Courses in Linguistics (Division 423)

211. Introduction to Language. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the scope and methods of linguistic inquiry. It should enable students to acquire familiarity with the different branches of linguistics and to come to some appreciation of what linguists do. The course has two principal goals: to introduce many of the basic tools for studying language and to learn to use those tools to improve our understanding of language as we encounter it in our daily lives. (Manaster-Ramer)

272(141)/Anthro. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).

See Cultural Anthropology 272. (Burling)

312. Introduction to Analysis of Sounds. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to two interdependent branches of the study of speech-sounds. These are: (1) phonetics, concerned chiefly with the analysis and classification of all the sounds that can be pronounced by human vocal tracts the total human sound-producing potential, and (2) phonology, concerned with the different ways in which particular languages utilize this universal human sound-potential. The approach to phonetics will be largely experimental, though non-instrumental: that is, students will discover the range of possible human sounds, and how they are produced, by systematic experimentation in their own vocal tracts. Thus, the categories used in the classification of all speech-sounds will be learned experientially as well as intellectually. The last third of the course, dealing with some basic concepts of phonology, will survey ways in which features of the universal human sound-potential are organized into the different sound-systems of particular languages. Examples will be drawn from English and a few other familiar languages. Text: a course-pack. Grading: by two tests of practical ability to analyse and describe sounds in the taxonomic categories of phonetics, and one test relating to phonology. Prerequisites: none (except an interest in language!). (Catford)

314. Introduction to Word Analysis. (3). (HU).

Much of what is ;commonly called 'grammar' word endings, verb and noun forms, paradigms, etc. falls within the linguistic area of morphology. This field deals with the internal structure of words, their formation, and the meaningful pieces, or 'morphemes' (such as type, write, -er, and -s in typewriters) from which complex words are made, and through which they express their grammatical and semantic relations with other words. This course deals with all aspects of morphological analysis in languages of the world; emphasis is placed on traditional descriptive terminology and its utilization in various languages. There is a unit on Latin morphology, a long series of problems in an American Indian language (Skagit), frequent data analysis homework, and a final project involving extended morphological analysis of a language of the student's choice. Lectures cover basic concepts and their relations to other areas of linguistic analysis, such as phonology, syntax, and semantics. Texts are Matthews, Morphology and Merrifield et al., Lab Manual for Morphology and Syntax. Prerequisites are an introductory course in Linguistics, and a course in Phonetics or Phonology. Some background in Syntax is also helpful. (Lawler)

350. Child Language Acquisition. (3). (SS).

This is a course which explores how children learn their first language. Topics addressed in the course include: communication before the beginnings of language, effect of the environment on language learning, acquisition of rules for forming words and sentences, learning to use conversation, individual differences in language learning and language development, and the special language skills of the school-age child. Students will be introduced to some of the basic principles for conducting research on children's language. (Keller-Cohen)

361. ESL Theory, Methods, and Tests II. Linguistics 360. (3). (HU).

This course is a continuation of Linguistics 360, which (or its equivalent) is a prerequisite. It is designed to provide students with a sound theoretical and practical basis for language teaching. The background of knowledge and experiences it provides is intended not only for those interested in finding out about teaching English to speakers of other languages (ESL), but is also applicable to English teaching in general, and to foreign language teaching as well. It focuses on a detailed analysis of the skill areas (e.g., listening, speaking, reading, writing) involved in second language instruction and the development of various second language curricula. An additional emphasis of this course is on construction, administration, and scoring of various language tests. The relevance of classroom testing to classroom teaching will be highlighted. Students will learn about the latest trends in both language teaching and testing, and about their relationships. Students will also become competent in computing basic test statistics. (Ard and Spada)

365. ESL Materials Development. (3). (Excl.).

The purpose of this course is to examine aspects of theory and practice related to instructional materials used in teaching English as a second language. Over the last two decades, linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic perspectives on language learning and teaching have changed in some very basic ways. Significant changes in concepts about the nature of second language learning and learner processes have had a marked effect on second language pedagogy. This influence is seen in a steady flow of new ideas in instructional methods and materials. This course will study the changing forms and functions of instructional materials, the methodologies involved, and the principles upon which various materials are based. Students will examine and evaluate a wide variety of ESL instructional materials (print, audio-visual, etc.). Students will develop individual or group projects that involve the preparation of a small set of materials or the adaptation of existing materials to meet the specific needs of a particular group of students. (Morley)

