Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the middle ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history - the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. If essays are assigned, they will be short and based on the assigned readings. (Hughes)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

A survey of the last three centuries of European history, History 111 is an attempt to account for the changes that have shaped the modern world. It will emphasize broad themes of development, among others the expansion of the state; the growth of capitalism; industrialization and urbanization; the changing roles of social classes and family; religious change and the rise of secularism; the appearance of mass politics; and the intensification of international rivalries. The themes will be presented in various contexts, treated through a number of essential movements and episodes such as the Enlightenment, French Revolution, the unifications of Germany and Italy, the industrial revolution, two world wars, the Russian Revolution, fascism, imperialism and post-imperialism. A textbook provides the basic continuity, and other readings will permit students to sample major thinkers and important historical interpretations. The aim of the course is 1) to give the general knowledge of western history appropriate to anyone claiming a broad education, 2) to provide a background for the further study of history, and of the social sciences or humanities, and 3) to engage the student in historical analysis. Students enrolling in the course will attend two lectures a week, a discussion section also meeting twice a week, and special exhibits and films when offered. Written work includes an hour exam, a final examination, and two papers (one short, one longer). Special topics or projects may be worked out on an individual basis as students may wish. (Bien, Grew)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 122. (Young)

152/Asian Studies 112. Modern South and Southeast Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 112. (Lieberman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to illuminate a few major episodes and issues in American history, 1607-1865. Among these are the nature of Puritanism, the texture of colonial society, the causes of the Revolution, the party division of the 1790's, the nature of Jacksonian society, and the causes of the Civil War. There is no textbook assigned, the reading instead being in separate books each week. These books include works by major historians, collections of contemporary writings, a contemporary analytical work (Tocqueville's Democracy in America), and a novel (Uncle Tom's Cabin). The major theme of the lecture is an assessment of one pervasive idea, "The Growth and development of American individualism," although there will be excursions into some areas developed in the reading. There will be two hour examinations and a final. One or more of these will be of the take-home variety. The principal purpose of the section meeting will be to develop issues arising from the reading. (Livermore)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 is a survey of American political, social and cultural developments since 1865. Lectures will amplify selective aspects of material included in the readings. Discussion sections will enable students to further discuss and analyze issues. The final grade will be determined by two quizzes, an hour test, a comprehensive final examination and participation in discussions. Examinations will include material from both the lectures and the assigned readings. Readings include, Norton et al., A People and a Nation, vol. II, since 1865; Grob and Billias, Interpretations of American History, vol. II, since 1865; Saloutos, Populism : Reaction or Reform ?; Blum, John Morton, Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality; Allen, Frederick Lewis, Only Yesterday; Brinkley, Voices of Protest; Dallek, The Roosevelt Diplomacy and World War II; Reeves, McCarthyism. (Jeasonne)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (SS).
Ordinary People in the Past.
This seminar is concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be upon examining the life, work, living conditions, and problems confronted by "ordinary" people and families who lived during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered for comparative purposes and to better identify patterns of change. An opportunity will be provided to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual original source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people and other groups. Through these materials the seminar will provide a glimpse of the way people actually lived at the time. Secondary studies will also be employed. Instruction will be conducted through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

A general introduction to Roman history, Republic and Empire, through examination of specific problems and topics. Among the topics scheduled for discussion are Roman imperialism, the development and disintegration of political consensus, provinces and frontiers. In addition to a recommended text, a number of "classics" in translation will be read and discussed. Students will be expected to write a term paper (5-8pp.) and to complete the midterm and final exams. (Eadie)

202/RC Soc. Sci. 202. The Twentieth Century: A Global View. (4). (SS).

