNA synthesis and processing, models of genetic control mechanisms, gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, induction, organogenesis, and regeneration. This course is intended for juniors and seniors although it is open to sophomores. There are three one hour lectures per week. Three one hour exams are given. Readings are from Developmental Biology by Leon Browder. (Moore, Carlson)

401/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); preceded or accompanied by Biol. 305. (3). (NS).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Eukaryotic micro-organisms and cells in culture are discussed, but emphasis is placed on prokaryotes and viruses. (Helling and Neidhardt)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exams. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, proctors each provide two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

415. Lectures in Cell and Molecular Biology. Eight credits of biology, Biol. 411 or the equivalent, and organic chemistry; or permission of instructor. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This lecture course provides in-depth analysis of the molecular basis of function in living cells. Topics covered will include: nucleus, chromatin organization, and transcription; ribosomes and translation; intracellular transport and secretion; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and prokaryotes; lysosomes and peroxisomes; organelle biogenesis; cytoskeleton, motility; and a survey of methods for studying these topics. Emphasis on the interpretation of experimental data is heavy. In Winter, 1983, the course will be taught by a team of 6-8 lecturers. There will be two exams (TH 7-9) and a final exam. Questions should be addressed to Ms. Crandall, 2083 Nat. Sci. (Grossman, Shappirio)

416. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 415 and permission of instructor. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (NS).

To familiarize the student with modern laboratory technique involved in the analysis of cell structure and function is the course objective. The course deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of subcellular analysis. Specific experiments have been selected to coordinate with the lectures of Biology 415. The course illustrates certain techniques: cell fractionation, enzyme assay, identification of subcellular functional units, RNA and protein synthesis, mitochondrial and chloroplast function. There will be short lab quizzes and problem sets given. Course grades will be determined based on three major lab reports (written in a format typical of manuscripts submitted for publication in scientific journals), five short reports and two quizzes. For permission, inquire in room 2083 Natural Science.

418. Introduction to Population Genetics. Biol. 305 and Stat. 402; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course will introduce the field of population genetics and its relationship to population ecology, emphasizing the experimental aspects of population genetics. About 25% of the course will be devoted to population genetic theory necessary for understanding the experimental approaches used in the field. Experiments and data on plant, animal, and human populations will be used to illustrate the various principles of population genetics. Course outline: (a) the factors of evolution, mutation, migration, selection, in-breeding, small population size; (b) the concept of fitness, concepts of genetic load, estimation of the rate of evolutionary change; (c) population variation and adaptation; (d) resolution of theory and experiment, explanation of population variability by various models of selection and non-selection (neutral mutations); (e) organization of the population genotype, two locus models, coadaptation, intergenotypic interactions; (f) demography and population genetics. Evaluation of student progress in the course will be based on: (1) a midterm which will be scheduled if the majority of students desire it; (2) a term paper which should be a concise, critical exposition of one aspect of the course of particular interest to the student, the title to be chosen by the student after consultation with the instructor; (3) one final exam; and (4) three or four problem sets which will be given out through the term. (Adams)

424. Cell and Developmental Genetics. Biol. 305; a course in developmental biology is helpful but not required. (2-3). (NS).

This course is an in-depth analysis of current information on gene control of developmental processes in multicellular organisms. The format includes lectures on meiosis, gene amplification, sex determination, pattern formation, temperature-sensitive mutations, polytene chromosomes, and structural and functional organization of genes in relation to development. Stress is placed on reading articles in scientific journals; no textbook is used. For each topic covered, an up-to-date list of references including one or two key review papers is provided. Students are encouraged to read one or more of these scientific papers. No examinations; student evaluation is based on two term papers, one being an extensive analysis of a topic covered in the lectures and the other a compilation of short summaries of the papers read during the term. Students electing the course for 3 credits will cover additional topics including genetic aspects of teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and aging. (Rizki)

470. Patterns in Evolutionary Ecology. Two laboratory courses in biology. (3). (NS).

This course will present modern theories of the evolution of ecological characteristics of animals and plants, chiefly at the population level. We will study the influence of natural selection upon birth rates, brood size, parental care, feeding strategies, competitive relations, polymorphism, mimicry, dispersal, habitat selection, etc. The evidence for these theories from laboratory and field studies will be critically examined. There will be two hours of lectures and one hour of discussion each week. A previous ecology course is strongly recommended. Evaluation will be based on two term papers, discussions and a short final exam. (Grant)

