Courses in Linguistics (Division 423)

211. Introduction to Language. (3). (SS).

This course introduces the student to the discipline of linguistics. We will examine sound systems, syntactic systems, and semantic theory. Language change and comparative linguistics will be included in our discussions. The course will proceed by way of weekly problem sets. While many languages will be discussed in class, the student need have no familiarity with any language except English. There will be no exams. There will be no papers. (Napoli)

272(141)/Anthro. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).

See Anthropology 272. (Burling)

314. Introduction to Word Analysis. (3). (HU).

Much of what is commonly called 'grammar' word endings, verb and noun forms, paradigms, etc. falls within the linguistic area of morphology. This field deals with the internal structure of words, their formation, and the meaningful pieces, or 'morphemes' (such as type, write, -er, and -s in English typewriters) from which complex words are made, and through which they express their grammatical and semantic relationships with other words. This course will deal with all aspects of morphological analysis in languages of the world; emphasis will be placed on traditional descriptive terminology and its utilization in various languages. There will be a unit on Latin morphology, and a long series of problems in an American Indian language (Skagit) in addition to frequent data analysis homework and a final project involving extended morphological analysis of a language of the student's choice. Lectures will cover basic concepts and their relation to other areas of linguistic analysis, such as phonology, syntax, and semantics. Texts include: Matthews, Morphology; Sapir, Language; Merrifield et al., Lab Manual for Morphology and Syntax. Prerequisite is some knowledge of both syntax and phonology, but a sound understanding derived from an introductory course like Linguistics 211 should be sufficient. (Lawler)

320. Linguistics of Mathematics. (3). (HU).

Mathematics is often called "an international language," the language of Science. It is also often called other things, especially by those who dislike it; many of these people misperceive mathematics, confusing rigor with rigidity, formality with sterility, and detail with pettiness. Yet all of mathematics is simply a logical and metaphorical development of our most basic human perceptions and ideas, things we take for granted every day, and as such it can produce great esthetic and intellectual delight. This course will approach mathematics tangentially, by taking seriously the notion that it is a language. It is designed primarily for people without much mathematical background, especially those with interest and experience in languages, linguistics, or literature. Math fans are not excluded, however, and will be used as resource persons. The texts are Hofstadter's Goedel, Escher, Bach and Kline's Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty. We will take up most of the topics in the first part of Hofstadter (sets, logic, inference, proof, operations, rules, abstraction, and interpretation, to name a few), with excursions to other topics as time allows. We will be concerned throughout with the metaphoric relations of mathematical ideas to our ordinary experience. There will be regular homework, at least one exam, and a term project. Graduate students should register for Linguistics 520. (Lawler)

354. Language and the Public Interest. (3). (SS).

This course examines the characteristics of language used in major American institutions. We will look at the written and spoken language of advertising, politics, medicine, psychotherapy, law, banking, insurance, and the schools. In addition, we will be concerned with factors thought to influence how language is used in these institutions such as the sex roles, social status, and degree of intimacy the participants in these institutions share. We will also explore how the spoken and written varieties of language used in these institutions differ and what consequences this has. There will be a series of brief assignments and one major course paper. There are no prerequisites although freshpersons are discouraged from enrolling. This is a completely revised version of the course offered previously under this number, and this term only the course will be a seminar format limited to 15 students. (Keller-Cohen)

361. ESL Theory, Methods, and Tests II. Linguistics 360. (3). (HU).

This course is a continuation of Linguistics 360, which (or its equivalent) is a prerequisite. It is designed to provide students with a sound theoretical and practical basis for language teaching. The background of knowledge and experiences it provides is intended not only for those interested in finding out about teaching English to speakers of other languages (ESL), but is also applicable to English teaching in general, and to foreign language teaching as well. An additional emphasis of this course is on construction, administration, and scoring of various language tests. The relevance of classroom testing to classroom teaching will be highlighted. Students will learn about the latest trends in both language teaching and testing, and about their relationships. Students will also become competent in computing basic test statistics. (Ard and Hooshman)

363. English Grammar for Applied Linguistics. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of the structures of English in the context of the teaching of English as a second language. The course is divided into two parts.