366. Observing Teaching and Learning of ESL. (2). (Excl.).

This course has essentially two parts. In the first, we will focus on classroom interaction. Students will observe a wide range of language classes, focusing on aspects of the teaching-learning relationship. In particular, we will examine ways in which teachers interact with students, ways in which students interact with other students, ways in which teachers encourage/hinder learning (verbal and non-verbal actions, attitudes, use of materials, etc.)l, and ways in which students interact with materials. In the second part, students will have hands-on teaching experience. Under supervision they will develop lesson plans, develop and/or select materials and teach English to non-native speakers. In addition, they will gain experience in administering an English as a Second Language Program. The course will provide students with an opportunity to analyse classroom behaviors within different frameworks and will acquaint students with different styles and techniques for language teaching. Prerequisite: Linguistics 360/560 or permission of instructor. (Gass)

409/Anthro. 472. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

See Cultural Anthropology 472. (Mannheim and Becker)

410/Anthro. 474. Nonstandard English. (3). (SS).

This course provides a description of the linguistic characteristics sometimes called "non-standard." Consideration is also given to the psychological and sociological implications of these forms of English for the individuals and the groups that speak and use them. Special attention is given to the forms of English used in the Black ghettos of America and to the educational problems raised by these forms of English. The course is intended to be useful to anyone who expects to be involved with minority groups or with people of the inner city, and it is especially recommended for those who are in education or who are working toward a teaching certificate. The course has no prerequisites. (Fodale)

411/Anthro. 475. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 211 for a general description of this course. Undergraduates should enroll for 211. Honors students, graduates, and those undergraduates desiring to do graduate level assignments should enroll for 411. (Markey)

412. Phonetics. Linguistics 312 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course surveys the physiology, aerodynamics, and acoustics of speech in somewhat greater detail than in the introductory phonetics course. Some time will be devoted to the study and interpretation of various types of instrumental record, and there will be opportunities for work with the sound spectrograph. Grading: by paper. Text: Painter, Colin: Introduction to Instrumental Phonetics University Park (paperback). For reference: Catford, J. C.: Fundamental Problems in Phonetics; Ladefoged, P.: A Course in Phonetics. (Catford)

413. Phonology. Linguistics 312. (3). (HU).

This course considers the nature of the organization of speech sounds in language. The basic theoretical premise is that each language has a limited number of basic units, 'phonemes', in its system of sounds. Phonemes exist by virtue of contrasts between each other, by having certain physical properties that vary in interesting ways, and by possessing certain distributional characteristics. Every language has a different set of phonemes. The course includes an exploration of the English sound system and exercises which show points of phonological structure in a variety of languages selected from various parts of the world. Readings introduce students to theoretical issues in phonology. Course format is a combination of lecture and discussion. Some previous foreign language study is very useful background for this course. Grades will be on the basis of weekly homework, a midterm, and a final paper. Text: Sommerstein, Modern Phonology. (Hill)

415. Syntax II. Linguistics 315 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a second term syntax course. There will be frequent readings and problem sets related to the readings. Readings will aim to give a wide knowledge of types of linguistic problems as well as an introduction to various theories of syntactic analysis. A major goal of the course is to teach the student the skill of being a critical, active reader. We will consider the readings from the point of view of uncovering and testing assumptions, recognizing and testing forms of argumentation, and recognizing and testing predictions of the analysis given. There will be no exams. There may be papers, depending upon the interests of the students. (Napoli)

417/Anthro. 476/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Languages change through time. The study of the regularities of language change leads to the identification of genetic relations among languages and the reconstruction of prehistoric proto-languages. This course is an introduction to the theory and methods of historical linguistics with major emphasis on sound change and the comparative method. Other topics include grammatical, semantic, and lexical change, internal reconstruction, language families, and non-genetic relations among languages (similarities due to contact or typology). Text: Arlotto, Introduction to historical linguistics. (Hill)

420. Microcomputer Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The computer has been part of our culture a fixture in our hopes, plans, and nightmares for more than a generation. Recent developments in microcomputer technology have placed the power of the computer within the reach of virtually everyone...if we can manage to grasp it. Computers are useful only to the extent that they can meet people's needs, and this depends on the ways that exist to communicate these needs to the computer. Just as in human communication, these take the form of languages. This course is designed for Linguistics students and others with a strong interest and thorough grounding in Language and languages. We will begin with the theory and practice of microcomputer operation, then proceed to editing and wordprocessing, learning and analyzing several command languages in the process. Further topics covered include use of utility programs, types of application programs, documentation and its production, user interface design, types of programming and command languages, and text analysis of representative technical material and advertising. The thrust of the course is on applying Linguistic methods and findings to real problems in microcomputer software design and use. Prior programming knowledge and experience is useful but not required. There will be homework, several writing assignments, and a final term project, done on a microcomputer. Students must have had at least an introductory course in Linguistics. (Lawler)

