Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, this course serves as an introduction to anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. The format of the course is three weekly lectures and one weekly discussion section, which will serve as a question and answer session. The required text is Weiss and Mann, Human Biology and Behavior. The course grade will be based on three hour exams given at approximately equal intervals throughout the course. (Brainard)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Text: A.R. Frisancho, Human Adaptation. (Brace)

368. Primate Social Behavior. (4). (NS).

An introductory course which will offer students knowledge of the primate order and its major divisions, together with a detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be on the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, and special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, sex differences, competition and cooperation, kinship systems, sexual behavior and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. Three lecture hours and one discussion section weekly. One midterm and one final exam. Required texts are Hrdy, The Woman that Never Evolved and Jolly, The Evolution of Primate Behavior. (Whitten)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Wolpoff)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Only Anthropology 399 is offered Winter Term, 1984. Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

An intermediate-level introduction to human population genetics, emphasizing application of the basic concepts and quantitative methods of population genetics to anthropological data and human population structure. The first half of the course deals with single locus-two allele models and the second half with the application of genetic models to quantitative measurements. Course grade is based on a midterm and a final examination. A study guide serves as a basis for examination questions. (Livingstone)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course is concerned with the ecological determinants of modern human genetic variation and how this relates to human evolution. Relevant principles of ecology, human and population genetics, and biological adaptation are covered in the first part of the course, followed by consideration of several environmental stresses and ecological constraints that may have had a significant impact on the evolution of human populations. The format is three weekly lectures, during which discussion is encouraged. A course pack of readings and sample problems and questions will be required. The course grade will be based on a midterm examination and a final paper. (Brainard)

471. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

566. Laboratory in Human Osteology. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The course is concerned with the identification and interpretation of human skeletal remains. Emphasis is placed on both the individual and populational levels of interpretation. Topics include the basic biology of normal bone, pathology, and variation in form. Identification and reconstruction of fragmentary materials as well as reconstruction of populational characteristics (age, sex, life history data, metric description) are covered. The course includes lecture and laboratory work. It is specifically designed for archaeologists and biological anthropologists but would also be of use to pre-dental and pre-medical students who will take gross anatomy in the future. (Wolpoff)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although cultural anthropology is emphasized, Anthropology 101 is a survey course in which the principles unifying the four sub-disciplines of anthropology (archaeology, biological anthropology, ethnology and linguistics) are introduced. It is the basic course for concentrators but also aims to provide other students with fresh viewpoints from which to view the social world and its relationship to nature. Topics discussed include the concepts of culture, society and the individual and how they relate to language, communication and systems of thought and meaning. Anthropological theories to be stressed will cover biological and cultural evolution as expressed in the fossil and archaeological record, the issue of race, ideas of kinship and human social institutions, economic organization and its evolutionary impact, the role of religion and myth in human existence, the existence of relativistic perspectives pertaining to humanity, and how anthropology tries to comprehend present day life. There are three weekly lectures. A text and ethnographic paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. Two hourly examinations are given during the term, the last on the last day of class. No final. Short assignments are also made in recitation sections. Six credit hours option : Students who wish to explore the subject matter of anthropology in greater depth than is ordinarily possible in an introductory course should register for Section 014 (which will meet for two hours at a time to be arranged). Students who elect this section will receive 2 additional credits for a total of 6 credits. (In order to receive this credit students selecting Section 014 should register for both Anthropology 101, for the regular 4 credits, and Anthropology 499, Section 030, for the additional 2 credits.) The syllabus for students electing the 6-credit option will include extra reading that is not required of other students, and they will be required to submit extra written work. Those students will be encouraged to focus on those areas of anthropology in which they have a special interest. Students in the Honors Program are welcome to enroll in Section 014 if they wish to earn the extra credit, but they are not required to do so. Interested students should obtain an override from the departmental office, 1054 LSA. (Yengoyan)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. (4). (SS).