The first third of the course deals with the phonetic and phonemic representation of English and the relationship between the pronunciation and the written form of the language. Comparison will be made between the sound system of English and those of selected other languages. Grading: by examination. The text will be a course pack. (Hill)

The last two thirds of the course is a survey of the content of English grammar. It will outline the structure of English sentences, clauses, phrases, and words, and the systems that operate at these different ranks in the grammatical hierarchy. Attention will be given throughout to the meanings of grammatical categories and items, and to problems and principles in the teaching of these meanings. The theoretical background will be that of Systemic Grammar, but no previous acquaintance with this approach to linguistic analysis is necessary. Grading: by examination. Texts: Muir, A Modern Approach to English Grammar (Batsford, 1972) and for reference: Quirk and Greenbaum, A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English (Harcourt Brace, 1973). (Catford)

365. ESL Materials Development. (3). (Excl.).

The purpose of this course is to examine aspects of theory and practice related to instructional materials used in teaching English as a second language. Over the last two decades linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic perspectives on language learning and teaching have changed in some very basic ways with particularly significant changes in concepts about the nature of second language learning and learner processes which have greatly influenced language pedagogy. This course will survey the changing forms and functions of instructional materials, the methodologies which the materials suggest and/or imply, and the principles of learning and teaching upon which the materials are based. This survey will include a review of the history and development of ESL learning/teaching materials in different parts of the world with special attention to a variety of intended student populations. Students will have an opportunity to mini-teach using materials selected from a wide variety of possibilities. Students will also have an opportunity to work on individual and/or group projects which entail either the preparation of a mini-set of materials or an adaptation of existing materials to meet the special purpose needs of a particular group of students. (Morley)

366. Observing Teaching and Learning of ESL. (2). (Excl.).

This course has essentially two parts. In the first, we will focus on classroom interaction. Students will observe a wide range of language classes, focusing on aspects of the teaching-learning relationship. In particular, we will examine ways in which teachers interact with students, ways in which students interact with other students, ways in which teachers encourage/hinder learning (verbal and non-verbal actions, attitudes, use of materials, etc.)l, and ways in which students interact with materials. In the second part, students will have hands-on teaching experience. Under supervision they will develop lesson plans, develop and/or select materials and teach English to non-native speakers. In addition, they will gain experience in administering an English as a Second Language Program. The course will provide students with an opportunity to analyse classroom behaviors within different frameworks and will acquaint students with different styles and techniques for language teaching. Prerequisite: Linguistics 360/560 or permission of instructor. (Gass)

410/Anthro. 474. Nonstandard English. (3). (SS).

This course provides a description of the linguistic characteristics sometimes called "non-standard." Consideration is also given to the psychological and sociological implications of these forms of English for the individuals and the groups that speak and use them. Special attention is given to the forms of English used in the Black ghettos of America and to the educational problems raised by these forms of English. The course is intended to be useful to anyone who expects to be involved with minority groups or with people of the inner city, and it is especially recommended for those who are in education or who are working toward a teaching certificate. The course has no prerequisites. (Fodale)

411/Anthro. 475. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

Taught jointly with Linguistics 211. See above for description. Undergraduates should enroll for 211. Honors students, graduates, and those undergraduates desiring to do graduate level assignments should enroll for 411. (Napoli)

412. Phonetics. Linguistics 312 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course surveys the physiology, aerodynamics, and acoustics of speech in somewhat greater detail than in the introductory phonetics course. Some time will be devoted to the study and interpretation of various types of instrumental record, and there will be opportunities for work with the sound spectrograph. Grading: by paper. Text: Painter, Colin: Introduction to Instrumental Phonetics University Park (paperback). For reference: Catford, J. C.: Fundamental Problems in Phonetics; Ladefoged, P.: A Course in Phonetics. (Catford)

413. Phonology. Linguistics 312. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to develop students' skills in doing phonological analysis, and to introduce students to the theory of Natural Phonology. The class will be organized as a lecture/discussion solving problems in phonological analysis and discussing the theoretical points that arise from these problems. Lectures will be given as necessary to explicate points of theory. Grades will be on the basis of weekly homework, a midterm, and a final paper. Prerequisite: Linguistics 312. (Rhodes)

415. Syntax II. Linguistics 315 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a second term syntax course. There will be frequent readings and problem sets related to the readings. Readings will aim to give a wide knowledge of types of linguistic problems as well as an introduction to various theories of syntactic analysis. A major goal of the course is to teach the student the skill of being a critical, active reader. We will consider the readings from the point of view of uncovering and testing assumptions, recognizing and testing forms of argumentation, and recognizing and testing predictions of the analysis given. There will be no exams. There may be papers, depending upon the interests of the students. (Napoli)

417/Anthro. 476/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Languages change through time. The study of the regularities of language change leads to the identification of genetic relations among languages and the reconstruction of prehistoric proto-languages. This course is an introduction to the theory and methods of historical linguistics with major emphasis on sound change and the comparative method. Other topics include grammatical, semantic, and lexical change, internal reconstruction, language families, and non-genetic relations among languages (similarities due to contact or typology). Text: Arlotto, Introduction to historical linguistics. (Hill)

425. Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles. (3). (HU).

