Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

150. Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 457. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS).

An introductory and developmental psychology course for Inteflex students. (L. Nadelman)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 002-011.
This course presents material about areas of psychology that emphasize a study of behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, the human senses, behavior in relation to the nervous system, and animal behavior. The course meets four hours per week. Each section is taught individually by a graduate teaching fellow who has responsibility for his/her section. Thus, there are substantial variations among sections.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a time slot ONLY (sections 001-010). Students should check the TIME SCHEDULE (final edition) for the day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-010). During this first meeting, the instructors present their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. Students, then, apply to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to the instructor at this first meeting. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych. 171. Wait list (Section 099) students must attend the special meeting listed in the Time Schedule. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-010) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR to the meeting to retain their space in the course or on the Wait List.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. The major objectives of the course are to increase knowledge concerning causes of behavior and to develop an ability and desire to learn more about behavior, especially human behavior. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, creativity, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation and human sexuality, emotion, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy, interpersonal relations, aggression and violence, and environmental psychology. The discussion sections provide an opportunity to pursue particular topics in greater depth and detail, to share experiences with others, and to learn from this sharing. The text for the course is Smith, Sarason, and Sarason Psychology (Second Edition). The discussion sections require some additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects or film critiques. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. (Morris)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This section of Psychology 192 is taught on a "mastery system." Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell).

Section 002. This course provides an even-handed treatment of the subject matter of psychology, from "soft" to "hard" (psychoanalytic personality theory, social interaction, child development, learning, thinking, perceiving, statistical reasoning, nervous system and behavior). The emphasis is on the scientific aspects of psychology: What do we know; what is the evidence for what we know. Format: lecture, discussion, some films. (Relatively hard-nosed text, no papers). Exams require knowledge of subject matter plus reasoning. (Weintraub)

Section 003. This course covers the basic psychological processes, namely, perception, learning, and motivation. The emphasis is on cognitive and social factors. Less attention is given to biological or clinical issues. There are regular lectures and discussions. Grades are based on papers and exams. (Burnstein)

Section 004. This course offers a broad coverage of topics in psychology, including the biological basis of behavior, learning, memory, thinking, problem-solving, language, motivation, emotion, and the social, clinical and developmental areas. Class time includes lectures, as well as discussions of assigned readings and special projects. Students are expected to keep up with a considerable amount of reading, and to actively contribute to classroom discussion. Grading will be based on frequent quizzes, one or more short papers, and written reports of special projects. Readings will consist of a text, scholarly articles, and contemporary non-fiction books. (Ratte)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Two credit projects require six hours of work per week including four hours of fieldwork, log writing, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Information regarding registration, lecture/discussion times, and field work will be available at a MASS MEETING ON MONDAY, NOVEMBER 28 AT 7 PM in AUD. B ANGELL HALL. Students attending this meeting will be given priority in setting placements. For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two settings of Psych 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R. D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300-309. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Community Psychology area. A maximum of four credit hours can be earned during any one term. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Community Psychology Area or the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course.

