Romance Languages and Literatures

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the middle of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (45 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Students with previous French study in high school are not permitted to enroll in sections 001-006.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is not open to students who have begun instruction elsewhere.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 2-3 years in high school) whose proficiency is not yet sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves with a rapid pace, covering about 60 per cent of the French 101 material by mid term, and about 60 per cent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 per cent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

122. Elementary: Alternate. French 121 or equivalent and permission of department. (3). (FL).

This course is part of the alternate first-year sequence 121-122-123. The first-year material, covered in 101-102, is spread over three consecutive terms beginning with fall term. The course objectives and method of instruction are the same as in the regular first-year sequence. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Special permission by the Department is required to enroll in the sequence 121-122-123. (Contact persons: Neu, Mahler, or Hagiwara)

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Section 001.
French 206 is an informal mini-course with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Pass-Fail only, determined on the basis of attendance and participation in classroom activities.

230. Intensive Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 112, 231, or 232. (8). (FL).

This course combines the work of French 231 and 232 in a single term. Its basic objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 231/232. The same amount of grammar is covered, but reading assignments are about 20 per cent less than in French 231 and 232 combined. Classes meet twice daily, four times per week, in sections of 20-25 students. Materials of French 231 are covered by mid term, and those of 232 by the end of the term. The nature of homework is similar to that of 231/232, but the amount of weekly assignment is 80 per cent more than either course. There are weekly quizzes, midterm and final examinations, as well as a speaking test and an outside reading test. The final examination is identical to that given in French 232.

231. Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track.
The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. In addition, French 231 has a speaking test, and 232, an outside reading test, both given toward the end of the term.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track:
see French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LSA language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one term. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the term students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward mid term students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 18-20 students. They meet four times per week until mid term, and twice per week thereafter (supplemented by individual conferences with the instructor on outside reading). There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and attendance and participation in classroom activities determine the Pass/Fail grades.

325. Practical French Phonetics. French 232 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This course is designed to help students improve their pronunciation of French. A brief theoretical overview of vowel and consonant systems, syllable structure, intonation, liaison, and "mute" will be included, but the majority of class time will be spent on auditory discrimination of sounds and pronunciation exercises. Group and individual corrections will be given. Students will take a diagnostic "test" during the first week and suggestions for specific review will be given to each student. Various styles of spoken French will be examined: poetic, formal, and casual. Materials will be available on tape in the language lab for students to practice on their own. Classes meet three times a week and are taught in French. Regular attendance and participation are required. Students must also demonstrate improvement on the end-of-term pronunciation test, ability to use the International Phonetic Alphabet, and adequate pronunciation in the recitation of a short literary text. (Neu)

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purposes of this course are to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is thoroughly reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits students to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French, and to increase their understanding of French culture. Through weekly compositions students are able to make creative use of the readings and of the grammatical review. Outside readings include two contemporary French novels. Students are expected to write a short paper on one of the two novels and to make an oral presentation on the other one. Students are also required to choose scenes from an assigned contemporary French play and to act them out in class along with other students. Video taped interviews, French popular songs, magazine articles, films, and the like are used to stimulate conversation. Classes meet three times each week in sections varying between ten and fifteen students. The class is taught in French, and all sections take three common examinations.

362. Advanced French. French 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties and to the correction of common mistakes which are revealed through the weekly compositions. Course emphasis, however, is on conversation and discussion. Recordings are used in class in an effort to develop an understanding of spoken French of various levels of difficulty. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Occasional laboratory activities, outside readings, and simulations.