The course will deal with several topics that relate language to society. (1) The evolution of language in the human species and the implications of our unique system of communication for the form of human society. (2) Language and social class, including the special characteristics of Black English, and the challenge that dialect differences pose in education and in other areas of our society. (3) National language policy toward dialect and language differences, particularly in developing nations. (4) Language acquisition as one part of cultural learning among children, and second language learning by adults. (5) The Whorfian hypothesis - varied ways of talking and varied ways of thinking. The interrelations between language and our mental processes. (6) The effect of writing upon human society. The differences between literate and non-literate cultures. (7) The impact of modern information processing and telecommunications upon human society. Readings will consist of Trudgill, Sociolinguistics, and a course pack. There will be two one-hour essay exams and a two-hour final. A term paper will be optional. The course has no prerequisite except for a curiosity about the interrelations between language and human society. (Burling)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides a general introduction to the peoples and cultures of the contemporary Near East and North Africa, an area comprising the Arab countries, Turkey and Iran. Conceptually divided into two parts, the course surveys contemporary Middle Eastern culture from the prospective of its cultural variations and transformations. Part One examines Islam as a vital cultural and social force defining present-day Middle Eastern societies. Part Two is devoted to an in-depth study of ethnographic case-studies illustrative of various forms of social organizations nomadic, peasant, urban prevalent in contemporary Middle Eastern society. A number of current controversies surrounding Middle Eastern culture are presented in lecture format and student discussion is encouraged. Examinations consist of a midterm and a final. No papers are required. Required readings consist of five works. Prior knowledge of anthropology or the Near East and North Africa is not assumed. (Abraham)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on institutional characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. (Owusu)

415. Andean Civilization. Concentrator or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course will consist of a detailed study of the social and political-economic structures of Andean civilization and their relation to ritual and cosmology. It will show how Andean cultural principles of reciprocity and redistribution were expressed in the Inca state, and how the state incorporated local-level groups through kinship and ritual organization. Continuities and changes in basic principles of organization and activities (reciprocity, land and water tenure, pastoralism, ritual, verbal art) in modern Quechua and Aymara speaking communities will be shown using ethnohistoric and contemporary ethnographic materials, with special emphasis on indigenous responses to the conquest and continued domination by non-Andeans. (Mannheim)

486/GNE 486. Dawn of Mesopotamian civilization. (3). (HU).

This course will appeal to students from diverse disciplines who are interested in the rise of the world's first civilization viewed conjointly from the perspective of both social scientists and humanists. Data from both cuneiform texts in Sumerian and Akkadian and from archaeologically known villages, towns, and cemeteries will be used to develop understanding of Mesopotamia between 3300 B.C. to 2000 B.C. from the first urban states to the earliest bureaucratic empires. (Wright, Michalowski)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Readings, discussions, and reports on problems in modern ethnology. (Burling)

359. Workshop in Cultural Analysis. Anthro. 330. (2). (SS).

This course is complementary to Anthropology 330 in that it provides an opportunity to do cultural analysis of familiar materials (from one's own culture) in a small seminar format. Course requirements consist of: (1) a final paper containing data and analysis; (2) a preliminary version of the paper; and (3) a prospectus for the project (early in the term). The materials assembled by each participant will be discussed thoroughly in class, and the methods of analysis will be elaborated upon in detail by the instructor. (Carroll)

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second term of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first term of their senior year. Interested students should consult with Prof. Carroll, the Department Honors Adviser. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. Anthropology 399 is a continuation of Anthropology 398. Both constitute the senior Honors sequence for students who are accepted into the Anthropology-Archaeology Honors Program. Anthropology 399 is devoted to completing an individual Honors research project and to writing and defending an Honors Thesis. (Ford)

428. Ethnopersonality: Native Concepts of Self and Person. Junior standing or Cult. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

In contrast to "culture and personality" approach in anthropology, which has tended to be a psychological study of cultures, ethnopersonality offers a cultural analysis of native categories of self and person by means of which human social behavior is motivated and made meaningful. The study of ethnopersonality is centered around such concerns as who is and who is not classified as a person, how identity is determined, and what developmental processes persons are believed to experience. The course will begin with a discussion of the ideas of Mauss, Hallowell, Fortes, Dumont, Geertz and several other anthropologists that inspired more recent studies in ethnopersonality. This will be followed by a detailed examination of several native models of self and person and their expression in life-cycle rituals, kinship, ideas about power, and in other cultural domains. Finally, indigenous notions of the relationship between selfhood and emotion will also be discussed. Course prerequisites include junior standing and Anthropology 101 or 222. Course format consists of lectures, discussions and films. Course requirements include two take-home exams and a paper. (Kan)

437. Anthropology and Economic Systems. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course reviews some of the main issues in economic anthropology, using both case studies and theoretical writings. The purpose is to explore the differences between industrial and preindustrial societies. Topics will include technological/ecological limitations on production, the social organization of production, modes of exchange and distribution, factors in economic decision-making, innovation and change. Materials will cover hunter/ gatherer societies, simple agricultural societies, pre-capitalist complex State societies, and the peasant sector in modernizing countries. The course format will consist of lectures and discussion. Students will be asked to write one long paper (about 20 pages) on a topic of their choice and to make a brief oral presentation in class. (Diamond)