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis, and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes interpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be frequent small papers and one final long, integrative essay. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures, optional workshops and small discussion groups, and there will be opportunity to elect a coherent program of independent study for a portion of the course. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a critical overview of problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. Consistent with the underlying paradigms of the area, the course emphasizes understanding of social problems from the perspective of person-environment interactions and an ecological and general systems approach. In this framework, it examines the nature of community and community systems, aspects of helping and helping services, dynamics of social services institutions and community mental health, and emerging models of social and community intervention. Through widely varied readings, guest presentations, and class projects, the course explores issues of pro-active and preventive social programming, self-help and social support, empowerment and community actions, and community-based research and social change. Student learning and grading will be based on active class participation, a series of short papers, one major term project, and a take-home examination. Students are encouraged, but not required, to participate in volunteer field-work related to course content, and will be allowed to utilize that experience in addressing course requirements. (Kieffer)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology, by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams, classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations and weekly discussion sections. (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course was designed primarily for persons interested in pursuing programs that would involve direct work with families. Its thrust is decidedly "clinical" as opposed to "social survey" or "cross-culturally comparative." These latter topics will be touched on only insofar as they enlighten what is happening (or not happening) to the family in contemporary American society. Thus, the course will deal with the history of socio-clinical concern with the "plight" of the American family in the last 20 years. The conceptual orientations in the course will be distinctively those of "general systems theory" and "symbolic interactionism." The sociology of deviance within the family system will receive major emphasis psychopathologies will be reconstrued within a family systems context. The organization of the course will, in fact, be developmental. That is it will trace the life cycle of families from mate-selection through developmental crisis to dissolution, single parenthood, remarriage, family reconstruction, and do so with a continual awareness of social context. Contrasts and parallels with other "clinical" theories and therapies (i.e., psychoanalytic) will serve as constant counterpoint, and be used to highlight implicit and/or explicit assumptions about family dynamics, as well as ethical concerns about how, why and when one intervenes in family systems. Concomitantly, social modes of "researching" families in today's society will be considered on ethical, heuristic, political and presumptive grounds. Dilemmas for the "researcher" and the "researched," the "treated" and the "treater" will be considered. Required texts are Goldenberg & Goldenberg (eds.) Family Therapy: An Overview, Bermann, Scapegoat: The Impact of Death Fear on an American Family, Napier and Whitiker, The Family Crucible and a course pack. Grading in the course is based on class presentation and discussion (l5%), a midterm exam (20%), a final exam (30%) and a term paper. (Bermann)

Section 002. The purposes of this course are to familiarize students with family theories, assessment procedures and interventions; to explore conceptualizations of effective and ineffective family functioning; and to acquaint students with major stressors affecting family life and the ways families organize themselves to respond to those stressors. Topics included in the course are theoretical approaches to families including general systems, structural family, psychodynamic and behavioral. Also included are empirical theories regarding marital relationships and a review of several major stressors including work, divorce, family violence and chronic illnesses and the impact that these stressors have on family life. The course will use both lecture and discussion formats. Evaluation of students' performance will be based on two short multiple choice exams, several take home essays related to lectures and reading and a three-part family assessment. Goldenberg and Goldenberg, Family Therapy, An Overview and journal articles will comprise assigned readings. (Barbarin)

391. Honors II: Research Methods in Psychology. Psych. 390 and permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl).

The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is sufficiently challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare several substantial reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. In addition, the course will contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (R. Kaplan)

400-409 Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

Psychology 403 is offered Winter Term 1984.

403/Relig. 424. Personality and Religious Development. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to help students explore the psychological and spiritual dimensions of personal change and growth. Lectures will focus first on understanding various conceptions of human development including Freud's personality development, Jung's process of individuation, Erikson's eight stages of man, and the Eastern mystical view of sadhana or the spiritual journey. Attention will be paid to the spiritual aspects of life cycle stages such as birth, infancy, the adolescent identity crisis, the mid-life crisis, and the experience of aging and dying. Secondly, the lectures will move us toward understanding the dynamics of particular states of awareness such as dreaming, alienation, peak experiencing, creativity, neuroticism, and intentionality. A third focus will evolve in smaller discussion meetings and more personalized reading and writing in which the objective will be to grow in understanding one's own life. First we'll read and present to the group a spiritual autobiography such as the life of Gandhi, Thomas Merton, or Carl Jung, and then we'll write our own spiritual autobiography. The final paper will provide an opportunity to review the course and integrate further individualized reading. Midterm and final exams will be based on prepared questions, and each will cover half of the course. (J.Mann)

414. Advanced Laboratory in Behavior Modification. Prior enrollment in Psych. 474. (3). (NS).

Students in Psychology 414 will learn more about the techniques of behavior modification and will have the opportunity to apply these techniques in one of a wide variety of settings.

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning November 21. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward of the Neuropsychiatric Institute at University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology or Physiology. (3). (NS).