This course develops basic themes in the history of the 20th Century designed to provide freshman and sophomores with a solid background to current events. Its perspective is global and its focus is on broad economic and political developments. The purpose is not to offer a cluster of familiar themes, but to develop a systemic historical approach to the dynamic forces that create and transform the modern world system. We will organize the course around three interrelated themes: the mutations of the domestic and international division of labor as expressed in internal social conflict, imperialism, and anti-colonial resistance movements; competing strategies and ideologies for achieving national and international stabilization; and the manifestation of these large interactions in everyday economic and political decisions. And we will pursue these themes through three interrelated arenas of investigation: the international order, seen as a world system; the politics and economic problems of advanced industrial nations; and the third world in its struggle with dependency. This may sound fairly difficult, but we hope to clarify matters by a combination of general historical analysis and good stories. The course requires no previous knowledge. We hope only for your interest and curiosity. Readings will include a number of monographs and a course pack. Two papers, a midterm, and a final will be required. There is a special section in the RC on Fridays for students enrolled in RC/SS 202. (Bright, Geyer)

221. Survey of British History from 1688. (4). (SS).

This lecture course covers the history of Britain from the Revolution of 1688 to the present. Topics include: the structure of politics and society in the eighteenth century; the rise of Industrialism and its consequences; the impact of the French Revolution on English politics and culture; the various reform movements of the nineteenth century; Victorianism; imperialism; Edwardian England; the impact of two world wars on British life; contemporary British problems. The course includes a midterm and final examination, and a ten page paper. No special background required, though some acquaintance with European history would be useful. (LeMahieu)

251. Modern China. (4). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. (Feuerwerker)

262. The American South. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course concerns the history of one of America's largest minorities: Southerners. Beginning with the colonial origins of Southern society, it will explore the social, economic, political, cultural, and religious characteristics that have, until recently, made the South a region unto itself. Readings will include the work of distinguished historians of the South like C. Vann Woodward, Charles Sydnor, Edmund Morgan, Eugene Genovese, John Hope Franklin, and Harold Woodman, as well as the work of literary and journalistic interpreters of the South, such as Frederick Law Olmsted, Michael Shaara, and William Faulkner. Some background in American history is advisable though, for energetic students, not essential. The course will be taught through lectures and discussion. Requirements include midterm and final examinations, and a short (10-page) final paper. (Fields)

276. History of Canada. (4). (SS).

This is a new course, designed to introduce American students with little or no prior knowledge to the history of Canada. The aim is to get a Canadian history its main themes, patterns and personalities. The method is comparative whenever appropriate, using the more familiar history of the U.S. as a point of reference, and with some limited attention to Mexico. In short, the idea is to place Canada in its North American context, asking why western European colonization produced such contrasting modern results. The final grade is based on midterm (20%) and final (50%) examinations, plus a 1500-word paper (20%) and less formal criteria (10%), including class attendance and participation. More than in some history courses the examinations will stress people, places and events - -for example, who settled the St. Lawrence valley, or what happened when Trudeau invoked the War Measures Act in 1970. The paper should deal with a single "Canadian" work politics, fiction, autobiography, art, etc., but not "history" as such and should relate that work to a general understanding of Canada, its culture and its history. Consultation before midterm vacation on the paper subject is required, and no paper can be accepted after 9 a.m., Thursday, April 18th. Lectures meet twice a week. The first part of each meeting will be a fairly formal presentation, and the second part will be spent in discussion or written exercises (graded and ungraded). Attendance and weekly preparation is expected; absences and being unprepared will be considered in the final grade. (Shy)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

333/Econ. 396/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine via talks, books, films and discussion sections America's wars of the past 85 years, with emphasis on those which have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience in combat as they alter from war to war. In larger historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's pattern of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be little discussion of tactics or the technical processes of war-making. Students are asked to select one of the lecture sections, and to register as well for one of the discussion sections scheduled to meet an additional hour each week. There are no history-course prerequisites for History 366. (Linderman)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History. (4). (SS).