493. Biochemical Ecology. Organic chemistry; prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (NS).

Biology 493 explores the relationships between the various components of an organism's overall life history strategy and design of certain major biochemical systems (such as the organization of its energy metabolism, the character of its digestive machinery, or the nature of its detoxification systems). Stated more succinctly, the course analyzes the biochemical bases for the adaptations of organisms to their environments. Specific topics likely to be considered include (1) the metabolic organization of vertebrate red and white muscle fibers, insect flight muscle, and squid mantle muscle, (2) anaerobiosis in invertebrates, (4) the enzymatic basis for the tolerance of extreme or fluctuating temperatures, (5) digestive biochemistry and detoxification mechanisms, (6) adaptations to nutritionally unbalanced diets, and (7) the biochemistry of symbiotic associations. The course is of potential interest to students in biochemistry, physiology, ecology, and natural resources. Prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry is required. The class meetings are lecture-discussion sessions and the readings are mainly from the primary and review literature. Student evaluation involves an oral presentation, one hour exam, several written critiques of journal articles, and a final examination. (Martin)

494. Biophysical Chemistry. Biol. 411 and Math. 114; or the equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to give students in the life sciences a background in physical chemistry as applied to biological systems and biological instrumentation. Particular aspects of thermodynamics and kinetics are reviewed with examples drawn from enzyme folding and catalysis. Other topics include the principles of electrochemistry, quantum mechanics, chemical bonding, spectroscopy, statistical mechanics and transport. The applications of physical chemistry which are discussed include the role of non-covalent bonds in the stability and folding of proteins and nucleic acids, the role of entropy in the polymerization of proteins, the nature of specific and non-specific interactions, the energetics of cellular transport, DNA supercoiling, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, the use of fluorescence in cell biology, the principles of light and electron microscopy, the use of magnetic resonance techniques, and the principles of the detection of radiation by photographic and scintillation techniques. The textbook is Physical Chemistry and Applications to the Life Sciences by Eisenberg and Crothers. Ten graded problem sets and five examinations will be given. (Langmore)

502. Regulation of Cellular Metabolism. Biol. 411 and 415, or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students who wish to pursue the study of biochemical regulation beyond the levels of introductory biochemistry and cell biology. The course is aimed at gaining insight into underlying biochemical mechanisms for highly orderly activities of the cell. Heavy emphasis is given to mammalian cellular metabolism. The course starts with general discussion of basic regulatory mechanisms of cellular metabolism, and progresses to specific discussion of various modes of regulation of several representative metabolic pathways. The last 4-5 weeks will be used for discussion of special topics by guest lecturers. There is no assigned textbook for this course. A list of references is given for each topic. Students are asked to read major references in the library. The course grade is based on two take-home examinations and one term paper. (Ikuma)

505/Micro. 505. Pathogenic Microorganisms. A course in general microbiology and biological chemistry. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. (3). (NS).

See Microbiology 505. (Harvie)

513/Micro. 513. Microbial Genetics. Microbiology, genetics, biochemistry, and permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

Lecture and discussion focus on analysis of original papers dealing with the genetics of E. coli and other prokaryotes. Topics include plasmid structure, function and evolution; restriction and modification; transposable elements, recombinant DNA methodology; the molecular bases of recombination; selected aspects of the control of gene function; and the use of mutants to analyze developmental sequences. In the laboratory, students will isolate mutants of bacteria, map the mutations, and determine the primary functions altered by the mutations. (Helling and Bender)

526. Predictive Models in Aquatic Ecology. Biology 443 or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The course will explore issues of current interest in limnology and aquatic ecology with particular emphasis on quantitative models and analyses. Each week will include a lecture by the instructors or a guest expert which will review and interpret the current topic. This will be followed by brief discussion, and on a subsequent day, by detailed discussion of recent literature based on readings held on reserve in the Natural Science Library. Grades will be based on class discussion and a 15-20 page paper on a limnological topic chosen by each student. (Lehman and Scavia)

527. Experimental Limnology. Biol. 443 and permission of instructor. (3).

Experimental Limnology is our main advanced limnology course. Its primary purpose is to explore modern limnology with the aid of the current literature published in scientific journals. This year the course will focus on the structure of aquatic ecosystems. We will discuss food chains, community structure, and trophic-dynamics. Weekly lectures and discussions will treat the ecological relationships of organisms at each trophic level from Decomposers (bacteria) to Top Carnivores (insects, fish). Each meeting will consist of a lecture (informal) designed to introduce the topic that will be discussed the following week and a discussion related to the topic introduced the previous week. Students are expected to spend the week prior to each discussion reading relevant papers that will be placed on reserve in the library and any other useful materials. (Kilham)

575. Biological Electron Microscopy. Sixteen credits of biology or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (4).