This lecture course surveys the field of psychobiology. This is an area of study concerned with biological explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. The organ responsible for these functions is the brain, and therefore most of the course deals with brain-behavior relations. Introductory lectures on neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuropharmacology are followed by a discussion of the neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), sleep and waking states, regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning and memory and hormones and behavior. IMPORTANT NOTE : Students must register for one discussion section in addition to the lecture. (Becker)

435. Sensory Functions. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology, or Physiology. (3). (NS).

All information about the world around us as well as within us is made known through our various senses (vision, hearing, smell, etc.). Our sensory acuity, as revealed by our behavior in the detection and discrimination of different environmental events (visual, auditory, olfactory, etc.), and the manner in which the senses receive and transmit information to the central nervous system and brain form the subject matter of this course. Sample topics include color vision, depth perception, sound localization, and sensory disabilities such as color blindness and hearing loss brought about by exposure to loud noise. Evaluation will be made by two midterms and one final exam. Instruction is by lecture-discussion format. Discussion is encouraged. (Uttal)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes scientific study of motivation. It considers principles of motivation in depth. It aims to encourage further development of an understanding of science in the context of studying some intrinsically interesting problems: the methods employed to measure individual differences in personality that influence motivation, and the details of the motivational process that underlies behavior. The analysis of personality-motivation-action focuses mainly but not exclusively on the inevitable conflict between the hope of success and the fear of failure arising in efforts to achieve and what has been learned in extensive studies of motivation to achieve. Much of the lecture/discussion concerns algebraic models of motivation, evaluation of experimental findings, even computer simulation of motivational problems. Generally some background in several psychology courses and statistics is recommended but not required. Students having only introductory psychology are not advised to take this course unless they feel competent and comfortable with algebra and have a strong interest in scientific psychology. Assignments involve a combination of text and reserve or course pack readings. Final grade is based on several hour exams and written work (problems or essays) submitted during the term. (Atkinson)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).
Section 001.
The focus of this course is adult human memory. We will examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and limited discussion where appropriate. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in their junior or senior years. (Trahan)

Section 002. A discussion of psychological principles and applications of research in children's learning and memory. Emphasis will be placed on such topics as developmental changes, modes of learning, early experience, scholastic achievement, learning disabilities, cross-cultural comparisons, and influences of factors such as home environment, television viewing, and neurological status. Two examinations, a midterm and a final, and a research paper of moderate length will be used as the basis of grading. The primary method of instruction is lecture, with several discussion section sections during the term. (Stevenson)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The course is an introduction to several approaches to the field of personality: psychoanalytic, phenomenological, cognitive, trait, social learning, and cognitive-behavioral. There will be two lectures and one discussion section per week. Lectures will focus on theory, research, and assessment. Discussions will address a case study, an experiment, or an assessment technique. Students will be evaluated by a midterm exam, a term paper, and a final exam. Texts: Pervin, Personality: Theory, Assessment, Research, and Goethals & Klos, Experiencing Youth: First-Person Accounts. (Klos)

Section 006. This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on three exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and research articles. This section will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 519 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The primary purpose of this course is to expose students to the theories and research findings relating to the processes by which an individual becomes a social being. An attempt is also made to make the course personally meaningful so that students gain some insights into their own social development so that they can develop practical applications of the material. For psychology concentrators, some time is spent critically examining research methods and suggesting problem areas needing further investigation. Students evaluated on the basis of midterm, final, and term paper. Lecture and discussion. (M. Hoffman)

Section 002. This course will cover a wide variety of topics pertaining to children's socialization. Children live in a multi-faceted social world, and are influenced by diverse socialization agents. These include agents in the home (parents, siblings, television), school (teachers, peers), and in the broader social and cultural context. The distinctive contribution of these different agents at different periods in children's lives will be covered. Some of the key topics to be discussed include the development of attachment between parents and infants, moral development, sex-typing and sex-role development, achievement motivation, communication skills development and the development of children's friendships. Since much of the research on children's socialization has applied as well as conceptual concerns, and since advances have been made toward the solution of significant problems in children's lives, the course will have a strong practical focus. Student evaluation will be based on a paper and course examinations. The primary methods of instruction will be lecture and discussion. Readings will be from a variety of sources. (Wisfield)