What do the women's rights and birth control movements, the decline of domestic service and the rise of clerical work, the tradition of Miss America contests, the surge in the divorce rate, and the welfare system have in common? They are all part of the social history of women in the United States. The course will survey women's experiences as a consequence of social, economic, legal, and political developments which shaped American society from 1780 to 1980. The course will examine women's economic roles, domestic and reproductive experience, and public activities. Since women are not a homogenous group, the importance of class and racial differences will be examined. Readings (approximately one book a week) will include historical studies, fiction, and social commentary. The course will require at least three essay examinations. (Greenwald)

386. The Holocaust. (4). (SS).

An examination of the Holocaust as a critical conjuncture of general European and Jewish history. Topics to be covered include: the roots of modern anti-Semitism; the rise of Nazism; the nature of Jewish communities on the eve of World War II; Nazi policies toward Jews; the Final Solution; Jewish and non-Jewish responses to the Holocaust; post-war attempts to confront the Holocaust. Readings will be drawn from books and articles. Lectures will be supplemented by a series of informal discussion sessions. There will be two exams and a comprehensive take-home final. (Weinberg)

391. Topics in European History. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Health, Disease and Society.
This is a basic introductory course to the history of medicine. We shall examine historical concepts of health and disease in western society from the time of Hippocrates to the present day. One basic theme of the course will be that health is a social phenomenon, and death a social disease. On another level, particular attention will be paid to the development of medical theory, practice and education in Europe and America, and to the correlation between the laboratory, the clinic and public health practice. The relationship between science and medicine will be analyzed from both a social and intellectual history perspective. All are welcome to attend this course; no prior background in either the humanities or the sciences is necessary - although both would be useful. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a midterm and final examination. The course will meet twice a week for an hour and a half. The first hour of each session will be a lecture; the remaining thirty minutes will be spent in informal discussion of the reading and students' questions. While not mandatory, participation certainly will be encouraged. (Dwork)

395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Japan in World War II.
This history colloquium will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the Missouri in 1945. Different aspects of the war will be examined: why Japan went to war, how the war was fought, and the impact of the war on Japanese society. The readings for the course will include John Toland's The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945 (Random House, 1974; available in paperback) and selected readings organized into a course pack. Classes will be devoted to specific themes based on assigned readings and to reports to be given on designated topics. During the term, each student will prepare outlines for three topics, report on them orally (15-20 minutes) and then submit essays on these topics (about 10 double-spaced, typewritten pages). Students will be evaluated on their contribution to discussions and their oral reports, on the results of one quiz based on the readings, but particularly on the quality of the three essays. (Hackett)

Section 002 American Family Life in the Past. This course is an undergraduate research and writing seminar which provides an opportunity for students to do original research. Students who have taken the previous lecture course on American Institutions and the Development of the Family (American Institutions 471/ History 571) will be encouraged to enroll, but others will be admitted as well. Students will write an original research paper on the interaction between American Institutions and the family using historical sources. The focus of the seminar will be on family life in mid-nineteenth-century Michigan. Students will have an opportunity to utilize an extensive individual-level census data-set on four townships in Washtenaw County in 1860 (about 10,000 cases) that has been developed especially for this seminar. Those who would prefer not to use this machine-readable data-sets may rely more heavily upon the primary literary materials located at the Michigan Historical Collections on North Campus. Throughout the course, the emphasis will be on the production of an original term paper that is not only well-researched, but also clearly and concisely written. The grade in the course will be based mainly upon the final research paper although the quality of the student's classroom participation will also be taken into consideration. (Vinovskis)

Section 003 The West in Asia 1498-1941. "Colloquium" means "talking together," and this is mainly a discussion course, but based on a wide range of readings. Given the scope of the topic, these can be only samples but will include enough basic materials to provide the context of modern Asian history (India, Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and Korea), into which we will try to fit the westerners, in their varied and changing roles from Vasco da Gama and Megallen to the end of full-scale colonialism with the Pacific War. What were their goals, and how did they differ over time and between each group and each major Asian area? How and why were they able to win positions of power and influence in Asia, and with what consequences? Reading and discussion are emphasized, but there are also four required essays, each of 5-10 pages, to be used on the readings, in lieu of examinations. Grades are based entirely on these essays but each student will also be responsible for one or more oral presentations on selected topics. No prior knowledge of Asia is required, but interest and willingness to read and talk about it are assumed. (Murphey)

