Courses in History of Art (Division 392)

Open to All Undergraduates; Not Open to Graduate Students.

History of Art 101, 102, and 103, while covering different areas, are all considered equivalent introductions to the History of Art. These three introductory survey courses consider not only art objects as aesthetic experiences but also the interaction which exists between the artist and society. The lecture and discussion sections explore various historical, social, religious, and intellectual phenomena which are reflected in the style and content of works of art. Attention is also given to the creative act and to the problems of vision and perception which both the artist and his public must face. The three courses are numbered sequentially but they do not form a sequence. Although it would be logical to move from History of Art 101 to History of Art 102, either History of Art 101 or 102 as well as History of Art 103 serve as a satisfactory introduction to the history of art. Course requirements and texts vary with individual instructors, but an effort is always made to introduce students to works of art in the collections of the university as well as in the museums of Detroit and Toledo. Most of the upper division courses in history of art require one of these three introductory courses as a prerequisite. The introductory courses are directed toward students interested in the general history of culture and are especially valuable cognates for students in the fields of history, philosophy, literature, and musicology as well as the creative arts. Photographic material is available for study in the Fine Arts Study Room in the Modern Languages Building. Examinations usually include short essays and slides which are to be identified, compared, and discussed.

102. Western Art from the End of the Middle Ages to the Present. No credit granted to those who have completed 150. (4). (HU).

This course is a general survey of Western art from the paintings of Giotto through selected survey of art produced in the 1970s. Painting and sculpture is emphasized throughout, with special sections on architecture, photography, and graphic arts where appropriate. European art remains the main focus of the course until the mid-20th century. The main body of factual material is presented in lectures, but this is amplified by the specially designed (and required) weekly discussion sections, and by required readings. One term paper or project, one midterm, and one two-part final examination complete the writing requirements for the course. (Kirkpatrick)

212/Architecture 212. Understanding Architecture. Not open to students enrolled in Architecture. (3). (HU).

The College of Architecture and Urban Planning presents Architecture 212/History of Art 212 open to all and limited to an enrollment of 95 only by room size. Professor Kingsbury Marzolf and Professor Kent Hubbell, from the College will participate and collaborate in presenting: (1) ways of looking at, and experiencing architecture and urban space past and present; (2) our response to space, form, color and texture; (3) how various societies have interpreted their culture in buildings; (4) how these buildings have been and are constructed; and (5) contemporary architectural concerns. Three student projects plus an hour exam are required. The following book is required: J.M. Fitch, American Building: The Historical Forces that Shaped It, plus a course pack. (K. Marzolf, K. Hubbell)

222/Class. Arch. 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 222. (Albertson)

250. Italian Renaissance Art. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the art and architecture of Florence during the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Initial lectures will discuss the history and topography of the city. Thereafter, lectures will concentrate upon developments in painting, sculpture, and architecture in the fifteenth century, beginning with Brunelleschi, Donatello, and Masaccio, and ending with Botticelli and Leonardo. The course will end with a discussion of Michelangelo's works up to and including the Sistine Ceiling. Students should have had History of Art 101 and/or 102 in preparation for this class. History of Art 250 in turn will prepare students for more advanced classes in the department on High Renaissance and/or Mannerist art. There will be a midterm and final examination covering materials discussed in lectures and readings. The text for the course is F. Hartt's survey of Italian Renaissance Art. In addition to the examinations there will be a short written assignment. (Smith)

272. Arts of the Twentieth Century. Hist. of Art 101 or 102; or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

In lecture, a survey of the major movements and personalities of 20th century Western painting and sculpture. Some attention will also be given to the arts of architecture and cinema. Weekly discussion sections will focus on individual aspects or concepts of the course material to develop individual skills in approaching 20th century visual art and related ideas including socio-political and philosophical issues. There will be two examinations, a midterm and a final. In addition, there will be a 10-15 page paper or project requirement. The required text is Arnason, History of Modern Art. Students are also strongly urged to purchase Chipp, Theories of Modern Art. The course is ideally suited as a sequel to Western art survey courses (either 101 or 102) and provides an excellent foundation for further specialized study in the visual arts of the 20th century. All major "isms" from Fauvism to Conceptualism and New Realism will be examined. A program of films associated with Cubism, Dada, Expressionism and Surrealism (5-10 films) is planned. (Miesel)

