Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

397, 398. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3 each). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Near East 398 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

This course is an independent study reading course which must be supervised by a Near Eastern Studies faculty member. It is normally taken by a student who would like to study some aspect of a subject within a course already taken in further detail. Arrangements for the course are made directly with the faculty member.

423/Geography 423. Geography of the Near East. (3). (SS).

This course deals with an overview and survey of ecological problems in the countries of North Africa and southwest Asia, particularly where semi-arid and arid conditions are encountered. It attempts to discuss such problems from a geographic (spatial) point of view. Examples are chosen from many countries, but no country by country survey is attempted. Much of the course is based on the professor's own first-hand experiences in Turkey, Iran, the Levant and North Africa. Nomadism, peasant agriculture and economic development schemes are emphasized. Testing consists of four take-home essay questions based on lectures and outside readings; people desiring A-level grades are also expected to write a short research paper in consultation with the teacher. (Kolars)

446(346). Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literary figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials in English translation are reviewed wherever possible and discussions relate particularly to genre development and external influences on the literatures of the modern Near East. (Stewart-Robinson)

463/Hist. 507. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing with at least one course in ancient literature, ancient philosophy, or ancient history; and reading knowledge of at least one modern foreign language. (3). (HU).

This course will investigate the following topics (and several more not listed) on a comparative basis among various societies in the ancient Near East e.g., Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Hittite, Hebrew, and Early Greece : types of conceptualization - reason and myth; intellectual activities invention of writing, invention of intellectual categories: science and pseudo-science; data-keeping; libraries; standards of aesthetic perception; origins of various literary and non-literary genres (especially history-writing); origins of various political, economic and legal institutions; perceptions of the cosmos (religious and philosophical); ideas on knowledge and wisdom. The course will be taught in a combination lecture-discussion method. Examination of the various issues will be grounded in selective readings from standard texts and documents, as well as in general interpretive articles. A number of paperback books will be required texts, while an additional supply of sources will be placed on reserve in the Undergraduate Library. These will be spelled out on the first day of class. The course work will require a term paper, a shorter project, and the final examination (usually a take-home exam). Those interested in the history of the idea and the development of various types of cognition, both undergraduates and graduates, are sincerely welcome. The course will operate in the spirit of exploration and intellectual adventure. (Orlin)

471/Hist. 441. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (HU).

Survey of political, social and economic developments in the Near East, AD. 900-1300, with special emphasis on the causes and consequences of the crusader and Mongol invasions. (Ehrenkreutz)

474/Hist. 443. Modern Near East History. (4). (SS).

See History 443. (Rollman)

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (3). (HU).

See English 401. (Gellrich)

485/Rel. 485. Islam and the Muslims: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course will examine women in the Muslim Middle Eastern cultures by reading and discussing a number of Middle Eastern women writers as well as others including: Leila Ahmad, Mangol Bayat-Philipp, Alya Bouffan, Fereshteh Hashemi, Nikki Keddie, Fatima Mernissi, Juliette Minces, Fadela M'rabet, and Nawel Saadawi. Themes covered will include: 1) The dynamics of religion and sexuality particularly in light of the Islamic Revivalist Movement and the Iranian Revolution. 2) The effects of economic development on women's lives including work, education, family and political participation. 3) The interrelationship between the rise of feminism in the West and the writings of Middle Eastern feminists including muslim-feminists and socialist-feminists. 4) The involvement of movement in social and political movements of the region in the 20th century. Student participation is through class discussions, an oral presentation, and a term paper or book review. Open to all interested students, undergraduate and graduate. (Afary)

486/Anthro. 486. Dawn of Mesopotamian civilization. (3). (HU).

See Anthro 486. (Wright, Michalowski)

488. Traditional Islamic Law and Legal Theory. (3). (HU).

This course will deal with the philosophy, history, and principal features of Islamic law. A comparative study of the major Islamic legal schools will be made, and the Islamic legal system as a whole will be compared with non-Islamic legal systems. Some of the legal problems faced by present-day Muslim societies will also be examined. The course will be given mainly in the form of lectures, and will be built around two or three works (in English). Three exams of one and one half hour each, and class participation, will form the basis of evaluation. No prerequisites. (Mir)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LSA Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," or with "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

282/Rel. 282. Letters of Paul in Translation. (3). (HU).

