Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

An introduction to the study of politics through the close reading of selected great philosophical works. The theme of the course is democratic government, which will be studied through the arguments made for and against it by various political philosophers. The course will focus on a comparison between Athenian democracy (as analyzed by Aristotle) and American democracy (as analyzed by Tocqueville). Other readings will be drawn from Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, The Federalist, Rousseau, and Marx. There are two lectures and two hours of section meeting per week. Two papers will be assigned by the section leaders, and two course-wide examinations (one midterm and one final) will be administered. This course can serve as one of the prerequisites for taking upper division courses in Political Science. (Schwartz)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a wide-ranging survey of government and politics throughout the United States. Most of the course centers upon national government and politics. Among the main topics to be explored are the constitutional base, elections, political parties and interest groups, the presidency, Congress, the courts, and policy formulation in designated areas. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? Why is it that public policy emerges as it does in the United States? What is the level of trust in government? And how does that level change? These and others are issues confronted in the course. There are two lectures and two discussion sessions each week. The basis for grading includes a midterm and a final examination for all students; and written work as well as other forms of participation in each of the sections, under the guidance of individual instructors (Grassmuck)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems work and to familiarize them with concepts used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence political life; political parties and political competition; leadership succession; the role of political institutions; and the analysis of contemporary political conflicts. The course will offer two lectures per week, plus two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of communication. (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the basic approaches to the study of international politics. Material on the theories underlying these approaches is grounded in case studies of events from World War I to the present. The object is twofold: to familiarize students with the ways in which analysts have tried to understand international politics; and to equip students with both substantive knowledge of, and a grasp of the underlying theoretical issues concerning contemporary international problems. Students will be evaluated on the basis of both examinations and several short writing assignments. All students are expected to attend discussion sections as well as the regular lectures for the course. (Lieberthal)

250/Amer. Inst. 250. American Institutions and American Political Thought Poli. Sci. 101 or 111 or History 160 and sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 250. (Chamberlin)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.

This course is designed to introduce students to the various political theories and movements of Afro-American freedom. Particular attention will be devoted to theoretical analysis and empirical critical review. (Hill)

361. Current Issues in World Politics. (2). (SS).

This course will examine a range of World political issues including the East-West and North-South conflicts, the role of international organizations and multi-national corporations, war and serious disputes, and arms control and disarmament. We will bring scholarly research findings to bear on our discussion of each issue area. Final exam only. (Singer)

396/Econ. 396/REES 396/Slavic 396/Hist. 333/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

403. Development of Political Thought: Modern and Recent. Political Science 402 or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on the nature of the modern state and individual, and their relation to each other: both the liberal and historical relations, underlying limited and totalitarian government, are examined. In particular, the centralizing and legitimizing principles of executive prerogative, legislative supremacy, and judicial independence, and the revolutionary (or anti-revolutionary) principles of ideal national consciousness and material class consciousness, are discussed. Throughout, attention is given to the parameters of the public and private realms (including the separation of politics and religion), and the right and rights of each. The various themes are approached through the study of major political theorists, including chiefly Machiavelli, Hobbes, Loche, Montesquieu, Rosseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche, whose central texts (or selections from them) constitute the reading. Previous exposure to political thought, such as that covered in 450-402 (Development of Political Thought I), is useful but not necessary. Class time will be devoted principally to lectures, but discussion by students is always welcome. Work will be evaluated on the basis of two hour exams (for the second of which the student may substitute a term paper), a final exam, and class preparation. (Gondek)

405. American Political Thought. Junior standing. (4). (SS).

The ambiguities of American liberalism and the problems it has faced: federalism, constitutionalism, slavery, war, Social Darwinism, and more. Emphasis on founders and the period up to the Civil War; the course will stop at the end of the 19th century. Readings will include Franklin, Paine, Jefferson, The Federalist, the Antifederalist papers, Calhoun, Bird, Whitman, the Lincoln/Douglas debates, Crevecoeur, Douglass, Fitzhugh, Sponner, Emerson, Thoreau, Sumner, and Bellamy. A background in political theory and/or American history will be helpful. There will be about 35 pages of written work. Students will be expected to do the reading on time and attend class faithfully. (Herzog)