492. Topics in Linguistics. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

This seminar will discuss principles of comparative-historical linguistics and genetic classification of languages of the world. All known linguistic families will be briefly reviewed. Professors from the Linguistics Department will review some of the families and groups and participate at the discussion (A. Becker: Austronesian; J. Catford: North-Caucasian and Kartvelian; P. Hook: Indo-Aryan; A. Manaster-Ramer: Uto-Aztecan, et al.). Special attention will be paid to several recent discoveries: reconstruction of Proto-North-Caucasian and discovery of North-Caucasian substratum in European languages; identification of East-North-Caucasian character of Basque; reconstruction of Proto-Yeniseian; identification of Salishan character of Coos, Alsea and Siuslaw, etc.). Remaining major problems will be discussed as well: linguistic position of Sumerian, Etruscan, Burushaski, Gilyak, Salishan, Wakashan, Siouan. Some other topics of discussion will include recent progress in linguistics which has resulted in the identification of several macro-families and, in a few cases, in the reconstruction of respective proto-languages (Nostratic, Dene-Caucasian, Macro-Asiaticl, Koisan, Amerind); criteria of correctness of such reconstructions (phonetic, morphological, and semantic matchings in a considerable number of languages; distinction between inherited and borrowed forms; comparisons according to the hierarchy of stability of basic meanings); successes versus failures (criticism of methods used by A. Bomhard in his recent book of comparison of Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic, etc.). No background needed. (Shevoroshkin)

514. Phonology. Ling. 414. (3). (Excl).

This course meets with Linguistics 314, covers the same topics, has the same prerequisites, and does the same assignments, plus additional work. Graduate students, Honors students, and undergraduates seeking a more substantial introductory course should register for this course instead of 314. (Lawler)

Language Courses

170. English as a Foreign Language. Students will be placed in 170 based on the English Language Proficiency Examination. (4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for non-native graduates and undergraduates who have sufficient language proficiency to be admitted to the University but who need to improve their language skills to perform successfully in academic work. For example, some students may have difficulty expressing themselves in writing, giving oral presentations, and understanding lectures. A prerequisite for placement in the course is a score in the 80's on the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. There are three hours per week of group instruction, discussion, and practice exercises. Students receive instruction and practice in the writing of well formed sentences, paragraphs, and essays. Library resources, research techniques, and the steps for developing a well organized and properly documented term paper are presented. Instruction is given in techniques of oral presentation and classroom discussion. Pronunciation instruction is provided on a tutorial basis and self-access listening comprehension materials are available in the language laboratory. Students are graded on a credit/no credit basis. A student receives a passing grade if she or he has attended classes regularly and satisfactorily completed specified assignments, including the final end of term research paper. Depending on the numbers and the specific needs of the students enrolled in this course, two sections can be offered: one focusing on academic reading and writing skills, and the other on academic listening and speaking skills. (Soden)

223 Elementary Ojibwa. (3). (FL).

Class is designed to give the conversational and cultural skills necessary to enable students to use Ojibwa in real life situations. The teaching methods are entirely inductive, and the role of writing is downplayed. There is considerable emphasis on teaching culturally appropriate behavior, and the simple conversational patterns of greetings, leave takings, introductions, table talk, etc. There is no prerequisite for this course. (Rhodes)

302 Thai. (4). (FL).

This course is the second half of the sequential Elementary Thai courses. The emphases are on practicing pronunciation and simple conversation, reading and writing simple Thai, and expanding students' vocabulary. Four hours of language lab are recommended. Course materials include learning program (produced by instructor) handouts, and J.M. Brown, A.U.A. Language Center Thai Course Book 1. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final. (Sachakul)

306 Elementary Hindi-Urdu. (4). (FL).

A continuation of 305. Students with some prior background in Hindi may be able to enter the sequence at this point. Contact the instructor. (Hook)

308 Elementary Tagalog. Ling. 307. (4). (FL).

Tagalog is the national language of the Philippines. Elementary Tagalog is a two-term sequence designed to give the student who has little or no knowledge of Tagalog the necessary basis for learning to speak it and to have a functional acquaintance with the cultural context in which it functions. Tagalog is particularly interesting in the way it has integrated the broad influences of both Spanish and English into its own syntactic and semantic systems. The oral approach is greatly emphasized in the classroom, using questions and answers and short dialogues to develop active use of the language in the most natural way possible. This is complemented by the use of taped lessons in the Language Laboratory. There are frequent short quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. At the end of the first year, the student should be able to handle brief exchanges in common social situations and to read and write simple Tagalog. For the student specializing in Philippine studies, learning Tagalog is a must. For the student specializing in language studies, a number of linguists of note have found Tagalog structure highly instructive in understanding certain aspects of language. For the student with Philippine affinities, learning Tagalog provides a bond of understanding and for some, a link to one's roots. For the student who has neither a Philippine connection nor a specialist interest in language, learning Tagalog can be rewarding as it provides an experience of new modes of expression and new ways of looking at the world around us and within ourselves. (Naylor)