The objective of this course is to teach basic techniques applied in biological electron microscopy. The following topics are taught: tissue exposure, fixation and fixatives, embedding and embedding media, sectioning, staining methods, the use of the transmission electron microscope, taking photographs with the electron microscope, and printing and dark-room techniques. The theoretical aspects of these topics are covered in lectures. The practical part is taught in the laboratory and there are discussions of electron micrographs taken by students. The students are required to do some additional practicing in the laboratory (about 14 hours a week). There is a midterm laboratory practical exam and a lecture exam on the use of the electron microscope and its theory. At the end of the term students submit a report of the project they were working on and a 10x14" high quality electron micrograph of their own material. These assignments form the basis for student evaluation. There is no special background necessary, although some knowledge of electronics and histology is helpful. Two textbooks are used in the course: Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists; and Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Volume I. (Baic)

592/Anatomy 660. Cellular Aspects of Development. An introductory course in development: Biol. 392, Zool. 481, or equivalent. (4). (NS).

The approach of the course will be to discuss cellular mechanisms of organogenesis with emphasis on the mammalian system. The course is designed for students who have already taken at least one course in development or embryology. It will have a lecture-discussion format. The course will be taught on an advanced level; current literature will be assigned, reviewed, and discussed. No text will be used although several will be listed as references. Students will be expected to write two short papers on experimental approaches to current developmental problems in lieu of examinations. (Barald, Brinkley)

Courses in

Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

This course aims to teach the techniques for successfully growing and propagating plants and the principles of botanical science upon which they are based. The environmental factors important in plant growth, particularly light, temperature, water, and soil will be studied. Students will gain practical experience in such applied botanical techniques as the following: preparation of soils and artificial growth media; use of fertilizers; propagation of plants by cuttings, layering, division, bulbs, grafting, and seed; methods of pruning, plant breeding, pest and disease control; preparation of terraria, hanging baskets, and bonsai; the use of plants in landscaping, and the ecology and management of natural areas; the care and development of living plant collections. Students will be expected to learn to recognize a selected group of indoor and outdoor garden plants, edible wild plants, and common poisonous species. Field trips will include a visit to a commercial greenhouse and an estate garden. One lecture, two discussion periods, and six hours of laboratory per week. Discussions and laboratories are held at the Botanical Gardens, with bus service provided. (Steiner)

190. Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Botany 190 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible foods, the pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, drug and medicinal plants, alternative means of pest control, alternative energy sources, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, and wild and endangered species of plants. We have a natural foods dinner prepared by the students. Throughout the course, students present oral environmental alerts on specific environmental problems and solutions to them. Grade evaluation is based on three midterms and one environmental alert (written or oral). (Kaufman)

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 105 or 112; or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. (Nooden)

404/Anthro. 442. Ethnobotany. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

See Anthropology 442. (Ford)

422. Systematic Botany. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), or Bot. 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The diversity of higher plants is taught with lectures, color projection slides, specimens, living plants, and laboratory discussions. Emphasis is on the level of orders, families and genera, temperate as well as tropical, so that students can make themselves familiar with plants in any part of the world. The course focuses mainly on the flowering plants because of their dominant role on the earth, but gymnosperms and pteridophytes are studied too. The phylogeny of vascular plants provides the framework. In angiosperms hypothetical ancestral types are discussed and various lines are analysed, e.g., the pinks (Caryophillidae), roses (Rosidae), wind-pollinated trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae), and so on. Related subjects, such as habitats of plants, geography, biosystematics, cladistics and floral biology are presented in special lectures. A major component of the science of botany, systematics is considered essential to training plant scientists and botany majors. However, the course is also elected by biology majors, zoologists, foresters, ecologists and ethnobotanists. Some individuals take the course merely because they enjoy plants and wish to learn about them, including students with backgrounds as diverse as engineering and city planning. The methods of instruction include lecture and laboratory, the latter including demonstrations and discussions. There are two midterms, a final, and numerous small lab quizzes. Various texts are recommended for students with special interests, but only two are required. They are Davis, P.H. and J. Cullen, The Identification of Flowering Plant Families (Cambridge University Press) and Wood, C.E., Jr. A Student's Atlas of Flowering Plants (Harper and Row). (Wagner)