Section 004 The Third Reich. The course aims at an analysis of ideological politics. It faces squarely the issue of the racist and terrorist reconstruction of a German-dominated Europe. After a brief consideration of the rise of nazism and the years of rearmament and preparation for war, we will concentrate on three themes: (a) racism and annihilation in the process of the creation of "Lebensraum," (b) economic penetration and the reconstruction of a European division of labor in the process of occupation, (c) the transformation of German society during war. The course will be a very intensive undertaking that requires a commitment to read and write beyond normal ECB requirements. Knowledge of a European language (Russian to French) would be appreciated. (Geyer)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 The Council of Trent.
In the sixteenth century, the Catholic Church was confronted with the challenge of heresy, schism, and the Protestant Reformation. It faced new secular claimants to supreme authority, as nation-states emerged in Western Europe. It suffered internal tensions, as proponents and opponents of reform debated how best to meet these challenges. The Catholic response to this crisis was articulated at the Council of Trent. In intermittent meetings over the course of 18 years, the participants in this council redesigned the institutions and redefined the dogma of the Catholic Church. The result was a church vastly different from that of the Middle Ages; it was, in essence, the modern Catholic Church as it has existed down to Vatican II. This course will explore this transformation of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century. It will begin with the first calls for a council to reform the church and end with the application of the Tridentine decrees, but its primary focus will be on the work of the Council of Trent itself. It will be conducted as a seminar: each student will undertake a research project on a particular aspect of the Council of Trent and report to the class on that project. Readings will include documents on the Council of Trent, a concise general history of the Catholic Reformation, and interpretive essays by major European and American scholars. Requirements: research paper, class report, final exam. (Bornstein)

Section 003 Facing Death Antiquity to the Age of Reason. Philosophical and religious thinking about death from the Old Testament and the Greeks to the eighteenth century. Topics considered will include the meaning of death, fear of death and hell, sin and death, preparation for death, the decline of hell, and the good, happy, or admirable death. The reading list is not yet final (this course has never been given before) but a list of authors and books that are likely candidates looks like this: Old Testament, New Testament, Plato, Seneca, Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas the Art of Dying, Jean Gerson, The Imitation of Christ, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, Bellarmine, Montaigne, Pascal, John Donne, Jeremy Taylor, and Voltaire. Weekly assignments will be designed to be manageable so that weekly discussions will be lively and those are the only reading assigned in the course. No midterm, no final students will be graded on four essays (three short, one somewhat longer exercise on a topic or theme in the course) with rewards for active and intelligent class participation. (Tentler)

Section 004 People of the Old South. This course will invite students to use primary documents in order to draw a picture of life in the Old South as experienced by its people: masters, slaves, free Black people, and the white yeomanry. Students will read and discuss short selections by historians addressing important questions concerning the social character of the Old South. Making use of these as a background, they will be asked to prepare two short papers and one longer paper marshaling primary evidence in support of their own arguments. (Fields)

Section 005 The Problem of God in 19th Century American Thought. During the nineteenth century, the question of how human beings know that God exists began to preoccupy many American intellectuals concerned with religion until, after about 1860, the crucial question became whether human beings can know at all that a God exists. This course will investigate the problem of knowledge of God in nineteenth-century American thought. After a few weeks of preliminary reading and discussion to provide grounding in the subject, classes will center on direction and discussion of students' own research. Each student will produce a substantial research paper, based on analysis of the works of some relevant American writer. The final grade will reflect primarily the quality of this paper, secondarily of discussion. The course assumes no specific prerequisite, but some background either in religious studies or in American or European intellectual history after 1700 would be helpful. (Turner)

Section 007 The Economics of Race in South Africa. This course examines the development of a race and class divided society in South Africa from the origins of industrialization in the late nineteenth century to the problems of apartheid in the 1980's. Seminar discussions and readings will concentrate on the interaction between economic change, particularly with regard to the growth of the mining industry, and such processes as imperialism, the imposition of colonial rule on African societies, migrant labor, the growth of the colonial state, racial stratification, and the emergence of ideologies of African nationalism and Black consciousness. Readings will be drawn from a wide variety of studies - historical, anthropological, sociological and literary. Students should purchase the following books: G. Frederickson, White Supremacy; G. Gerhart, Black Power in South Africa; L. Thompson and A. Prior, South African Politics. (Worger)