407. Selected Topics in Political Theory. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Philosophical Roots of Left, Right and Center.
In this course we will consider first the theoretical basis of liberal capitalist society, and then the bases of both the left- and right-wing attacks upon it. The premise of the course is that the twentieth-century growth of fascist and communist opposition to liberal democracy is to a considerable extent foreshadowed in the nineteenth-century theoretical works of Marx and Nietzsche. Topics to be addressed in the course include the merits and demerits of limited government, the relationship between politics and economics, the social significance of art and religion, and the relationship between individual morality and social and political organization. Readings will be drawn from Adam Smith (selections from The Wealth of Nations and the Theory Of Moral Sentiments), Karl Marx (selections from Capital and various shorter works of both the young and mature Marx), and Friedrich Nietzsche (On the Genealogy of Morals and Beyond Good and Evil). Course requirements will consist of two 8-10 page papers and a final examination. The course will be conducted in a lecture format, with frequent opportunities for questions and discussion. (Schwartz)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This course examines the formulation and implementation of public programs, mainly those of the U.S. central government, and mainly welfare-state in character. Lectures and readings concentrate on the contribution of political culture, institutional structure, and strategic choice to policy outcomes. The course proceeds by lectures and class discussion. Requirements are a midterm exam (for which a paper may be substituted) and a final exam. There are no prerequisites or enrollment limits. (Brown)

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).
Course Objectives
: 1) Provide an understanding of American mass politics, especially electoral politics, from both normative and empirical points of view and from the perspectives of the individual voter and the candidate for office. 2) Explore the extent, causes, and consequences of recent changes (or alleged changes) in public attitudes toward politics. 3) Introduce the modes of thinking and the analytical tools employed in the systematic study of American political behavior. Course Requirements : Midterm and final examinations, plus a term paper. The paper will involve original computer analysis of national election survey data. NO PRIOR STATISTICAL OR COMPUTER EXPERIENCE IS ASSUMED. (Markus)

414. The Politics of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the law of civil rights and liberties as it is derived from American constitutional interpretation. Attention will be devoted to (a) theories of civil liberty appropriate to a liberal democracy, with (b) application of such theories to specific areas of civil rights law drawn from the following: freedom of expression, political participation, and religion; equal protection and rights of minorities; rights of the accused; privacy, "life-style" issues, and control of personal information; as well as issues like access to the news media and private abridgment of freedoms. Students will find it helpful to have taken Political Science 413: American Constitutional Politics. Requirements : one short paper, a paper of medium length (as part of a moot court), and a final examination. Grading is tough. Texts : one casebook and two or three paperbacks. Instructional method : mixture of lecture and discussion. (Harris)

416/Amer. Inst. 462. Governing the Bureaucracy in the United States. Junior standing and permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 462. (Aberbach)

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the politics of the legislative process, with special emphasis on the United States Congress. Among the major topics addressed will be: the theory and practice of representation; legislative-executive relations; legislative rules and procedures. Throughout the course one of our main objectives will be to assess the policy making performance of Congress and to examine proposals for institutional reform. Requirements: two to three exams, one paper. (Hall)

418. Women and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will analyze the participation of women in political life and will investigate barriers to their participation. The role of women as activists, candidates, and participants in the political process will not be limited to American women, although the emphasis will be on the American political system. Cross-national comparisons will be made in order to develop a comparative perspective. The course will also include a section devoted to the collective, organized efforts of women who want to have an impact on the policy-making process.

420/Comm. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Pol. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to expose students to the way the news is made and the consequences for the operation of the political system. The central theme will be shifting roles of the media as objective reporter of events and as public agenda setter. Particular emphasis will be devoted to the importance of the media in electoral politics including the effects of the media on the electorate, the use of advertising in political campaigns and changing patterns of media use and exposure. In addition to readings and lectures, guest presentations will be made by leading journalists and political figures. There will be a midterm and a final examination, as well as a term paper involving independent research. (Traugott)

424. Metropolitan Problems. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to familiarize students with political processes and trends in American metropolitan areas. It will cover such topics as forms of local government and effects on who gets what in urban areas, the place of the city in the federal system, trends toward metropolitan and local control solutions, levels and trends in citizen participation, and the exercise of power by political leaders. The primary readings will be available at the Undergraduate Library and books will be available through local bookstores. There will be two term examinations as well as various writing assignments. Other forms of course contribution are recognized and encouraged, especially in-class discussion and presentations based upon student expertise. Class format will generally be lecture with some time for questions and discussion.