372. Problems in Translation. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a course in ENGLISH to FRENCH translation, although for comparison's purposes some French to English texts are examined. The aim of the text is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language and to give them some practical training. Basic tools of the art are discussed. Linguistic theory is not the main goal of the course, however, some class time may be occasionally devoted to theoretical problems. Students work on a variety of texts of different levels: newspaper articles or magazines, technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes and a final examination. (Mermier)

416. Advanced Business French. French 380 (Intermediate Business French). (3). (Excl).

As a follow-up to Business French 386, we will look further into economic and commercial matters in France such as accounting, banking, insurance, distribution, taxes, whether they apply to businesses or to individuals or both, with emphasis on functional and conceptual generalities. Three or four case histories will serve as a basis for oral group presentations in class. They will involve such themes as launching of a product or service, relocation and closing-up shops, mergers and acquisition, union conflicts, etc. These problems will have to be handled by participants as if they were professional consultants in various fields (becoming more familiar with technical, commercial, and human factors will be further developed). In addition, some other topics will be touched upon such as the analysis of commercials, export marketing in French, financing and investment, and the Paris Stock Exchange. All classes are conducted in French. Some students may be entitled to apply for an internship with a French firm in France in the Spring of 1983. One paper after the first three weeks, simulation and a final. (Gabrielli)

454. French Syntax. French 453. (3). (Excl).

This course deals primarily with the syntax of Modern French. Selected areas of French syntax are presented basically in the light of transformational linguistics, but a side-by-side comparison with traditional grammar is also included. The analysis of structure is also combined with a comprehensive review of grammar and exercises, progressing from simple to complex sentence patterns. The course is taught in French. Class time is divided into lectures, discussions, and travaux pratiques. There are midterm and final examinations and a short paper. Proficiency equivalent to French 362 and 371 is required. (Hagiwara)

Literature

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature. The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. French 388 and 389 are offered Winter Term, 1983. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to four of the principal writers of nineteenth-century French literature. We shall study the themes of ambition, avarice and solitude in novels by Stendhal, Balzac and Flaubert. We shall also read poems from Les Fleurs du Mal by Baudelaire. Emphasis will be placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty-five pages in a novel with "close reading" of some four or five paragraphs. These pages will then be discussed in class. Students will be required to write some six to seven papers in French of two to three pages in length. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grades will be based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Morton)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Some literary traditions, and certain moments in literary history, are haunted by a sense of latecoming and beset by an "anxiety of influence." but a keynote of modernism in France has been rather an excited and exciting sense of its own newness in a rapidly changing world, and "defamiliarization" has been one of its most important esthetic features. We will explore some interrelated aspects of this, especially the treatment of objects, the exploitation of child-like vision, humor and playfulness, and experimentation with reference-free language. Lectures and discussion in French. Four short written assignments, critical, creative or both. Midterm and final by interview with instructor. Texts: G. Apollinaire, Calligrammes; J. Cocteau, Les Enfants Terribles; G. Perec, Les Choses; F. Ponge, Le Parti Pris des Choses; M. Proust, Combray; R. Queneau, Zazie dans le Metro. (Chambers)

410. Le cinéma français. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course is conducted in French and is based upon seven or eight French films to be shown in class. The list usually includes two or three classic films from the 1930's (Vigo, Clair, Renoir, etc.), two or three "new-wave" films from the late fifties and early sixties (Truffaut, Resnais, Godard, etc.) and a modern film. Lectures usually concern directors' interests and technical innovations, while discussions concern the application of directors' theories to the particular films seen. Students are encouraged to see and discuss other French films that are being shown in Ann Arbor. Work includes a midterm examination, three short papers and a final examination (concentrators are expected to complete this written work in French). The course seeks to improve students' sensitivity to motion pictures in general, to improve their ability for intelligent viewing of films made in the French cultural context, and to provide insights into the contribution of French directors to cinematographic art. Readings from Eisenstein, Mitry, and other critics and theoreticians, as well as from selected film scripts. (Nelson)

420. Modern Theatre. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will feature two public performances of two modern French theatrical works: L'Augmentation, by G. Perec, and a sample of Exercices de Style, by R. Queneau. It is aimed at developing spoken skills and self-confidence in French through a dramatized approach. There will be two rehearsals of two and one half hours each week. They will be held on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 3:00 5: 30. No previous knowledge or experience of theater is required. There are no written assignments. One midterm grade and one final grade will be based on attendance, imagination, aggressiveness and progress shown during rehearsals. Second-year students are welcome. French is used throughout. Performances are scheduled for April 22 and 24 in RC Auditorium. (Gabrielli)

430. Theory and Methodology of Literary Criticism. French 387, 388, and 389, or one literature course at the 400 level. (3). (HU).