Section 008 The Militant Right in the 20th Century America. This colloquium is about militant fringe individuals and groups on the far right. Each student will discuss in class and write a research paper on a significant extremist or extremist organization. Students will be assigned an individual or group at the first class meeting. At some point during the term the student will be responsible for leading a one-hour discussion on the assigned topic. For these discussions there will be common readings for those not leading the discussion in order to familiarize themselves with the topic. The common readings are specified on the syllabus. At the conclusion of classes each student will submit a 15-20 page research paper, a bibliography, and a bibliographical essay. Grading will be based upon the discussion led, research paper, and participation in discussions led by others. Students will learn and practice skills in oral and research methodology. There will be lectures and research methodology, archival use, and bibliographical tools. (Jeansonne)

398. Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. (4). (SS).

This course is required of juniors who are members of the History Department's Honors Program. It is not available for general enrollment. (Holt and McDonald)

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (4). (HU).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870's. This course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's European Intellectual History Since 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, M.H. Abrams' Natural Supernaturalism, Hegel's Philosophy of History, J.S. Mill's On Liberty, Marx-Engel's The Communist Manifesto and Jacques Barzun, Darwin Marx and Wagner. There will be regular class discussion of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

A history of Russia from Peter the Great to World War I, with emphasis on the problems of modernization, political institutions, economic development, and the revolutionary movement. Lectures, supplemented by optional discussion section. Requirements include a course project (written or non-written), midterm exam (with a choice of take home or in-class, and a graded-ungraded option), and a final exam (choice of take home or in-class.) (Rosenberg)

441/GNE 471. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 471. (Ehrenkreutz)

448/CAAS 448. Africa in the Twentieth Century. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of sub-Saharan Africa from the imposition of formal colonial rule in the late nineteenth century to the emergence on independent nation states in the 1960's and 1970's. Lectures and discussions will be devoted to examining the nature of African societies on the eve of conquest, the measures taken by Africans to resist the European invaders, the ways in which colonial rule transformed the political, economic and social structure of African societies, the growth of nationalism and the theories and practices with Africans developed to cope with the problems of political and economic independence and dependence. Much of the required reading will be drawn from the novels of African writers including: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart; Wole Soyinka, Ake: The Years of Childhood; Ousmane Sembene, God's Bits of Wood; James Ngugi, A Grain of Wheat; Chinua Achebe, A Man of the People; Williams Sassine, Wirriyamu; Nadine Gordimer, July's People. Students should also purchase copies of Philip Curtin and others (editors), African History, and W. Freund, The Making of Contemporary Africa. (Worger)

450. Japan to 1800. (4). (SS).

This course is a survey of Japan's history from the foundation of the archaic state until the eve of the Meiji Restoration. The primary focus of the course is on the evolution of Japan's political, economic, and social institutions, but attention is also given to the history of literature, religion, and thought. Among the themes treated within the latter sphere are the nature of Japan's classical aristocratic culture, the warrior culture of late medieval Japan, and the impact of Buddhism and Confucianism. Grading will be done on the basis of two examinations (a midterm and a final) and one writing assignment of 10-15 pages. (Arnesen)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (4). (SS).

This course describes the European conquest and transformation of Southeast Asia starting in the early nineteenth century, and the indigenous responses to external influences. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). The course will conclude with an in-depth examination of post-World War Two developments, including the Vietnam Wars. In particular the course attempts to explain why individual Southeast Asian countries have developed military, Western parliamentary, or Communist regimes. Lectures and readings assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and an optional term paper. (Lieberman)

455. Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (4). (HU).