428/Phil. 428/Econ. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass or graduate standing. (4). (SS).
China's Evolution Under Communism
is the university's introductory interdisciplinary course on contemporary China. Although it gives credit toward majors in philosophy, economics, Asian studies, sociology, and political science, the course also is aimed at undergraduates in the sciences, engineering, business administration, education, and so on. The emergence of China as a major factor in world affairs increasingly affects our country. What are the implications of China's rise, both for the Chinese people and for us? That is the central question of this course. To answer it, we will explore China's historical background, its cultural traditions, the beliefs of its leaders, its economic and political systems, the social conditions of its people, and its foreign policy. Guest lecturers will come from UM's distinguished faculty of China specialists. Grades will be based on an hour exam, book report, and a final exam. Required books will include John Fairbank, The United States and China and Jay and Linda Matthews, One Billion. (Organski)

434. Government and Public Policy. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).
Section 001
: This course will examine government policies in four areas. These areas will likely be chosen from: education, equal opportunity, social insurance programs, energy, crime, and transportation. Students will write 8-10 short papers and will take a final exam. The method of instruction is lecture and discussion. (Corcoran)

Section 002 Law and Public Policy. This course will explore the role of the courts in defining public policy. Generally, courts can shape public policy through the interpretation of public law (either Constitutional or statutory) or through the creation and enforcement of judge-made private law (common law). Although this course will focus primarily on the public policy implications of private law, we will also have occasion to venture into the area of statutory interpretation. In both cases, we will examine how the slow accretion of court decisions profoundly influences both the conception and implementation of public policy. (Scheppele)

437/Amer. Inst. 440 Financial Institutions and Economic Change. Econ. 201 and 202. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 440. (Jackson, Thomas)

442. Governments and Politics in Western Europe. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on politics in Great Britain, France, West Germany and Italy, the largest nations of Western Europe. It is appropriate for political science concentrators; history concentrators who are interested in Western Europe; students concentrating in French, German or Italian who would like to know more about the society whose language they are studying; or students who are simply curious about how the political systems of these countries work. Topics include the influence of the past on contemporary politics, the relationship between the social structure and political cleavages, the forces and groups that affect government policy, protest movements (including the "Greens"), the contrasting programs and policies of the contending parties, and the forces making for political change. Requirements include a midterm, a final, and a term paper of about 2000 words. Instruction on how to use the computer is provided for interested students, and data for the countries treated in the course are made available. Computer work is not required; it is purely voluntary. (Pierce)

444. Government and Politics of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a course on the origins and the nature of the Russian/Soviet political system and on the ways in which our understanding of its political dynamics could influence its future. (Yanov)

450. Political Modernization in the Developing World. Any 100-level course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture, and each student will be required to make reports. (Organski)

452. Israeli Society and Politics. (4). (SS).

Based on the premise that a political system both influences and is influenced by its social context, this course will focus on the dynamics of this relationship. Guided by conceptual themes central to comparative political analysis, the Israeli socio-political system will be analyzed as we look at Zionism, political culture, the party system, political elites and leadership, socialization, religion and politics, multiethnicity within the Jewish sector, the Arab minorities, women, the military, and the Israeli economy. (Green)

459/CAAS 449. Africa: Development and Dependence. Prior or concurrent study of the Third World; Pol. Sci. 465 is recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course is intended as a multidisciplinary survey of African politics. (Wilson)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This course deals with the shifts in superpower relations during the post-1945 period, and, in particular, their effects on the international system. The historical record of détente and confrontation as well as explanations for changes are important. The impact of changes on arms control, disarmament, armaments and arms trade are included. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the relationship for local conflict patterns, conflict resolution alliance cohesion and internal political developments. European and Third World perspectives on superpower relations are covered as are general problems of measurement and causal explanation. (Wayman)

463. International Organization and Integration. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is concerned with ways of managing issues arising from increasing interdependence among nation states. It examines the role of international organizations in the contemporary global political system. It considers the historical development of international organizations, their political processes, and their activities. It explores the consequences of the growth of international organizations from the global political system, particularly in terms of the extent to which international integration is being achieved. Primary attention is devoted to international governmental organizations such as the agencies of the United Nations system and the European communities, but international non-governmental organizations are also considered. Responsibilities of students taking the course for credit include: (1) studying the assigned readings and participation in class discussions; (2) writing four papers of no more than 2,500 words in length; (3) writing a midterm examination; and (4) writing a final examination. (Jacobson)

465. Political Development and Dependence. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will provide an overview of the literature on the problems and prospects for the Third World development, both political and economic. We will begin by examining what American political science has prescribed for Third World development. This will be followed by a more in-depth study of newer perspectives (often Third World in origin) which deal with problems of imperialism, dependency, stagnation, authoritarianism and highly unequal patterns of growth. A central concern throughout will be to achieve some understanding of the multitude of patterns of development in the Third World and the roadblocks that stand in the way of more rapid development. Also of central concern will be the human costs and benefits in alternative models of development and underdevelopment. Previous political science courses on comparative or world politics would be helpful, but the only real requirement is an interest in the problems of the developing world. The format for the course will be largely lecture with as much discussion as the constraint of class size will allow. Grades will be based on a midterm and a final. (Hawes)