449. Metaphor Enacted: Magic, Healing and Ritual Transformations. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course will be a detailed study of the structure and function of magic, healing and ritual and the roles these play in human society as devices of transformation. We will start from the premise that metaphor and metonymy are two complementary processes whose powers to transform are employed differently by each of the three. The core of the course will be ethnographic data, both classic (e.g., Evans-Pritchard, Kluckhon, and Junod) and recent (e.g., the instructor's), which would be selected both for its wealth of detail and its geographic spread. Theoretical works will form the illuminating complement to the data and, in keeping with the concept of enacted metaphor, will include such philosophers and literary writers as Max Black, Kenneth Burke, and Wittgenstein; as well as authors such as Arnheim, Fraser, V. Turner, de Heusch, and Levi-Strauss. Classes will be combinations of lectures and discussion by students, who will be expected to have completed the relevant readings prior to each class. Ideas or points to be considered while reading will be suggested by the instructor, to assist students in their work. Evaluation will be made on the basis of a short paper, a midterm exam, and a take-home final exam. Students wishing to do so may substitute a longer research paper for the final exam. Its topic and form must be approved by the instructor, and the student is expected to keep in close touch with the instructor throughout the term. (Roberts)

457. The Film and Other Visual Media in Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This is primarily a course on ethnographic film, although we will also consider and compare the use of still photography, video-tape, and television, as these are relevant to the portrayal of society and culture. Much of class time will be devoted to the viewing and discussion of particular visual materials. There will be one evening session each week, during which we will view 1-2 hours of ethnographic films (these will be open to the public and free of charge). In addition, there will be two class meetings a week devoted to lectures, discussions, and some more visual materials. The text is Heider, Ethnographic Film, plus shorter articles. Class requirements will consist of two essay type exams and a video production. (A workshop to teach all video skills necessary will be arranged.) The class is intended for students of (and those with a serious interest in) both anthropology and film. (Lockwood)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Warfare in Tribal Society.
This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and the adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare includes: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/222 or equivalent or permission of instructor. This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. (Kelly)

Section 002 Ethnopoetics. How do we understand the verbal art of non-western peoples without imposing our preconceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship and textuality? If poetic form, devices and traditions vary so much from culture to culture, how can we hope to understand them? And if we do manage to understand how another culture patterns its verbal art in performance, how do we translate and represent it without parodying the other culture? This course will consider recent (and some not so recent) efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels. First, we will want to develop a methodology which allows us to discover "unsuspected devices and intentions" which form indigenous poetries and texts, "unsuspected" in that they draw upon aspects of language which our own traditions bypass, and "unsuspected in that they have often been collected and published without cognizance of those devices and intententions. This forces us to develop a view of language which is adequate to interpret "oral literatures" as they shape and are shaped by the cultures of which they are part. What relevance does such a view of language have for our culture's theories of verbal art, text and performance? Finally, in what ways can it contribute to reshaping anthropology itself? Course format consists of lectures with discussion. Readings: Steven Feld, Sound and Sentiment; Dell Hymes, In Vain I Tried to Tell You...; Brian Swann, Smoothing the Ground; Dennis Tedlock, The Spoken Word and the Work of Interpretation; and selected articles. (Mannheim)

Section 003 Culture and Art. This course is designed to explore the relationship between a society's culture and the art which it produces. The course will begin with an examination of what anthropologists mean by the term "culture." We will then discuss what an artist is, in our society and in a selection of Asian and African societies. The nature of the relationship between culture and art will be approached from several directions: (1) the intentional cultural messages in art such as attempts to train, educate and influence through the use of art; (2) the concealed cultural messages such as the unnoticed political or social statements that are implied by the art; (3) the manner in which a culture's beliefs, values and concepts are illustrated symbolically in art; and (4) the use of structural principles to express cultural concepts and values in art. The course will conclude with a consideration of whether art can, in fact, be understood cross-culturally. No special background is required. Classes will be a combination of lecture and discussion; evaluation will be based on a series of short papers. (Shepard)

Section 004 Introduction to Economic Anthropology and Development. This course is intended as an introduction to economic anthropology and development in village based tribal, peasant and urbanizing societies of Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America. The first part of the course reviews the basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation of economic anthropology focusing on selected readings from Firth, Redfield, Wolf, Geertz, Weber, Marx and Simmel. The second part of the course discusses anthropological perspectives on development : evolution, progress, acculturation, applied anthropology and micro-development. The third part of the course is concerned with specific case studies of economic development and underdevelopment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators, students interested in comparative cultures and world development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. Grades are based on four three-five typewritten page papers. Lecture/discussion format. (Owusu)