This course examines how speech varieties develop into languages. The goals of the course are: (1) to capture an overview of the pidgin and creole languages in the world; (2) to investigate the notion of the 'homogeneity' of natural languages; (3) to inquire into the nature of 'mixed' languages. The course will be conducted as a seminar. Requirements: (1) two short oral presentations, (2) a research paper, (3) a number of required/optional readings, and (3) a pot-luck dinner consisting of 'creole delicacies'. Students should have had one course with linguistic content, or the equivalent; otherwise, see the instructor. (Fodale)

445. Linguistics and Reading. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to a number of principles from the fields of linguistics and psycholinguistics, principles which are relevant to the understanding of the "reading process" and the teaching of reading. Requirements of the course are (1) a number of readings, (2) two oral reports, (3) a research paper, and (4) a final exam (which is optional). (Fodale)

475/Scandinavian 450. History and Structure of the Scandinavian Languages. Reading knowledge of a Scandinavian language. (3). (HU).

See Scandinavian 450. (Markey)

492. Topics in Linguistics. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Indian Literature in Translation.
Classic works of Indian literature from its ancient, medieval, and modern periods: Mahabharata, Ramayana, Kabir, Mirabai, Ghalib, Tagore, Premchand, Mohan Rakesh, and others. Genres include mythology, mystic poetry, short stories, plays, novels. Examined as the aesthetic expression of South Asian culture in its philosophical, social, and historical context. Open to all with an interest in acquainting themselves with one of the world's primary civilizations. Course comprises readings, lectures, class discussions, literary experiments, and a term paper. (Hook)

517, 518. Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics. 517: Permission of instructor; 518: Ling. 517. (3 each).

Linguistics 517 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

Methods of reconstruction and the concept of PIE (=Proto-Indo-European). PIE laryngeals, stops, vowels; accents; verbs and nouns; phrase structure; lexics. Archaisms of Hittite, Germanic, Balto-Slavic. Language and writing. Linguistics and archaeology. Grouping of Indo-European languages, and their relations to other languages (inheritance versus borrowings). No background needed. (Shevoroshkin)

Language Courses

170. English as a Foreign Language. Students will be placed in 170 based on the English Language Proficiency Examination. (4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for non-native speakers of English who do not pass the special English Language Skills Test. Instruction will be given by specialists from the Department of Linguistics and the English Language Institute. Group instruction will be provided weekly in three one hour sessions. If needed, small group/tutorial instruction will concentrate on the individual student's problems. Depending on the needs of the students, course work may include (a) writing for academic purposes: paragraph writing; basic rhetorical strategies; research paper; library resources and research techniques; essay examination writing; (b) speaking for academic purposes: techniques for giving oral presentations; techniques for participation in class discussion; (c) classroom interaction strategies. Students' progress will be assessed throughout and at the end of the course. (Soden)

222, 223. Elementary Ojibwa. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 223 is offered Winter, 1984.

Class is designed to give the conversational and cultural skills necessary to enable students to use Ojibwa in real life situations. The teaching methods are entirely inductive, and the role of writing is downplayed. There is considerable emphasis on teaching culturally appropriate behavior, and the simple conversational patterns of greetings, leave takings, introductions, table talk, etc. There is no prerequisite for this course. (Rhodes)

305, 306. Elementary Hindi-Urdu. (4 each). (FL).

Linguistics 306 is offered Winter, 1984.

A continuation of 305. Students with some prior background in Hindi may be able to enter the sequence at this point. Contact the instructor. (Hook)

307, 308. Elementary Tagalog. Ling. 307 is prerequisite to 308. (4 each). (FL).

Linguistics 308 is offered Winter, 1984.

Tagalog is the national language of the Philippines. Elementary Tagalog is a two-term sequence designed to give the student who has little or no knowledge of Tagalog the necessary basis for learning to speak it and to have a functional acquaintance with the cultural context in which it functions. Tagalog is particularly interesting in the way it has integrated the broad influences of both Spanish and English into its own syntactic and semantic systems. The oral approach is greatly emphasized in the classroom, using questions and answers and short dialogues to develop active use of the language in the most natural way possible. This is complemented by the use of taped lessons in the Language Laboratory. There are frequent short quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. At the end of the first year, the student should be able to handle brief exchanges in common social situations and to read and write simple Tagalog. For the student specializing in Philippine studies, learning Tagalog is a must. For the student specializing in language studies, a number of linguists of note have found Tagalog structure highly instructive in understanding certain aspects of language. For the student with Philippine affinities, learning Tagalog provides a bond of understanding and for some, a link to one's roots. For the student who has neither a Philippine connection nor a specialist interest in language, learning Tagalog can be rewarding as it provides an experience of new modes of expression and new ways of looking at the world around us and within ourselves. (Naylor)

322, 323. Intermediate Ojibwa. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 323 is offered Winter, 1984.