An examination of the Letters of Paul with special reference to Romans, I and II Corinthians, Galatians, and I Thessalonians. The primary focus of this course is on the development of Paul's religious ideas, but attention will also be paid to the sociology of the Pauline churches, Paul's disuse of historical tradition, the sources, or putative sources, of his knowledge of the historical Jesus, and opposition to his version of the Gospel during and after his missionary activity. The deuteropauline letters will be used as documentation for the interpretation of Paul in the late first and early second century, and examined for the light they shed on the nature of the various threats and rivals to Paul's ministry. Finally, the course will touch on the question of Paul's authority in the history of the church and influence on the development of Christian doctrine. EVALUATION: Students will be asked to take a midterm examination, an essay final examination, and may (at their option) write a term paper. TEXTS: W. Meeks, ed. The Writings of St. Paul; G. Bornkamm, Paul; D.R. McDonald, The Legend and the Apostle. (Hoffmann)

283/Rel. 283 The Beginnings of Christianity. (4). (HU).

An exploration of the development of early Christianity from the first to the fourth century. Primary attention will be focused on the development of the early Jesus-tradition, the sources for reconstructing the life, worship, and beliefs of the first Christian communities in Asia Minor and Macedonia, and the formation of the New Testament canon. Attention will also be given to the sociological and intellectual background of the early Christian communities, their emergence from synagogue-Judaism, their appropriation of practices and ideas from rival religious cults and philosophies, and the problem of Christian 'identity' in the Hellenistic world. Students taking the course for credit will take a midterm examination and may elect either to write a research paper or to take a final examination. Texts: Oxford Annotated Bible; R. Bultmann, Primitive Christianity; W.H.C. Frend, The Early Church; H.C. Kee, Christian Origins in Sociological Perspectives; and R. Bainton, The Early Church. (Hoffman)

495/Rel. 495 The Gnostic Religion. NES 200 recommended. (3). (HU).

An exploration of the Gnostic faith, from its beginning in Hellenistic theosophy and Platonic speculation to its appropriation by Jewish and Christian teachers in the first three centuries of the common era. The implications of Gnosticism for the growth and spread of the Gospel will be examined by a careful analysis of the gnostic and antignostic trajectories in the New Testament, with special reference to the letters of Paul and the Fourth Gospel. The connection between Gnosticism and later 'heresies' will also be discussed. EVALUATION: A major research paper of between 20-30 pages, or a final examination over the lectures and readings. TEXTS: Hans Jonas, The Gnostic Religion; The Nag Hammadi Library in English, ed. J.M. Robinson; Oxford Annotated Bible. (Hoffmann)

Literature and Civilization Courses

441. Ancient Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

This course aims to survey the chief types of ancient Near Eastern literature in translation; we shall be dealing with Sumerian, Assyro-Babylonian, Egyptian, Canaanite, Hittite, and selected Hebrew materials. Beyond this it seeks to examine specifically and at some length the outstanding masterpieces of ancient Near Eastern civilizations, works such as The Gilgamesh Epic, various creation myths, Sinuhe, Wen-Amon, outstanding examples of hymns and prayers, Wisdom literature, and more. Finally it seeks to discuss aesthetic and literary-critical principles that can be applied to this ancient literature. The teaching method combines lectures and discussions; where pertinent, lectures will attempt to take into account characteristics of Greek literary types for comparative purposes. Students should have had some prior course work in literature or literary criticism before electing this course. Student evaluation will be on the basis of two short papers, a midterm exam, and the usual final exam for undergraduates, and one short and one long paper, a midterm exam, and the final examination for graduates. Texts include a variety of available paperbacks. (Orlin)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101, 102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6 each). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

Arabic 101 and 102 are offered Winter Term, 1984.

Arabic 101. This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to six credits. Course grade is based on review tests satisfactorily completed, and a set of comprehensive proficiency-based examinations as indicated in the study course outline given to students at the beginning of the course. Textbooks: (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Arabic Phonology and Script by E.N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, parts I and II, by Peter Abbound et. al. (3) Supplementary Dialogues to Accompany, EMSA. (Staff, Rammuny)

Arabic 102. This course may not be taken until six hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and review tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on the review tests completed, and a set of comprehensive proficiency-based examinations as indicated in the course outline given to students at the beginning of the course. Textbook: (1) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Parts I and II by P. Abboud et. al. (2) Supplementary Dialogues to Accompany Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (Staff, Rammuny)

202. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 201 or equivalent. (6). (FL).

This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. It is the second of a year-long course whose primary goals are to enable the student to (1) understand familiar spoken literary Arabic, (2) converse with a native speaker of Arabic using simple terms, (3) read and understand the specific content of an elemental level and (4) write correct short responses within the scope of his/her vocabulary and experience. The method of instruction puts equal emphasis on the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course is conducted in Arabic except for grammatical explanations. It meets six hours weekly and requires approximately ten hours every week for outside of class preparation including listening to lesson tapes in the laboratory or at home, writing assignments and review of material covered in class. Course grade is based on classroom preparation and a final examination (25%). Required texts: Peter Abboud et al, Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. part One and Two. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1975. (Rammuny)

402. Advanced Modern Standard Arabic Arabic 401 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).

This is a fairly intensive course, with heavy emphasis on oral and written expression. IMSA Part II will be used together with a variety of supplementary materials. Students will be encouraged to read and discuss lengthy original passages of literary and non-literary nature by modern Arab authors. They will also be required to produce compositions and presentations of their own on a regular basis. By the end of the Winter Term, participants should be capable of confronting unfamiliar Arabic texts (spoken or written) with reasonable assurance. Evaluation will be based on class participation, weekly quizzes, home assignments, and two examinations. Students will be permitted to improve their grades obtained on quizzes by re-taking them after further preparation. (Wahba)

413, 414. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 202 or 232; or permission of instructor. (3 each). (Excl).