341. The Gothic Age. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of the art of Western Europe in later Middle Ages (1150-1500). Students will examine major work of architecture, sculpture, stained glass, manuscript illumination, tapestry, fresco and panel painting and the art of the goldsmith. The goal of the course is to explore the rapid evolution of Gothic style from the experimental transitional period of the mid-twelfth century, to the classic High Gothic style of the early thirteenth century, the court style of Louis IX of France and Henry III of England and the rich and varied works of the late Gothic Period at the end of the Middle Ages. The course will concentrate on work produced in Northern Europe (France, England and Germany) but developments in Italy and Spain will be considered. Style, iconographic themes, techniques and materials and developments in structure will be discussed within the context of secular and religious life of the Middle Ages. (Neagley)

393. Junior Proseminar. History of Art concentrators. (3). (HU).

This Proseminar is a key element in the departmental curriculum sequence. It is designed to offer potential and declared Honors concentrators a chance to participate in a challenging small-group learning experience. The student will be expected to do assigned readings critically able to discuss them productively in seminar; to present periodic short oral reports to the group; and to write a short, but well-documented and well-written, research paper based on those oral reports. This year the Proseminar will have as its theme Attic Red-Figure Vase Painting. Initial lectures by the instructor on this subject and assigned readings in same will provide a common knowledge base for the main part of the course. Here, students will explore aspects of traditional art historical methodology and apply them specifically to problems of Attic Red-Figure. In this way the principles of basic formal description, connoisseurship, hand attribution, advanced formal analysis, iconographical interpretation, and patronage will be discussed. The assigned readings will enable the student to apply the classic methodological literature of the art historical field to these areas of inquiry specifically in the realm of Attic Vase Painting. Hopefully in the process the student will ultimately feel at ease applying these principles to other areas as well. Collections of the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology and the Toledo Museum of Art will provide a special opportunity for students to work with actual examples of ancient Greek vase painting masterpieces. (Root)

Open to Upperclass Students and Graduate Students

406/Environ. Studies 406. Art and the Natural Environment. Permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Case studies in relationships of art to nature, with emphasis on England and America from the picturesque garden of the 18th century to the organic architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright in the 20th century. Painting, landscape gardening, architecture and aesthetics will be studied with reference to changing ideas about nature. Developments in political, social and intellectual life will be taken into account as they bear on the artist's attitudes towards landscape. Thus, for example, landscape gardening testifies in the Enlightenment to a new ideal of reconciling freedom and order, and in the Romantic period to a concern for the moral elevation of urban populations. In the era of Manifest Destiny, Americans faced the task of adapting to the portrayal of a continent a tradition in landscape painting that had been created by the English, an island people. Throughout the 19th century the progress of science precipitated a succession of redefinitions of mankind's place in nature: at one point landscape appeared to be fraught with prophecy, at another to be devoid of all teleological meaning. The visual arts demonstrate graphically how modes of seeing depend upon modes of consciousness. Understanding the vision of other generations should enrich and refine our own vision and sensitize us to possibilities in relating art to nature. Grades will be based on tests and papers. A previous course in art history, while desirable, is not necessary. (Huntington)

407/Museum Practice 407. Introduction to Museum Philosophy and Practice. Hist. of Art 101 or 102 and permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to introduce students to the history, philosophy, and professional practices of art museums. The course will begin with a survey of the history of museums, and the philosophical ramifications resulting from the evolution of the private collection to the public museum. Current issues such as professional ethics, the impact of the commercial market on art museum acquisition policy, and the implications of current exhibition trends will be discussed. The functions of the museum collecting, conservation, research, exhibiting, and interpreting, and their relationship to administrators, curators, educators, registrars, and support staff will be examined. There will be several short written assignments, an oral presentation, and a final examination. (Kujawski)

413/Scandinavian 413/Architecture 413. Architecture and Art of Scandinavia. (3). (HU).