466/CAAS 463. Comparative Decolonization. CAAS 203, any 100-level course in political science, or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Decolonization is certainly one of the great political movements of our time. In a restricted sense, decolonization may be defined as the process by which power was transferred from various colonial powers to Asians and Africans after World War II. There were many elements in this historical process: the initial reactions of the colonized to the colonial presence which in time led to the rise of strong nationalist movements in Asia and African countries; the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union superpowers after 1945, superpowers determined to bring European colonial rule to an end. Also, there emerged in the metropolitan countries of the major colonial powers not only powerful anti-colonial lobbies, but also new generations of politicians and officials ideologically committed to the emancipation of Asians and Africans from alien rule. Nationalist self-assertion in the Third World, a radical change in the international balance of power, and a significant shift in orientations to colonialism in Western Europe, then, were important factors in the decolonization process. It is not enough just to list these factors. There is the need to assess in a systematic manner how these factors interacted. It is only in this way that we can explain decolonization as a general phenomenon as well as a movement of complex local variation. This is our first objective. Our second objective in this course is to put decolonization into proper historical perspective. As a phenomenon it did not suddenly emerge in the immediate post-1945 period; on the contrary, it is rooted in the expansion of the Western World (led by Britain) overseas, a process which eventually led to the incorporation of much of the Third World into a world capitalist economy as colonies. A second comparative theme will be that imperialism and decolonization are dimensions of a single historical process, and that they reflect a concern on the part of the major powers for maintaining a specific kind of world order. While the European powers were instrumental in determining the nature of this world order in the imperialist phase, the U.S. and the USSR. influenced the definitions of the evolving power of the political relationship between the rich industrialized countries and the developing countries of the Third World after 1945. With Africa as our primary but not exclusive focus we will study British, French, Belgian, and Portuguese strategies of decolonization. Lectures and class discussions will be the main methods of instruction, and students will be expected to write two examinations and a long research paper. No previous knowledge of Africa or international relations is required. (Twumasi)

470. Comparative Foreign Policy. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This course analyzes the processes by which the foreign policies of states are formulated and implemented. It also analyzes the consequences of these processes for the content of the state's policies. Generalizations are developed on the basis of the empirical examination of the behavior of selected states. Particular attention will be given to the behavior of the Soviet Union, the United States, and other countries. Some of the lectures will be on particular geographical areas of the world or countries and others will be on such substantive areas as population, political development and arms control. (Wayman)

471. The American Foreign Policy Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course concerns U.S.-Soviet relations and conflicts in which the U.S. has been a party in the Third World. A field trip to Washington, D.C. will be planned with visits to the White House, State Department and the Department of Defense. (Tanter)

486. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Pressure Groups. One course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is about the influence "the people" have on the decisions and actions taken by those in official governmental positions; it is about the ways "pressure" is brought to bear to affect the course of public policy. Several channels for that influence will be investigated. We will study the ways that public opinion is (or is not) relevant as a devise for swaying governmental action, through the competing claims made at any time about the "mandate" public opinion bestows, and the diverse institutional arrangements in which public opinion is created. We will look at the different modes of political participation in which people can engage voting, campaigning, mass protest, etc. with an eye to finding out both how people come to be involved in these various activities and the extent to which their participating in these various ways can be considered effective. We will consider the ways organizations having political relevance, including political parties, are created and maintained. We will examine the ways Members of Congress are led to respect the wishes of their constituents, or at least the wishes of some of their constituents. Overall, we will see that efforts to influence government policy are by no means restricted to the legislative field; interventions by the "people" both before proposals for policies come up for legislative consideration and after those proposals get through the legislative labyrinth are at least as important. The format for the course will be a combination of lectures and discussion. Three papers of moderate length will be required. There will be no exams. A background of at least one course in American government is strongly recommended. (Mebane)

490. Political Socialization. One course in political science. (4). (SS).

Course focuses on the influence of early learning, the family, peer groups, school, work place, military service and other adult organizations on the political attitudes and behavior of the mass public and political elites. We examine selected learning models as a means of organizing and understanding the literature and its relevance to adult political behavior. Method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Student evaluation is based on midterm and final exams and optional term paper. (Langton)

494. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). No more than four hours of Honors credit may be elected as part of a concentration plan in Political Science.

Open to seniors with Honors concentration in Political Science. Thesis writing course.