Arabic 414 is offered Winter, 1984.

This course builds on the skills developed in Arabic 413. Although published texts as well as handouts prepared by the instructor will be utilized for reference purposes, oral exchange is the main activity to which explanations and drills will be directed. The objective of the class is to enable students to function adequately and with reasonable fluency in natural life communication involving the use of the Egyptian dialect. Aspects of Egyptian culture, e.g., customs, humor, songs, and the like, will be made familiar to the students in the course of language practice. Evaluation will be based entirely on class participation and effective oral comprehension and performance. (Wahba)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

432. Arabic Syntax and Semantics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

Syntactic and semantic analysis of literary and dialectal Arabic. Lecture-discussion; homework problems; term paper. (McCarus)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

401, 402. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent; Hebrew 401 is prerequisite to 402. (5 each). (FL).

Hebrew 401 and 402 are offered Winter Term, 1984.

Hebrew 401. Review of morphology and syntax readings in fiction and non-fiction prose. Continued emphasis on oral work, and writing skills. (Coffin)

Hebrew 402. Review of morphology and syntax readings in fiction and non-fiction prose. Continued emphasis on oral work, and writing skills. (Coffin)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

403, 404. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3 each). (Excl).

Hebrew 404 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

Students will continue to read for comprehension in the special genre of newspaper literature. The special terminology of newspaper and radio will be emphasized. Unedited newspaper selections will be read, and regular news broadcasts will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. (Coffin)

501, 502. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 402 or equivalent is prerequisite to 501; Hebrew 501 is prerequisite to 502. (3 each). (HU).

Hebrew 502 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

Continuing to develop the skills of reading, writing, and speaking modern Hebrew on an advanced level, and introducing the student to modern Hebrew poetry and prose. (Coffin)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201, 202. Elementary Persian. (4 each). (FL).

Persian 201 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

Persian is an Indo-European language distantly related, and grammatically similar to English, thus it is ideally suited to fulfilling the foreign language option while at the same time opening insights into one of the leading Near Eastern cultures. Persian 201/202 are designed to develop a working knowledge of Contemporary Standard Persian. The student is systematically introduced to the sound and writing systems and the grammar of Persian and an active vocabulary of some 1000 items. There is equal emphasis on listening and speaking, reading and writing. The language of the classroom will be increasingly Persian. By the end of the year, many students are able to conduct simple conversations and write brief compositions on a variety of topics. The textbook used is newly developed, covering a large variety of topics, accompanied by tapes. Quizzes are given intermittently; in addition there will be a 2-hour examination at the end of the term. Textbooks: Modern Persian. Elementary Level. Windfuhr-Tehranisa, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1979. (Windfuhr)

401, 402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4 each). (FL).

Only Persian 401 is offered Winter Term, 1984. This sequence is designed to lead the student to the near independent study of Persian. Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialogue form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: Modern Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Windfuhr)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

542. Persian Texts from the Early Modern Period. Iranian 541. (3). (HU).

Readings, analysis, and discussions of Persian texts from the 19th and 20th century of Iran. (Windfuhr)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201, 202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent is prerequisite to 202. (4 each). (FL).

Turkish 202 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elementary Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, Turkish for Foreigners. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. (Stewart-Robinson)

401, 402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent is prerequisite to 401; 401 or equivalent is prerequisite to 402. (4 each). (FL).

Turkish 402 is offered Winter, 1984.

Part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It provides further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Comprehension and oral and written expression will be developed by critique of translation and composition and by memorization of short texts. Reading will be emphasized. Special needs of the students as to subject matter will be taken into consideration. There will be a midterm and a final examination; evaluation will also include class performance. Text: Robert Underhill, Turkish Grammar (on reserve at UGL) and a readings course pack.

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (HU).

Part of sequence in required language courses for majors, M.A. and Ph.D. candidates. The objective is to continue to develop comprehension ease in modern Turkish through the reading of the literary products of modern Turks. Recitation type course includes reading, translation, and discussion of content and style. Quizzes and a final exam are required. The texts are: A. Tietze, Turkish Literary Reader; and specially selected xeroxed material. (Stewart-Robinson)

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