454. Analysis of Interpersonal Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The purpose of this course is for students to gain an understanding of interpersonal relations as they develop in an unstructured group setting. As members of the group, students observe and attempt to understand the processes of their own group. What caused the group to take the turn it did? Why is its mood different today? What norms are emerging? Who are its leaders - formal and informal? What myths, fantasies, or assumptions seem to underlie group moods or behaviors? What role does each of us play in the group? These are some of the questions we try to answer. In brief planned sessions students analyze the previous session, and apply concepts and insights from the literature on groups in the effort to understand this group's history and development. In longer unstructured sessions students interact and reflect on the process. Three papers during the term each include: (1) an analysis of a third of the sessions' key events, meanings, myths, mood shifts, norms, leaders, etc.; (2) and concepts from readings; (3) an analysis of one's own part in the group. Psychology 454 provides in depth, experiential learning about groups through participation in a self-analytic group limited to twenty people. (J. Mann)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course considers the physical, cognitive, and emotional-social development of children from conception to adolescence. Methodologies and theories are evaluated. The emphasis is on the development of normal children in western cultures, although some cross-cultural data and factors making for difficult development are also considered. The format of this section will be two hours auditorium lectures and one hour small discussion groups. Three exams plus one or two short papers will be the basis of evaluation. Opportunity to work in a preschool setting will be provided as an option. (Barclay)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. Credit for Psychology 459 is not granted to students who have earned credit for Course Mart 383 (Dimensions of Human Aging), Public Health 595, or both University Course 435 and Education H520. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes in adulthood and old age using a life span developmental perspective. Special emphasis is given to such topics as continuity across the life span; men and women in middle age; normal biological aging; aging, health and health behaviors; intelligence over the life course; housing issues among the elderly; retirement; common psychological problems of the elderly; death, dying and grief. Time permitting, additional special problems of the elderly will be considered as well as the future of aging and a life-long perspective on aging. The course consists of both lecture and discussions. The students are required to complete assigned readings, class exercises, and/or projects. Evaluation will be based on the above in addition to examinations and written paper(s). (Antonucci)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on group behavior in organizational contexts and is the second class in a series that also includes Psychology 363 (The Individual in the Organization) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). Group dynamics, group process, and group structure will be addressed in terms of both their impact on individuals and their implications for the design of organizations. The class will emphasize group theory, experiential learning and practical application of group principles, and should offer a number of opportunities for relatively independent study and research experience. Cases illustrating group and organizational design principles will be drawn from contemporary organizations, and will be used to provide a balance between the theoretical and the practical. (Denison)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course examines a wide spectrum of deviant behavior, including normal variants of functioning, neurotic difficulties, character pathology, and the psychoses. Selected additional topics vary somewhat, but can include childhood psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, multiple personality, manic-depressive disorder, and the issue of the criminal insanity defense. The possible causes of the various forms of psychopathology are examined, with emphasis on psychological causation; attention is also given to recent advances in psychophysiological correlates of mental illness. Treatment modalities are addressed, including forms of psychotherapy, behavioral methods, and psychopharmacology. Finally, there will be discussion of social and legal issues relevant to the deviant individual. This is a lecture course, with a recommended discussion section. Students will be evaluated primarily on the basis of examinations. (Adelson)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course provides a survey of research on attitude and belief formation and change, with special emphasis on the role of inference processes in producing beliefs and on the role of social inference in altering beliefs. The question of people's awareness of their beliefs and inference processes is discussed at length, as are questions of the degree to which, and the manner in which, beliefs influence behavior. Psychology 280 and a statistics course would be helpful, but not essential, background. Lecture is the format; evaluation is based on a midterm and a final.