531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course investigates: (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g., kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. (Kelly)

552. Women in Traditional and Modernizing Societies. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is concerned with the roles and status of women in societies at different levels of socio-economic development. It deals with sex roles in hunter/gatherer societies, subsistence farming economies, and in peasant and post-peasant societies as well as with women in the modern industrial sector. The course is open to advanced undergraduates and to graduate students. At least one introductory course in cultural anthropology is required as a prerequisite. The course is given partly as a lecture course, with the last 1/3 of the term devoted to presentation of student papers. All students are required to write a research paper and give an oral presentation on it: grades are based on that requirement plus participation in discussion of the weekly readings. Assigned texts are Reiter, R. Toward an Anthropology of Women, Rosaldo and Lamphere Women, Culture and Society with other assigned readings on reserve. (Diamond)

Linguistics

474/Ling. 410. Non-Standard English. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Fodale)

475/Ling. 411. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 411. (Napoli)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Anthro. 475 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

See Linguistics 417. (Hill)

Archaeology

384. Prehistory of Egypt. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This lecture course applies an evolutionary and anthropological approach to 150,000 years of Egyptian archaeology. The emphasis will be on the adaptation, ecology, and evolution of society through the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Predynastic, and Dynastic periods. We will discuss the origins of agriculture, origins of complex society, the great pharaohs including Akhenaten and the boy-king Tutankhamun, and the interrelationships among politics, religion, and military activities. A midterm and final exam will constitute the course grade. (Flannery and Marcus)

386. Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course takes an evolutionary perspective on the early civilizations of Mesoamerica, the Andes, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. Our basic concern will be: how and why did the cultures that we know as Maya, Aztec, Inca, Sumerian, Hindu, and Chinese develop from simple beginnings through a series of successive stages to levels of impressive social complexity and artistic sophistication? We will consider how archaeologists infer political, economic, and religious behavior from the non-perishable remains of these prehistoric societies. There will be an attempt to define general developmental processes common to all the situations we examine. In conclusion, we will discuss some implications for our own society of the rise and decline of these early civilizations. No special background is required. Instruction will be primarily lecture. Student evaluation will be on the basis of two take-home exams. The course text will be R.J. Wenke, Patterns in Prehistory, Oxford Univ. Press. (Parsons)

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).

The course will trace the development of North American Indian cultures north of Mexico from the first entry of big game hunters into the New World 10,000 to 15,000 years ago through the origins of agriculture and the appearance of the first sedentary farming villages to the emergence shortly before European contact of complex socially stratified political systems. The course will focus especially on the Eastern U.S. and the American Southwest. Emphasis will be given to the importance of the prehistoric record for understanding Native American cultures at the time of contact, and the value of historic and ethnographic descriptions for understanding the past. Three hourly exams and final; lecture format. (Speth)

482. European Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This is a general survey of the prehistoric archaeology of Europe and the British Isles from the earliest evidence for human occupation to the Roman conquest. Primary emphasis is on Western and Central Europe and on the history and evolution of social and economic systems in this area. Lecture course. Evaluation based on a paper and examinations. (Champion)

489. Maya and Central American Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

The ancient Maya who occupied the eastern part of Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western parts of El Salvador and Honduras are the primary focus of this course. We will trace the development of Maya society from the band level, to the tribal level, up to complex chiefdoms and states. The latter part of the course will concentrate on lower Central America, particularly the complex chiefdoms of Panama. For this lecture course, there are two assignments: a midterm exam (a take-home) and a research paper. These two assignments constitute the course grade. Required books: Henderson's The World of the Ancient Maya (Cornell, 1982/83 paperback) and S. G. Morley and G. Brainerd's The Ancient Maya (Stanford, 3rd ed., 1956). (Marcus)

582. Archaeology II. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is for senior concentrators and graduate students with permission of instructor. It introduces theories of the origin of agriculture, the development of ranked and stratified societies, and the origin of states and empires. Exemplary data from Mesoamerica, the Central Andes and Mesopotamia are used to test these theories. (Wright)

593. Archaeological Systematics. Senior concentrators, graduates, with permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course emphasizes the structure of archaeological research, the philosophical foundations of archaeology, the systematic approach to archaeology, and the archaeological record as viewed in an ecological context. (Wright)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

499. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 hours credit.

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.


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