This course is designed to improve the basic conversational skills of the student who knows some Ojibwa. The emphasis in class is on increasing the range of situations in which the student can use Ojibwa in real life. Some emphasis is placed on teaching the students to be able to learn more Ojibwa outside of the classroom, by talking and using the language with native speakers. Prerequisite: Linguistics 222 and 223, or some speaking knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

331, 332/German 301, 302. Elementary Yiddish. Linguistics (Yiddish) 331 or the equivalent is prerequisite for 332. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 332 is offered Winter Term 1984.

This course is a continuation of the first term of Elementary Yiddish. Some familiarity with Yiddish (as proven by a previous course or interview with the instructor) is assumed. Student evaluations are based on exams, quizzes, written homework assignments, and oral classroom work. (Norich)

405, 406. Intermediate Hindi-Urdu. Ling. 306 is prerequisite to 405; Ling. 405 is prerequisite to 406. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 406 is offered Winter, 1984.

A continuation of 405. Students with some prior background in Hindi and in Urdu may be able to enter the sequence at this point. Contact the instructor. (Hook)

407, 408. Elementary Sanskrit. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 408 is offered Winter, 1984.

Ling. 408 (Elementary Sanskrit) is a continuation of Ling. 407. This course continues work on elementary Sanskrit grammar and involves reading stories in Sanskrit which have been written to fit particular levels of grammar. The goal of the course is to enable the student to read and write basic Sanskrit. The course involves a considerable amount of homework. The final evaluation is based on quizzes, midterm test, and final examination. (Mehta)

422, 423. Advanced Ojibwa. Ling. 322 and 323, or permission of instructor. (3 each). (Excl).

Linguistics 423 is offered Winter, 1984.

This course is aimed at giving students with conversational ability in Ojibwa the opportunity to both improve their speaking and listening skills and to introduce them to Ojibwa literature, and the various dialects represented in the literature. Students will work with the original, unedited texts, as well as with edited, retranscribed materials, and thus learn about the problems of working in a language without a widely accepted standard writing system. Prerequisite: Linguistics 322 and 323, or a conversational knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

433, 434. Intermediate Tagalog. Ling. 314 or permission of instructor is prerequisite to 433; Ling. 433 or permission of instructor is prerequisite to 434. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 434 is offered Winter, 1984.

This is a two-term sequence in which the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog expands his knowledge, develops fluency, and becomes acquainted with Tagalog literature. While the oral approach continues, there is much greater emphasis on reading and writing and much heavier cultural content in the materials read. In the first term, one meeting a week is devoted to the study of grammar. The rest of the time is spent in oral reading (dramatization) of a series of story episodes in dialogue form, translation, question-and-answer on content, and discussion of the linguistic and cultural aspects of each episode. Written homework is regularly assigned. To complement the grammar lessons, tapes are available at the Language Laboratory. There will be occasional quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The second term is essentially a continuation of the first. Instead of dialogues, however, we read narratives and essays and instead of studying grammar separately, we integrate it with work on the readings which provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points. At the end of the second year, the student should have acquired (a) sufficient competence to handle short conversations, write brief letters, read texts of low to medium complexity, and (b) a broader knowledge of the culture that the language is an expression of and in which the language functions. (Naylor)

505, 506. Advanced Hindi-Urdu. Ling. 406 is prerequisite to 505; Ling. 505 is prerequisite to 506. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 506 is offered Winter, 1984.

A continuation of 505. (Advanced Hindi-Urdu, first term.) (Hook)

507, 508. Advanced Sanskrit. Ling. 408 is prerequisite to 507; Ling. 507 is prerequisite to 508. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 508 is offered Winter, 1984.

Ling. 508 (Advanced Sanskrit) is a continuation of Ling. 507. This course continues work on advanced grammar of classical Sanskrit and also involves reading simple stories, parts of Sanskrit dramas and other similar classical literary texts. The goal of the course is to prepare the student to read non-technical classical Sanskrit. (Mehta)


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