425. Phytogeography. Bot. 422 or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

Phytogeography, the study of plant distribution patterns and the processes of their development, involves synthesis of evidence from the life sciences and the earth sciences. It is currently an arena of lively discussion because of new contributions such as plate tectonics and Quaternary paleoclimatology. Lectures (about one-half of the meetings) introduce topics from which students may choose questions to pursue in detail for class discussions and in the term paper. The textbook is Pielou's Biogeography and some additional readings will be assigned. There is a midterm hour exam and a final exam. (Benninghoff)

437. Anatomy of Vascular Plants. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or Bot. 207. (4). (NS).

This course provides a basic introduction to the development and histology of the vascular plant body. Lectures and coordinated laboratory exercises are designed to make possible a fairly comprehensive understanding of the essential patterns of plant growth, the structural features of plant organs, the adaptive value and functional utility of structure, as well as the evolution of structural features. The course provides a sound basis for both descriptive and experimental research in plant anatomy, and also contributes to the essential knowledge of those wishing to specialize in fields such as plant physiology, plant systematics, ecology, morphology, paleobotany, forestry, and horticulture. For the non-specialist it contributes to a greater understanding and appreciation of the nature and value of plants in our environment. Student evaluation is by written examination. Required text: Esau, K., Anatomy of Seed Plants, 2nd ed., Wiley. (Beck)

483. Hormones and Plant Development. Botany 281 or 481 or the equivalent; organic chemistry strongly recommended. (4). (NS).

This course covers the following topics in the lectures: the hormone concept as applied to plants; the natural plant hormones; pathways by which hormones are synthesized, stored as inactive forms, and broken down; mechanisms of action of plant hormones at target sites, plant hormones at work in developmental processes, and uses and misuses of plant hormones in regulating plant development. In the labs, we learn how native hormones are isolated from plant tissues, run plant hormone bioassays, and conduct experiments on the regulation of developmental processes in plants by each of the major types of plant hormones. Exams include two lecture midterms and two lab practicals. Independent projects are encouraged for extra credit. (Kaufman)

Courses in

Zoology (Division 499)

130. Animal Behavior. (3). (NS).
Animal Behavior
provides an introduction to the behavior of animals in their natural world. Behavior is viewed as a set of ecological strategies used by animals in survival and reproduction, shaped by evolutionary history and natural selection. Sexual behavior, social organization of individuals and groups, communication, aggression, learning, and the perceptual world of animals are identified as solutions by animals to their ecological needs. All groups of animals are considered; most examples of behavior are of birds and mammals. The course involves lectures, and extensive use is made of slides and movies of animals; a midterm and a final exam are scheduled. (Payne)

252. Comparative Evolutionary Biology of Vertebrates. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

Zoology 252 teaches the comparative method of science, and it is applied to a wide variety of structural and functional characteristics of vertebrate animals. The course begins with a description of the comparative method and several lectures on evolutionary, speciation, and phylogenetic theories. The remaining two-thirds of the course are devoted to examples. This format has prepared pre-professional students in the medical sciences for many years. There are three lectures and one laboratory per week. The laboratory is a practical experience in either the theory developed in lecture or a real life example. A good introductory biology course is the only requirement. There are several lecture examinations and at least one final laboratory examination. (Myers)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (NS).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Zoology 421, 422, or 428 these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. Zoology concentrators must take Zoology 326 concurrently. Non-Zoology concentrators may take Zoology 325 alone. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Doneen, Guthe)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Zool. 325. (1). (NS).

The exercises in laboratory deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. A report on every exercise is required. Most reports are short (two to three pages) and attempt to answer specific questions. Two full-length reports are also required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Zoology 326 must be taken concurrently with Zoology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Zoology 325 will not be admitted to Zoology 326.

422. Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), one year of chemistry, and one year of physics. (3). (NS).