A survey of Scandinavian architecture, and some art, from the Iron Age to the present, with emphasis on the last hundred years. It is part of the concentration in Scandinavian, but is open to all students of junior standing and above. The course will include the following topics: early construction from the Iron Age house to the hearth and gallery houses; the runic inscriptions; the Viking houses and camps; churches and their art from Romanesque and Gothic periods, including stave churches of Norway and round churches of Bornholm; the Renaissance, including Dutch influence, and planned towns; the brief Baroque, followed by neo-Classicism and other revival styles through the 19th century. The late 19th and early 20th century's development of a "National Romantic" style, followed by "Functionalism" in the 1930's and finally, the post-World War II period with its blending of traditional crafts and contemporary design, bringing Scandinavia to its present position of international leadership. This last topic gets most coverage. Primarily a lecture course, with some discussion. A single major term paper, and a final exam, each counting half of the final grade. No textbook, but a reading list will be provided containing related books available in campus libraries. (K. Marzolf)

436/Class. Arch. 436. Hellenistic and Roman Architecture. Hist. of Art 101 or 330; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 436. (Humphrey)

445/MARC 445. Medieval Architecture. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to provide the student with a general understanding of the development of European architecture between the Early Christian Period of the fourth century and the Late Gothic Period of the fifteenth century. The major focus of architectural design in this period was the church building, and the course will emphasize the structural, functional, and stylistic developments which led to one of the principal artistic achievements of Western history: the Medieval Cathedral. Attention will also be paid to the development of the castle, the town, and civic and domestic architecture in the Middle Ages. Requirements include a research paper, a midterm and a final examination. (Neagley)

458. Florentine Sculpture of the Renaissance. Hist. of Art l02 or 250; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

After brief introductions to the nature of sculpture as an art form and to innovative Italian Medieval sculptors (Nicola, Giovanni, and Andrea Pisano), the course will trace in detail the evolution of Florentine sculpture (and with that changing philosophical, religious, and cultural attitudes) from the International Style to the High Renaissance. Lectures on a select number of major masters (above all Ghiberti, Donatello, Luca della Robbia, Verrocchio, and Michelangelo) will consider the works both within their historical contexts and as products of special creative genius. The lectures are to be supplemented by a modest amount of required reading, considerable optional reading (for which a bibliography and reserve books will be provided), and continual study of the visual material, all leading to evaluation by way of midterm and final examinations of essay format. (Bissell)

465. Rembrandt and His Contemporaries. Hist. of Art 102 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course will explore the development and significance of the various aspects of Dutch painting in the seventeenth century. Particular attention will be given to the work of major masters such as Hals, Honthorst, Vermeer, Terborch, and Ruisdael while the career of Rembrandt will be pursued in all its depth and variety. Paintings will be considered in relationship to Dutch culture of that period as well as to the artistic traditions, local and international, from which they sprang. The teaching method will be lecture and some discussion combined with a course text and selected reading assignments. Student evaluation will be based on a midterm examination, the final examination, and a term paper. Some general knowledge of European art history will be assumed. (Whitman)

486. Art of the Central Islamic Lands from Muhammad to the Mongols (600-1258). Hist. of Art 386; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

History of Art 486 will survey the formation and development of Islamic art and architecture in Mesopotamia, Syria, Arabia, and Palestine from the rise of Islam in the seventh century A.D. to the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols in 1258. This is the geographical and chronological core of Islamic art, from which regional variations and later styles developed; it embraces the creation of original and distinctive forms, such as the arabesque and the stalactite vault. Ties with late Antique, Byzantine, and medieval European art will be explored. Slide lectures with occasional discussions will be complemented by sessions with objects in University collections. Two analytic papers (8-15 pp.) will be assigned, and there will be a final examination. (Allen)

494(388). Art of China. Hist. of Art 103 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course will present a general survey of the history of Chinese art. The student should come with some background in either the history of art or in Chinese history and culture. Beginning in earliest times a major emphasis will be on ancient ritual bronzes, sculpture, and painting, but there will also be some discussion of architecture, jade, and ceramics. Throughout, an effort will be made to define what is unique about China's art as conveyed by the art objects themselves. The student can expect two or three short papers analyzing works of art in the Museum of Art and a final exam. There will also be assigned readings. Required text: Michael Sullivan, The Arts of China, (third edition), Berkeley, l984. (Edwards)

514. Spanish Art: El Greco to Goya. Hist. of Art 102 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Beginning with lectures that presume to formulate a notion of the spiritual bond between apparently dissimilar works of Spanish art, the course passes to in-depth analyses of selected major Spanish painters and sculptors from the late 16th century to the early 19th century: El Greco (the Italian-trained Greek working in Toledo), Ribalta, Martinez Montanes, Ribera, Velazquez, Zurbaran, Murillo and Goya. The cultural/historical situations, the creative uniqueness, and yet the essential "Spanishness" of each of these masters will be explored in a lecture format (supported by a syllabus) that proposes to strike a balance between objective and engaged approaches to the discipline. There will be a modest amount of required reading (for purchase: J. Brown, Images and Ideas in Seventeenth-Century Spain, Princeton PB, 1978), considerable optional reading (for which a bibliography and reserve books will be provided), and continual emphasis on study of the visual material, all leading to evaluation by way of midterm and final examinations. Undergraduate students with basic training in the history of art should by no means be intimidated by the "500" course number. (Bissell)