This course will treat the body of Barthes' work contextually with the development of la nouvelle critique. The methodological shifts in Barthes' theory of criticism and ecriture, and the variety of semiological practices that were the object of his readings will be examined through close analysis of selected texts. Prerequisites: French 387, 388 and 389; or one literature course at the 400 level. (Stanton)

442. Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Lecture du theatre.
To read plays "as literature" neglects the meaningfulness and dramatic impact they acquire in the theatre; but a given theatrical performance can only actualize some of the many possibilities inherent in the text. This course is an experiment in approaching dramatic texts via the theatrical imagination, as a way of bringing them to theatrical "life" without tying oneself to the practical constraints of an actual performance. We will focus on texts Classical, Romantic and modern which themselves explore aspects of theatricality, and allow them to teach us how to read them theatrically. No midterm. Final by term-paper. Some lectures, but mainly discussions, in French. Texts to buy: S. Beckett, Fin de Partie; P. Claudel, L'announce faite a Marie; E. Ionesco, Le Roi se meurt; Molière, Oeuvres completes, tome II (Garnier-Flammarion); A. de Musset, Lorenzaccio. For background reading: A. Ubersfeld, Lire le Theatre. (Chambers)

Section 002 Crosscurrents in Modern Critical Theory. An attempt to uncover some of the common assumptions (linguistic, historical, political, and ethical) underlying critical theory today. Readings will be organized according to three main ideas - difference, desire, and power with special attention given to the relation between language and power. We will also give particular emphasis to what various theorists have in common and what they say about one another. The readings and lectures will be in English, although we will make every effort to convey the specific properties of the original texts. No text that does not exist in both French and English will be used, so students of all departments may do the readings with maximum ease. Authors will include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Rene Girard, Jacques Lacan, Vincent Descombes, et al. ,and students should come away from the course with a large picture of what critical theory is and what its advantages and limitations are. (Siebers)

444. African/Caribbean Literature in French. A literature course in French, and a knowledge of French. (3). (HU). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

The African novel in French is a fairly recent phenomenon: it came into its own only after the Second World War. In this course, we shall try, in lectures and discussions, to trace its development from the beginning and to see what makes it something other than French literature produced by Africans. What are its frames of reference and the nature of its link both to the African oral tradition and the literary tradition of France? How do the writers themselves define their role in the modern African context? The following works will be on our reading list: Laye: L'Enfant noir, Oyono: Le Vieux negre et la medaille, Kane: L'Aventure ambigue, Ouoleguem: Le Devoir de violence, Kourouma: Les Soleils des indepances, Badian: Les Noces sacrees and Mudimbe: Le Bel Immonde. The course will be taught in French and the final grade will be based on oral reports, class participation, two short and one long, final paper. More work will be expected of graduate students. (Ngate)

487, 488. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

French 488 is offered Winter Term, 1983.

This course, conducted in French, will focus on those writers who emerge around 1660, on the classical generation per se. We shall examine Boileau's critical position in an effort to determine the nature of French classicism and will then proceed to read four of Racine's tragedies, viewing them in the light of recent critical commentaries (Barthes, Goldmann, Odette de Mourgues). In addition we shall study La Fontaine's Fables, Bossuet's Oraisons funebres, and La Bruyere's Caracteres as examples of classical poetry, prose and social criticism. Careful reading of texts under discussion is expected. Students will be required to write three papers in French of three or four pages in length. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, more especially, for content. The final grade will be based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. (Gray)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's Prego with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's Prego (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination.