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology, Natural Science. Psychology 170 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (NS).
Section 001 Reproductive Behavior in Mammals.
This seminar on mechanisms in mammalian reproductive behavior is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in the biological basis of behavior. The course assumes that students have a basic background in Biology (e.g., Biol. 105, 112, or 114) and behavior (e.g., Psych 430, Zool. 130, or Anthro. 368), but there are no specific prerequisites. Humans will be discussed in the course, but only as one of many examples in mammalian reproduction. Course format will involve a combination of lectures and student discussions of research articles. Proximal mechanisms will be stressed in the treatment of various topics: the genetic determination of sex and sexual behavior, hormonal influences on sexual behavior, pregnancy and parental care, seasonal breeding and the timing of reproduction, and the influence of social and environmental factors on reproduction. Grades will be assigned on the basis of in-class essay exams, a short paper, and participation in discussions. (Holmes)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (SS).
Section 001 Human Infancy.
This course is the first offering of what is planned to be a new undergraduate course on Human Infancy. In the past two decades an enormous amount has been learned about the nature of human infancy. This course will survey what is known about the development of human infants during the first two years of life. Both basic research and applications will be covered, including issues relevant to social policy. Topics will include: the biological basis of development, the prenatal period, the neonate, physical and motor processes, sensory and perceptual development, learning and memory, cognition, early language development, social interaction, emotional development, separation and attachment, and the high risk infant. The course will be taught primarily through lectures supplemented with visual aids (slides, films, viewgraphs). There will be three exams plus several short, written projects. This course is more focused and advanced than Psychology 457. It is comparable in level to Psychology 451, 453, and 459. (Olson)

Section 002 Women and Work. The topic of women and work has become a popular one in recent years as greater numbers enter or re-enter the labor force. Historically, large segments of the female population have always worked although more women are now gaining access to male dominated occupations as well as deriving some gratification from their employment experiences. This course will explore, from a variety of perspectives, primarily psychological in nature, the impact of work on the lives of women. As a result, we hope to emerge from this course with greater and more useful knowledge regarding women and work. Particular emphasis will be given to definitions of work, women's labor history, working mothers, work and aging, women and occupations (with an in-depth examination of a range of jobs). Students should have an introductory course in some special area of psychology (e.g., social, developmental, personality) or introductory psychology. Students will be required to read extensively from journals, current books and literature. Some examples: Baruch, G. et al Life Prints: New Patterns of Love and Work for Today's Women, Coles & Coles, Women in Crisis, and Kanter, R. Men and Women of the Corporation. Two short papers and a larger research project will also be required. (Coleman)

Section 003 Coping with Stress. This course focuses on how people cope with various stresses that occur during the life span. A variety of different stresses will be studied, including undesirable life events like illness or losing a lovedone; life transitions like going to college, deciding on a career or getting married; and minor stressors such as too much to do or getting caught in traffic. The course will also explore some special topics related to stress, such as happiness and depression. The course will also consider how we treat others who are experiencing stress, and will focus on why people under stress often receive "help" from others that only makes them feel worse. The course will consider theories of coping with stress as well as some treatments that are currently used. The course is run in a small discussion format and will be limited to fifteen students. Evaluation will be based on a series of short papers and one final paper at the end of the term. (Wortman)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).

This course will review theory and empirical evidence about the psychological development and personal integration of women. Biological and primate research, developmental, personality, and social psychological research will be considered as it clarifies sex differences and female development. (Douvan)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 266: Research on Family Assessment.
This research laboratory course will acquaint students with structured methods of family assessment, especially methods which use self-report scales, observations and simulations. In the course, students will get an overview of assessment techniques widely used in family research and intervention. In addition, students will learn how family measures are constructed and validated, how measures relate to family theory, how to evaluate the psychometric properties of existing family measures. The course will examine the use of Cronbach's Alpha and Cohen's Kappa to estimate internal consistency and inter-rater reliability and Campbell's approach to construct validity. The course will rely on lectures, demonstrations, readings and discussions to cover course material. Using a team approach, students will design and conduct a validity study of a paper-and-pencil measure of family process. Evaluation of student performance will be based on class participation and on the final written report of the results of the validity study. Throughout the course emphasis will be given to several family assessment techniques widely used in clinical intervention and research (viz., Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Environment Scale, Family Process Scales, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and SIMFAM) and to problems of evaluating families in special situations e.g., divorced, single parent, seriously ill, culturally different, etc. (Barbarin)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