The aim of this course is to examine the nature of Indian civilization in its classical form. We will study its social and political institutions, its value systems and religions, trying to see their interconnectedness, so far as the evidence allows. Toward the end of the course we will study the first major encounter between Indian and Islamic civilization, brought about by the Turkish conquest of North India. This is an introductory lecture course, which presumes no prior background in Indian history. Short papers, a midterm, and a final exam will be required. (Trautmann)

461. The American Revolution. (4). (SS).

This course assumes a basic, college-level knowledge of American history. It defines "American Revolution" broadly, from the Anglo-American colonial crisis visible by 1750, to the first peaceful transfer of political power in the election of 1800. Essentially, it asks the questions, why revolution? what lasting consequences? what was the "Revolution"? Evaluation is based on midterm (20%) and final (50%) examinations. The remaining 30% of the final grade is made up of several short, unscheduled written exercises, plus other, less formal indicators of performance. No term paper is required, but students may choose, after consultation before midterm vacation, to write a paper. The paper should focus on a single important book (outside the assigned reading), should not be more than 1500 words, and cannot be accepted after 9 a.m., Monday, April 22nd. A completed paper will count 25% of the final grade (midterm and final exams 15% and 40%). The reading is fairly heavy, emphasizing the best and most recent published research on specific aspects of the period. Basic texts are James Henretta, Evolution of American Society, 1700-1815, and E. James Ferguson, The American Revolution, both in paperback. Lectures are three times a week, with Friday reserved for informal discussion. Attendance at lectures, and keeping up with weekly assignments, are required; absence, and being unprepared for questions and discussion, will be noted and considered in the final grade. (Shy)

464. The Ordeal of the Union, 1840-1877. (4). (SS).

This course deals primarily with the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of antebellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It explores the sense in which social and economic conflicts in America come to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. The last three weeks of the course deal with the reconstruction episode, in an effort to show how the failure of this experiment was dictated by the assumptions which had produced the War. There will be a midterm examination, a paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. (Thornton)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, new feminism and women's liberation); and Nixon and the Watergate affair. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

477. Hispanic America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

History 477 focuses on the history of the independent Latin American Republics. E. Bradford Burns, Latin America: A Concise Interpretive History, (3rd ed) will provide the backbone of the course, with additional readings to be determined by the student's area of interest. Class members may opt for in-depth study of Argentina, Brazil, or Central America. The course will be about equally divided between lecture and discussion, with input from the various country groups. There will be a midterm and final exam and a term paper of moderate length. (Elkin)

490. The Left in Europe, 1917-Present. (4). (SS).

The aim of the course is to explore the development of the Left as a distinct political tradition in the period after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the present day, in context of national political cultures. The main focus of discussion will be the development of communist movement, together with the changing relationship between communist and social democratic parties. Close attention will be paid to the theoretical contents of these traditions, to the changing sociology of the Left, to the problem of trade unionism, and to the general relationship between socio-economic conditions and radical politics. The course will be organized in relation to a succession of critical periods: the First World War, the revolutionary years of 1917-23, the rise of fascism, the Second World War, the contemporary situation. It will end with a discussion of current options. Readings will be drawn from a range of literature rather than a single text. There will be a term-paper, a midterm and a final. (Eley)

517. History of Ireland Since 1603. (4). (HU).

A narrative history of modern Ireland from the collapse of Gaelic culture until the present. Lectures will treat aspects of cultural and social, as well as political history. The main text used will be J.C. Beckett, The Making of Modern Ireland. Other readings will be assigned. Course work will include two brief papers, one longer paper, and a final exam. There will be no hour exams. No prior course prerequisite and no prior knowledge of Ireland is required. (McNamara)

519. The German Empire, 1500-1740. Hist. 110, 211, or 213. (4). (SS).

This course examines early modern European society, using the German states as the case study. You will see how a particular social organization developed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and then analyze how this formation shaped and was influenced by the institutions of local and national government. Particular attention is given to cultural forces both as a means for understanding the contemporary value system and as a source for change and continuity. Do not be alarmed by the high course number. I shall assume that anyone coming in has a basic acquaintance with problems like feudalism and manorialism but shall not assume any familiarity with the specifics of German history. Students concentrating in fields like the history of art, economics, political science, and literature are most welcome, as of course are history concentrators. There is no language requirement for the course. In addition to a midterm and final examination, each student will submit a research paper on a topic of his or her particular interest. (Vann)

535/Armenian Studies 535. Armenia and the Armenians in the 20th Century. History 287 recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course investigates the modern history of the Armenian people, both in historical Armenia and in the diaspora. It begins with the revival of Armenian culture and the national liberation movement of the late 18th century, proceeds through the years of political formation and the rise of Armenian nationalism, to the 20th-century genocide and establishment of Soviet Armenia. The course will be of interest to people in Middle East studies, Soviet studies, as well as those interested in Armenian history specifically. The course is based on lectures, discussions, and readings. One research paper is required, as well as an oral examination at the end of the term. (Suny)

542. Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (4). (SS).