107. Italian for Voice Majors. Open only to students enrolled in the School of Music. (4). (Excl).

An elementary Italian course stressing basic comprehension and pronunciation of the language, especially as it is used in musical literature (libretti, etc.).

Special Elementary Reading Courses

111. First Special Reading Course. None. May not be elected for credit by students with credit for high school or college Italian. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 102. (4). (Excl).

Italian 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a thorough reading knowledge of the language. All the grammar of the language is covered, and extensive reading of critical materials is required. Open to graduates, juniors, and seniors: and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Italian 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. Italian 111 and 112 may not be used to satisfy the LSA foreign language requirement.

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

363. Advanced Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Intended to polish the skill students have acquired through the 101-232 language sequence. The organization of the class is flexible in order to accommodate the varying needs and interests of students in each term. Generally, the material presented will concentrate on the culture and the literature of modern Italy; occasional lessons on grammar review. (Vitta-Alexander)

419. Italo Calvino: From Neo-Realism to Fantasy. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

The magic of Calvino is his prodigious talent as a master teller of tales; realistic, fantastic, set in centuries past or the present, his stories form a pattern of all the possible paths men have taken, and all the destinies that have befallen them. Elusively didactic, yet openly vulnerable, Calvino's characters are involved in all the great deeds and dull minutiae of life, exploring themselves and the world around them. This world as Calvino sees and appraises it, his concern with its style and meaning, will be the central topics of this course. Texts will include his first novel, The Path To The Spiders' Nest; the fantasy trilogy: The Cloven Viscount, The Non-Existent Knight and The Baron in The Trees; the science fiction novel, The Cosmicomics; and selected Neo-Realistic novellas and short stories. Class format will be based on lectures and discussion, and standard written assignments. The language of instruction will be English; the texts may be read in English or Italian. (Olken)

463. Italian Neo-realism. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Introduction and survey of the major literary movements and tendencies in twentieth-century Italy, with emphasis on the period, 1930-1980. Works of the earlier period will include novels and plays by D'Annunzio, Pirandello and Svevo; in the later period the focus will be on the Neo-Realists (Moravia, Vittorini, Levi, Pavese), with attention also given to Tomasi di Lampedua, Buzzati and Calvino. Lectures and class discussion; standard written assignments. (Olken)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101, 102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101 is a prerequisite for 102. (4 each). (FL).

Portuguese 102 is offered Winter Term, 1983.

Portuguese 102 is an introductory course in the Portuguese language as spoken in Brazil and is designed for beginning language students. The approach is audio-lingual and cognitive with oral and written exercises, weekly examinations. Required text: Ellison et al., Modern Portuguese. (Bernucci)

231, 232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent is prerequisite to 231; Portuguese 231 or the equivalent is prerequisite to 232. (4 each). (FL).

Portuguese 232 is offered Winter Term, 1983.

Students will read selected short stories and novels by Brazilian authors, do grammatical exercises, write guided essays and converse in Portuguese. There will be bi-weekly examinations. Texts: Larry King, Para Frente (grammar) and Jorge Amado, Gabriela, Cravo e Canela (novel). (Bernucci)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

For students with no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on two departmental evening exams, a final exam and other quizzes, written work, and daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition skills given more practice. Grade based on two departmental evening exams, a final exam, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students who completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 at another university, or whose previous study of Spanish did not occur within the preceding two years. Students cover the equivalent of two terms in one; see the descriptions of Spanish 101 and 102 for an indication of general course content and format.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. Spanish 206 may be elected prior to Spanish 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Section 001.
The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week; grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. One section of 206 is usually reserved for students who plan to participate in the Summer Study in Spain program. Class content and activities are designed to prepare students for the experience of living and studying abroad. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements. (Dvorak)