510. Advanced Laboratory in Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 430 and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to train students in the observation and quantitative description of behavior in order to understand its adaptive significance. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection will provide the theoretical basis for the interpretation of observed behavior. Several animal groups will be studied (e.g., insects, fishes, birds, mammals, humans) during laboratory and occasional field (outdoor) exercises. Exercises will consist of a short introductory lecture and a longer "hands on" lab in which naturalistic behavior (e.g., aggression, courtship, feeding) will be observed and recorded. A journal article related to each lab will be read. Student evaluation will be based on weekly lab reports, and a research design paper on some topic in animal behavior. (Holmes)

512. Advanced Laboratory in Motivation and Behavior. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 442. (3). (SS).

This advanced lab is designed for students who have already taken Psychology 442. It will emphasize computer simulation of motivation and the role of the computer in planning empirical investigations and in spelling out the behavioral implications of the theory of motivation. Each student will have an opportunity to explore some unresolved problem at the frontier of the science. The work will culminate in a report including the design for an empirical study and plan for statistical analysis of expected results. Background in computer programming is helpful but not required. Students with unusually strong academic records may request permission to take this lab concurrently with Psychology 442. (Atkinson)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
In this section students work in small groups. Find a problem that they truly care about. Construct an original experiment in that area. Invent original ways to measure behavior. Do quantitative measurements. Are graded on their work throughout the term. Absolutely must attend all class sessions and must work about six hours a week with their group members outside of class. Statistics 402 meets the statistics prerequisite. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459, and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. Application blanks are on the bulletin board near 3406A Mason Hall. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in class projects during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Cantor)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (SS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What information do we take into account when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? What are the rules we use to reconcile multiple and conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how decision problems are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is subject to serious errors which can have dire practical consequences. The course considers when such errors should occur. It also discusses ways these errors can be prevented. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures and discussions. The course also contains many demonstrations in which class members participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group I requirement. Grades are based on three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average "B" or slightly better. (Yates)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This lecture/discussion course deals primarily with the cognitive and behavioral effects of dysfunction of the human central nervous system. The first part of the course will briefly review basic neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology and neurophysiology. This will be followed by an introduction to the neurological exam, methods of neurological diagnosis, neuropsychological testing and neurological disorders (including vascular, demyelinizing and infectious diseases, tumors, epilepsies and congenital anomalies). After this we will examine the concept of cerebral asymmetry and the disorders of language, learning and memory, perception, personality, visuo-spatial functions and motor control which result from human brain damage. A discussion of possible sex differences in brain organization and the use of psychosurgery in treating psychiatric disorders will also be included. Although we will concentrate on the effects of human brain damage we will attempt to integrate relevant data from the "animal" literature, as well as studies with normal human subjects. Grade based on objective type exams. (Robinson)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

Students in this course are assigned to various institutions where they work with a group of children, adolescents, or young adults for about three to four hours a week. There are also weekly class meetings to provide for the discussion of relevant material and for group supervision opportunities. Assignments include readings about development and the effects of institutionalization, weekly logs, and a final paper. Lab fee. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course considers biosocial developments during the adolescent years. The adolescent is considered in relation to the social roles and biological features that change during the period. We will consider the family roles (son/daughter), the student/worker role, the role of friend and potential partner, the citizen role and the role of believer as they are cast for the adolescent as they are affected by maturational forces. (Douvan)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. The Clinical Perspective. Psych. 452 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2) to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. (Lohr)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

590, 591. Honors III and IV. Psych. 390 and permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3 each). (Excl).
Section 001.
This seminar provides a setting in which students discuss general substantive and methodological issues that arise in completing the research for their Honors theses. In addition, there are regular tutorials in which each student reviews his or her own work with the instructor. Grading is based primarily on the thesis itself (which should be completed by the end of the term), or an approximation thereof (e.g., a lengthy progress report); some weight is also given to seminar presentations. (Burnstein)

Section 002. The course, second in the sequence for Psychology Honors seniors, is intended to assist each student in carrying out an independent research project that culminates in an oral presentation and a formal written report. (Weintraub)

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