531/Class. Arch. 531. Aegean Art and Archaeology. Hist. of Art 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 531. (Pedley)

542. Byzantine Art. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course will examine Byzantine art, above all painting, metalwork and architecture, in the centuries between 843 and 1350 AD. These centuries saw the maturity of Byzantium's medieval art: its media of gold mosaic, cloisonné enamel, wall painting and panel painting; its many-domed architecture; its imagery of Christian empire; and its most distinctive form, the icon, found their fullest realization at this time. By studying key works in terms of their form, their function, their historical situation, and the modes of their interpretation and appreciation by contemporary Byzantine authors, the course endeavors to open a comprehending view into the art of this complex and centrally important medieval empire. Lectures and class discussions will be supplemented by student projects, and trips to area collections. There will be a midterm and final exam. (Carr)

555. Renaissance Architecture in Italy. Hist. of Art 101 or 102; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

A survey of Italian buildings from Brunelleschi to Palladio, this course endeavors to explain the formal nature of Renaissance, classical architecture and to relate it to the historical background of the city-state and the papacy. The theory and practice of Alberti, Bramante, and Michelangelo are explored in some detail. Lectures and discussion are supplemented by a textbook and varied shorter reading assignments. Evaluation of students is based on an hour examination, an analytical paper, and the final examination in addition to class participation. Graduate students will write a term paper. (Whitman)

568. Art in Britain, 1600-1870. Hist. of Art 102 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Much of the course will be concerned with painting, but architecture, landscape gardening, and city planning, will also be taken into account, especially with reference to the relationships with continental art which will be examined frequently. The term will start with a brief survey of Renaissance and Baroque influences in English architecture from 1620 to 1740. In the half century that follows, the focus will shift to painting. Singled out for special consideration will be Hogarth, the great satirist, and Reynolds and Gainsborough, the two giants of English portraiture. The development of landscape painting in the eighteenth century will be considered with particular attention paid to the legacy passed on to the two nineteenth-century geniuses of landscape, Constable and Turner. The range of eccentric to conventional painters and other artists active at the beginning of the new century, among them Blake and Lawrence, will be sampled. The course will conclude with a brief look at Victorian academic artists and their rivals, the Pre-Raphaelites, including their most noted defender, John Ruskin. The class will be conducted in lecture form: grades will be determined by a midterm, a paper, and a final test. With the instructor's permission a paper may be substituted for the final. (Huntington)

571. Post-Impressionism. Hist. of Art 102 and 271; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Post-Impressionism deals primarily with the art of the last two decades of the nineteenth century, the period in which the foundations of modern art were firmly established. Special emphasis will be placed upon French art during the 1880s. The major artists discussed will be Seurat, van Gogh, Gauguin, and Cezanne, with attention given, as well, to Redon, Toulouse-Lautrec, Bonnard, Vuillard, Munch, and others. The major movements and tendencies considered are Symbolism, Neo-Impressionism, the Nabis, and later Impressionism. Lectures will concentrate on the development within each artist's career, with problems of form and content, and with the general theme of anti-naturalism that pervades the period. The presentation will be mainly in the form of lectures, although a certain amount of class discussion will be encouraged throughout. Students will be asked to do two exams and a term paper. Reading will be drawn from books on library reserve, principally from John Rewald's Post-Impressionism, and from selected paperbacks. Although the study of this short period of time is fairly intensive, it is a course that may be taken by anyone who has had at least some introductory work in the history of art. (Isaacson)

597. Chinese Painting: Yüan to the Present. Hist. of Art 488 or 494; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

A major change in the course of Chinese painting occurs toward the end of the thirteenth century, in which the personal individual expression of the artist is particularly prized. The nature of this individualism will be explored in historical sequence. Since the material is too rich for complete coverage, one or more of the periods concerned, Yuan, Ming, and Ch'ing, may receive special emphasis. Classes will be conducted through a combination of lectures and discussion. There will be brief slide tests and one major paper requiring a more penetrating study of a special artist or period within the scope of the course. There will be recommended and assigned readings but no required text. (Edwards)

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