323 Intermediate Ojibwa. (3). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the basic conversational skills of the student who knows some Ojibwa. The emphasis in class is on increasing the range of situations in which the student can use Ojibwa in real life. Some emphasis is placed on teaching the students to be able to learn more Ojibwa outside of the classroom, by talking and using the language with native speakers. Prerequisite: Linguistics 222 and 223, or some speaking knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

332/German 302. Elementary Yiddish. Linguistics (Yiddish) 331 or the equivalent. (3). (FL).

This course is a continuation of the first term of Elementary Yiddish. Some familiarity with Yiddish (as proven by a previous course or interview with the instructor) is assumed. Student evaluations are based on exams, quizzes, written homework assignments, and oral classroom work. (Norich)

402 Intermediate Thai. Ling. 401. (3). (FL).

This course is the second half of the two sequential Intermediate Thai courses. It is designed to increase students' speaking, listening, reading, and writing abilities, as well as vocabulary expansion. Students practice pronunciation and conversation as well as read and write short paragraphs. Four hours of language lab are recommended. Course materials: Brown, A.U.A. Language Center Thai Course Books 1-2. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final. (Sachakul)

406 Intermediate Hindi-Urdu. Ling. 405. (3). (FL).

A continuation of 405. Students with some prior background in Hindi and in Urdu may be able to enter the sequence at this point. Contact the instructor. (Hook)

408 Elementary Sanskrit. (3). (FL).

Ling. 408 (Elementary Sanskrit) is a continuation of Ling. 407. This course continues work on elementary Sanskrit grammar and involves reading stories in Sanskrit which have been written to fit particular levels of grammar. The goal of the course is to enable the student to read and write basic Sanskrit. The course involves a considerable amount of homework. The final evaluation is based on quizzes, midterm test, and final examination. (Deshpande)

423 Advanced Ojibwa. Ling. 422 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is aimed at giving students with conversational ability in Ojibwa the opportunity to both improve their speaking and listening skills and to introduce them to Ojibwa literature, and the various dialects represented in the literature. Students will work with the original, unedited texts, as well as with edited, retranscribed materials, and thus learn about the problems of working in a language without a widely accepted standard writing system. Prerequisite: Linguistics 322 and 323, or a conversational knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

434 Intermediate Tagalog. Ling. 433 or permission of instructor. (3). (FL).

This is a two-term sequence in which the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog expands his knowledge, develops fluency, and becomes acquainted with Tagalog literature. While the oral approach continues, there is much greater emphasis on reading and writing and much heavier cultural content in the materials read. In the first term, one meeting a week is devoted to the study of grammar. The rest of the time is spent in oral reading (dramatization) of a series of story episodes in dialogue form, translation, question-and-answer on content, and discussion of the linguistic and cultural aspects of each episode. Written homework is regularly assigned. To complement the grammar lessons, tapes are available at the Language Laboratory. There will be occasional quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The second term is essentially a continuation of the first. Instead of dialogues, however, we read narratives and essays and instead of studying grammar separately, we integrate it with work on the readings which provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points. At the end of the second year, the student should have acquired (a) sufficient competence to handle short conversations, write brief letters, read texts of low to medium complexity, and (b) a broader knowledge of the culture that the language is an expression of and in which the language functions. (Naylor)

502 Advanced Thai. Ling. 501. (3). (FL).

This course is the second half of the two course sequence of Advanced Thai. The course is designed to improve students' proficiency in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehension of the Thai language. The course is flexible and tailored to suit students' needs and interests. Suggested text: Jones, Thai Cultural Reader, Book I. Evaluations are based on homework, midterm, and final. (Sachakul)

506 Advanced Hindi-Urdu. Ling. 505. (3). (FL).

This course is a continuation of Linguistics 505. (Hook)

508 Advanced Sanskrit. Ling. 507. (3). (FL).

Ling. 508 (Advanced Sanskrit) is a continuation of Ling. 507. This course continues work on advanced grammar of classical Sanskrit and also involves reading simple stories, parts of Sanskrit dramas and other similar classical literary texts. The goal of the course is to prepare the student to read non-technical classical Sanskrit. (Deshpande)


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