230. Intensive Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 112, 231, or 232. (8). (FL).

This course covers in one term the same material covered in the 231-232 sequence. Normally, only students with grades of "A" or "B" in first year Spanish (101, 102 or the equivalent) are encouraged to take this course. Students receive eight credit hours, and the class meets two hours per day, four days per week. Arrangements are frequently made for interested class members to meet outside of class for informal conversation in Spanish. The course is designed for students whose interest in Spanish goes beyond the level of merely satisfying the foreign language requirement.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100, 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to provide conversation practice in the language structures learned during the first year; to improve the reading and writing abilities of students; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, culture, and outlook of Spanish-speaking peoples. Class readings include cultural selections and short stories. Course grade is based on a midterm (given in the evening) and a final exam, several quizzes, written work (compositions), daily oral class participation, and a final course project (oral presentation and a written paper).

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. The course centers around discussion in Spanish of selected Spanish and Spanish-American works of literature. Course grade is based on a midterm (given in the evening) and a final exam, several quizzes, written work (compositions), daily oral class participation, and a final course project (oral presentation and written paper).

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

A continuation of Spanish 111 with more individualized instruction. Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate.

Other Language Courses

454. Spanish Grammar for Teachers. Spanish 361 and 362. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 454 is an advanced review of the Spanish grammar from the viewpoint of both modern linguistics and traditional grammar. The student will get information on the organization and function of phonology (phonetics), morphology, and syntax of modern Spanish. Throughout this course, emphasis is placed on current usage and main problems encountered by learners of Spanish so that the students may increase both their general language knowledge and their understanding of Spanish. A general comparison between English and Spanish is made. Traditional Spanish grammar will be reviewed and specific topics of the Spanish grammar, such as, problems in learning the sound system of Spanish, ser and estar, past tenses, compound tenses, prepositions, word formation, adjective placement, agreement, subjunctive, subordinated and coordinate clauses, etc., in the light of modern grammar approaches. All students are expected to participate actively in the class. Normally there are assignments for each class and periodic quizzes. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and one short paper. (Dvorak)

Literature

371, 372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

A study of Spanish literature in the Medieval and Golden Age periods (1000-1700). Students will read several complete classics of Spanish literature including El cid, El libro de buen amor, Lazarillo de Tormes, "Don Juan," and La Vida es sueno. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, exams and class discussion. Methods: lecture-discussion. (Dageras)

376. Latin American Civilization. Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

This course will examine the development and present state of the cultural area known as Latin America: Spanish America, Brazil, the North American Southwest, and North American urban areas. There will be subsections dealing with language, history, race relations, art, economics, religion, and politics. It will be taught primarily in Spanish, although English will be used when talking about Brazil. There will be a midterm and a final exam, plus a short quiz on Latin American geography. Required reading will be: Wolf, Sons of the Shaking Earth, Degler, Neither Black nor White; Amado, Gabriela, Clove and Cinamon; Garcia Marquez, Cien anos de soledad; plus a course packet of selected readings. (Brakel)

425. Spanish Romanticism. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

Spain, the most "Romantic" of countries for the rest of Europe, has not always been able to judge clearly its literature and art in the first half of the nineteenth century. Cutting through myths of a colorful, exotic, violent, passionate, fanatically religious Spain, we will analyze carefully what is unique in her Romantic literature and what it shares with other European literatures. Readings include plays by Rivas and others, poetry by Espronceda and Becquer, prose works by Larra, Donoso Cortes, and Blanco White, and a novel. Conducted in Spanish with papers, class exercises, and final examinations. (Hafter)

462. Golden Age. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).
Spanish Golden Ages.
Estudio de conjunto de la literatura espanola de los silgos XVI y XVII: corrientes ideologicas y esteticas de la literatura espanola en relacion con la europea de aquel momento; obras y autores de mayor relevancia en cada uno de los principales generos; evolucion de los estilos en prosa y verso. Sociologia de la difusion de la obra literaria en la Espana de los Austrias. Analisis literario y linguistico de los textos. (Lopez-Grigera)


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