This course will cover the history of modern Iran from the late 18th century to the present, with some attention also to the developments in Kuwait, Bahrain and other Gulf states. Topics include attempts at military and bureaucratic reform on the part of Iran's government in order to confront the challenge of the West, economic history, political protest, religious and cultural change, the uneven development of the Pahlavi period of the 20th century Iran, and the Islamic Revolution and its aftermath. The impact of oil in the region in the post-war period will be assessed. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a midterm exam, a paper, and a final. Texts to be used are Abrahamian, Iran between Two Revolutions, Bonine and Keddie, Modern Iran, Browne, A Traveler's Narrative, Keddie, Islamic Response to Imperialism, Shariati, Man and Islam, and Southgate, Modern Persian Short Stories. That is, original texts of interest, recent synthetic histories, and topical articles will be used. This is a lecture course. (Cole)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (4). (SS).

This course deals with American diplomacy since 1914, with major emphasis falling on the two World Wars and the Cold War. World Politics, policy making and American domestic politics are all considered. The course is a rather standard lecture course in format, with a textbook and reading for a term paper required. There is a one hour exam and a final. (Perkins)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (4). (HU).

This lecture course will explore major trends in American intellectual life from the later nineteenth century to the present. Strongest emphasis will fall on the changing roles of science (including the social sciences) and religious belief, with attention also to political and social thought. All readings are in the works of the writers studied, including such figures as William James, John Dewey, Thorstein Veblen, Jane Addams, W.E.B. DuBois, Ruth Benedict, and Reinhold Niebuhr. Grading will be based on a midterm examination, a final, and a 7-10 page paper based on assigned reading. (Turner)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course examines the origins, development, and growth of American business. After tracing the beginning of business enterprise in Europe, the course describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation, the antitrust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920's, the impact on business of the 1929 depression and the New Deal, economic aspects of World War II, and the postwar business scene. Two quizzes, final exam. Text: Robertson and Watson, History of the American Economy, 4th ed. (1979). (Lewis)

584. American Constitutional and Legal History. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students interested in American History, for those interested in the development of the central ideas and institutions of modern American Constitutional and legal History. It is the second in a two-course sequence: History 583, Anglo-American Constitutional and Legal History, precedes but is not a prerequisite for this course. The course will undertake an analysis of several themes: changing approaches to constitutional interpretation; the impact of social and economic developments on public and private law; the relationships of legal theory to legal education to the role of the legal profession; the tensions among legal doctrines, scientific theory and social attitudes regarding the problem of human freedom. Course requirements include: one short paper (5 pages) based on documents or an hour examination; a final examination. No formal prerequisites. (Green)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

This course will examine a number of important questions concerning mid-imperial and late imperial Chinese history. Did the Chinese state become increasingly autocratic between the 10th and 18th centuries or was it increasingly limited in its abilities to control society and influence the economy? Were the "capitalist sprouts" in the 16th century, and if so, how did these "sprouts" differ from the Song "economic revolution"? What were the important features of local community organization, did landlords or gentry dominate, and if so, how? These and other related questions figure prominently in the problematics posed by scholars studying Chinese history between Song and Qing dynasties. Through a critical review of major interpretations of mid-imperial and late imperial Chinese history forwarded by Western, Chinese, and Japanese scholars, this course will identify and evaluate different ways of reconstructing China's historical trajectory before "western impact." The course will consist of lectures and class discussion of readings by Western and Asian scholars that are available in English. It is open to graduate and upperclass students who have done some coursework in Chinese history. Interested students who are uncertain about the appropriateness of their background should contact the instructor. (Wong)

593. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Mexican-American History.
During Winter Term, 1985, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 496.001. (Chavez)

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