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Economic Democracy.
This seminar on "Economic Democracy" examines the theory and practice of self-management (SM) of the work organization. Who advocates SM and why ("cooling out," self-actualization and humanization of work, democratic politics, humane socialism?)? Where has SM been tried (USA, Europe, Israel, Chili, Peru, Yugoslavia etc.)? What have the effects of SM programs on production, labor conflict, personal development, democratic and political participation, and the structure and culture of the larger society? What has been the influence of external institutions on the success or failure of SM enterprises (state, political parties, market, military, prior socialization in family and school, unions etc.). The method of instruction is seminar discussion. Student evaluation will be based on seminar discussion and paper. (Langton)

Section 002 Women and Public Policy. The course will cover policy areas which effect women's lives. Topics will include sex-role socialization, adolescent pregnancy, women and employment, women and the law, the ERA, female-headed families and income policies, elderly women and pension rights. It is a lecture class. Students will be required to write 10 short (2-4 page) and a longer paper. (Corcoran)

Section 003 Congress, Committees and the Budget. This seminar will focus on committee policy making in Congress, with considerable attention given to the role of the budget, appropriations and finance committees in the shaping of United States fiscal policy. Generally, we will attempt to analyze and evaluate the central role committees play in the legislative behavior within committees the ways in which particular committee activities serve the professional goals of individual members. These concerns will lead us to consider such topics as the committee assignment process; participation and specialization in committees; coalition formation and bill construction; lobbying and interest group influence; leadership styles and strategies. Course requirements include active participation in seminar discussion, a major research paper on a topic to be negotiated between student and instructor and a final exam. (Hall)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Religion and Politics.
The seminar focuses on the interaction between religion and politics through two channels: ideology and organization. It stresses the political impact of religion by way of (a) cultural transmission and (b) institutions - e.g., political parties, interest groups, and governments themselves. In addition, the course has a cross-national perspective. It will draw on work conducted in Latin America and other third world areas (e.g., China, South Asia) as well as in the U.S. and Western Europe. The course is divided in two main parts: (1) discussion of core readings and (2) presentation and discussion of students' projects. The core readings cover the following areas: (1) conceptual overview, major theorists, (2) Western Europe and the U.S., reformation and counter-reformation legacies, and (3) religion and politics in non-western settings, e.g., case studies of political mobilization through religious symbols. The second part of the course is devoted to research or critical review projects selected by students. Following the seminar format, students will make preliminary presentations in class. There will be two short papers (less than 10 pages) on the core readings and one longer paper (no more than 20-30 pages) on the individual projects. There is no standard text for the course. Most of readings will be composed of journal articles and chapters from books. (McDonough)

Section 002 Comparative Communist Politics. This seminar will analyze the interaction of the Russian and Chinese communist movements with their social, economic, and political environments both before and after the victories of the two revolutions. This comparative analysis will highlight the factors that produced the different political histories and operational modes (e.g., decision making processes) of these two revolutions. Explanatory variables considered will include the power bases of the ancient regimes, the economic structures of these pre-revolutionary societies, the social compositions of the two communist parties, and the evolving international environment. (Lieberthal)

Section 003 Comparative Study of Political Elites. This seminar will review the theoretical and empirical materials, for the U.S. and many other countries, on political leadership. Topics include: the social backgrounds of political elites, their pathways to political power, their ideologies and attitudes, the relationships to the publics in their societies, and the changes over time in their composition and performance. A key question we will address is Does it matters who governs does elite change lead to policy change? In preparation for this course, work in comparative government and politics would be helpful. Lecture and discussion course. Research papers and a final exam will be required. (Eldersveld)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics.
The seminar will review selected approaches and ideas in the study of large scale transformations of national states which we have come to call national development. The emphasis of this seminar will be on the growth of the political system and the mobilization of human and material resources through political networks. The seminar meetings will be taken up by discussions and reports by students on assigned readings. (Organski)

Section 002 Undergraduate Seminar in World Politics. Designed for seniors (and sophisticated juniors) who are not in the Honors Program, this seminar will focus on the construction, evaluation and use of research designs in world politics. We will begin with a treatment of the basic principles of scientific social research, then examine and evaluate a sample of those used in world politics and with the preparation of individual research designs which will then be put to the actual test. (Singer)

586/IPPS 586. Organizational Design. Pol. Sci. 585 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on daily life in bureaucratic organizations. To set the stage, we will first look at what a bureaucracy is. We will compare it with markets as ways of organizing work. We will then look at several features of life in a bureaucratic organization. Among the features will be authority, goals, routines, communication and learning. The main objectives of the course will be to allow the student to view life in a bureaucratic organization and to provide the student with some ways of understanding what they see. (Feldman)

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