An introduction to neural function, including such topics as action potentials, synaptic phenomena, sensory systems, motor output, neurohormonal integration, development, memory, etc. (Oakley)

423. Laboratory in Neurobiology. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 422 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

Anatomy and physiology of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems, including examination of various sensory and motor systems. Electrophysiological techniques are routinely used. (Oakley)

452. Natural History of Vertebrates. Two laboratory courses in biology. (4). (NS).

The life history, behavior, ecology, morphology, and adaptive radiation of the vertebrates with emphasis on the local fauna. Lectures will cover general characteristics, biology, and distribution of each major group, and in greater depth different topics particularly well illustrated by special groups. Laboratories will cover identification of 200 Michigan species, adaptive radiation in the major groups, behavioral observations, and some experiments. Field trips will emphasize ecological distribution, behavior, and life history. Grades will be based on lecture and laboratory examinations and field notebooks and laboratory reports. Readings from books on reserve. The text will be Orr, R.T., Vertebrate Biology. (Storer)

476. Ethology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and one additional course in zoology. (3). (NS).

The objective of this course is to acquaint students with the subject of animal behavior. All types of behavior are considered; both vertebrate and invertebrate examples are utilized. The course approaches behavior from a zoological viewpoint; emphasis is placed on understanding the methods of investigation used in the study of animal behavior. Consideration of physiological mechanisms is given, as well as discussion of the evolutionary framework in which behavior patterns are selected. The course is divided into two sections. In the first section, the types of factors which affect behavior are discussed. During the second part of the course, functional categories of behavior (feeding, orientation, agonistic, sexual) are discussed with an emphasis on bringing together as many factors as possible in an attempt to understand the control (both proximate and ultimate) of these behaviors at all levels. Although Biology 112 and 114 or equivalent is required, it would be best to have at least one of the following three areas before taking the course: genetics, ecology, or neurophysiology. Students who wish to obtain a more complete background should plan to take Zoology 484 and/or 475 either before or after taking Zoology 476. Methods of instruction: (1) lectures are the primary means of instruction; (2) a text is also utilized, as are outside readings; (3) films are used to illustrate behavior patterns occasionally; (4) there is a midterm lecture exam and a term paper, as well as a final exam. (Hazlett)

477. Laboratory in Animal Behavior. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 476; and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

The objective of this laboratory course is to give students first-hand experience with observing animal behavior and in measuring the behavioral effects of experimental treatment of animals. In addition, considerable attention is given to the design of experiments by the students. A variety of animals are used as subjects vertebrate, invertebrate, terrestrial, and fresh-water. A variety of behavior patterns are studied in the experiments, ranging from simple orientation movements to complex social behaviors. About one quarter of the course is devoted to individual research projects which the students design themselves. (Hazlett)

480. Biological Ultrastructure and Histogenesis. Eight credits of biology. (3). (NS).

The subject matter of this course is the differentiation of cells and tissues from the molecular level to the microscopic level of organization. The lectures encompass development of gametes and of the differentiating cells and cell matrices in higher organisms. Emphasis is on histogenesis in vertebrates, but relevant work on invertebrate and plant organisms is also considered. The course includes results obtained by a variety of analytical techniques, including x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, autoradiography, cytochemistry, histological staining, and light microscopy by bright-field, phase, interference, and polarization optics. The aim of this course is to integrate structural aspects of cell and molecular biology, developmental biology, and histology. The following topics are included: techniques of light and electron microscopy; synthesis of macromolecules; development of cell organelles and inclusions; secretion of cell products; cell locomotion; cell division; gametogenesis and early embryology; histogenesis of tissues: epithelium, connective and supportive, nerve, muscle, blood; and differentiation of cell and tissue types in vertebrate organ systems. Junior standing with at least eight hours of biology is required. Previous courses in development, histology, cell biology, or electron microscopy would be helpful. Course organization: three lectures per week; two midterm examinations and a final. There is no single textbook covering the subject matter in this course, but Textbook of Histology by Fawcett and Bloom is a recommended reference. Reading lists of books and published papers are provided. Lectures are illustrated with slides of electron micrographs, photomicrographs, and interpretive drawings. (Kemp)

581/Pathology 581/Physiol. 581. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology I. Permission of instructor. (3).

The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the hormonal regulation of male and female reproductive systems. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The control of the reproductive process is considered at the systemic, cellular and molecular levels. Topics to be included are the properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex-steroids, the neural control of reproduction, the anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, the endocrine control of the menstrual and estrous cycle, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. A lecture/discussion format will be followed in which the topic is introduced by the instructor, followed by discussion and critical evaluation of current literature and research. Students will be expected to contribute actively to class discussions. Occasional laboratory demonstrations may also be used. Students are evaluated by exam and by participation in class. The course is not part of a departmental sequence. Recommended background courses are chemistry, zoology and physiology. (Keyes, Karsch)

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