Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. Students with inadequate preparation for University studies should find this course to be helpful as a background for studying other courses. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, semantic memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles; motivation, anxiety and attributions; learning in groups; and, self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and a weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

150. Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 457. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS).

An introductory and developmental psychology course for Inteflex students, covering psychological human development from conception to death. Theories and empirical research on infancy, early and middle childhood, adolescence, adulthood and aging will be supplemented by special topics geared to Inteflex students, like children with chronic illness. Two exams and a final. Term projects include a practicum option. (L. Nadelman)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about areas of psychology which emphasize a study of the brain and behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Each section is taught individually by a graduate teaching fellow who has complete responsibility for his/her section. Because there are substantial variations among sections in content and teaching style, students are encouraged to sit in on several sections during the first week of classes before making their final choice. (McKeachie)

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a time slot ONLY (sections 001-010). Students should check the TIME SCHEDULE (final edition) for the day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-010). During this first meeting, the instructors present their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. Students, then, apply to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to the instructor at this first meeting. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych. 171. Wait list (section 099) students must attend the special meeting listed in the Time Schedule. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-010) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR to the meeting to retain their space in the course or on the Wait List.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. The major objectives of the course are to increase knowledge concerning causes of behavior and to develop an ability and desire to learn more about behavior, especially human behavior. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, creativity, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation and human sexuality, emotion, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy, interpersonal relations, aggression and violence, and environmental psychology. The discussion sections provide an opportunity to pursue particular topics in greater depth and detail, to share experiences with others, and to learn from this sharing. The text for the course is Smith, Sarason, and Sarason Psychology (Second Edition). The discussion sections require some additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects or film critiques. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. (Morris)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This section of Psychology 192 is taught on a "mastery system." Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell).

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Time Schedule for proper credits per section. Information regarding registration, lecture/discussion times, and field work will be available at a MASS MEETING ON MONDAY, NOVEMBER 19th at 7 PM in . For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two separate sections of Psych 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D.Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Committee on Undergraduate Studies. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.
Section 001 Working with Children.
Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

369/Anthropology 369. Primate Social Behavior II. (4). (NS).

See Biological Anthropology 369. (Smuts and Wrangham)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be two small papers and two long, integrative essays. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a critical overview of problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. Consistent with the underlying paradigms of the area, the course emphasizes understanding of social problems from the perspective of person-environment interactions and an ecological and general systems approach. In this framework, it examines the nature of community and community systems, aspects of helping and helping services, dynamics of social services institutions and community mental health, and emerging models of social and community intervention. Through widely varied readings, guest presentations, and class projects, the course explores issues of pro-active and preventive social programming, self-help and social support, empowerment and community action, and community-based research and social change. Student learning and grading will be based on active class participation, a series of short papers, and one major term project. Students are encouraged, but not required, to participate in volunteer field-work related to course content, and will be allowed to utilize that experience in addressing course requirements. Only sections 002 and 005 may be used for ECB credit. (Kieffer)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

Psychology 382 introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering basic theoretical concepts such as knowledge and social inference; the self and the growth of identity; conformity and the effects of power; justice and helping; collective action and social change; and efficacy, coping, and happiness. In addition, material from each unit is applied to a variety of social and psychological problems, such as marriage and the family, crowding, aging, guilt and jealousy, poverty, masculinity and femininity, creativity, ethnicity, prejudice, shyness and loneliness, and television. The particular topics covered vary from term to term. The course employs a mixture of lectures, films, exercise and demonstrations, and small group discussions. All activities, however, require a high degree of student participation, and the course should be selected only by students who enjoy such participation. Grading is based on a combination of reading logs, papers, and examinations. (Isen)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The course will consider marriage and the family as social institutions, as small social organizations, and as interpersonal systems. We will look at variations in the form and function of families over time and across cultures. We will discuss various theories about family interaction and empirical approaches to marital and family exchange. (Douvan,Veroff)

Section 006. This course examines the family from several perspectives: historical, ecological, family, life cycle, systems theory, role theory, and others. Functions and tasks of the family as well as parental roles and marital roles will be explored. Effective and dysfunctional family functioning will be addressed. The impact of stress on the family will be discussed with specific reference to divorce. The final section of the course will consider the implications of public policy for the family. Active participation in discussion, three papers and a final exam will be required. (Mikus)

391. Junior Honors: Research Methods in Psychology. Honors concentrators in Psychology. (3). (Excl).

The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is sufficiently challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare several substantial reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. In addition, the course will contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (Section 001 - R. Kaplan; Section 002 Staff)

401. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001 Drugs, Society and Behavior.
Drugs are defined broadly including caffeine, nicotine, over-the-counter and prescription medications and drugs used for psychiatric treatment and behavior control, as well as alcohol and the drugs usually associated with misuse and dependency. Students will be encouraged to develop their own informed opinions about use and various related social policies, and will have some choice about the content of their assignments after completing an overview set of take-home questions. Topics include: drug classification; key concepts and terminology; relevant psychobiology and psychopharmacology; ways chemicals affect human behavior; alcohol and drug use patterns in relation to social class, race, gender and throughout the life cycle; basic information sources for obtaining knowledge about particular chemicals, a range of explanatory theories about why people use/misuse chemicals - genetic, physiological, behavioral, family, social and sociological, cultural, economic and political. (Reed)

403/Rel. 424. Personality and Religious Development. (4). (HU).
The course is offered for four credit hours.
It is designed to help students explore the psychological and religious dimensions of personal change and growth. Lectures will focus first on under- standing various conceptions of human development including Freud's personality development, Jung's process of individuation, Erikson's eight stages of man, and the Eastern mystical view of sadhana or the spiritual journey. Particular attention will be paid to stages of the life cycle such as birth, infancy, the adolescent identity crisis, the mid-life crisis, and the experience of aging and dying. Secondly, the lectures will take a topical approach to spiritual and psychological experiences of great significance; we'll consider William James on conversion and the twice-born soul, Maslow on peak experiences, Tillich on being, anxiety, and courage, and Jung and Perry on madness and mysticism. A third course focus will evolve in smaller weekly section meetings and more personalized reading and writing. Here the objective is to grow in understand one's own life. First we'll read and present to the group a spiritual autobiography such as the life of Gandhi, Thomas Merton or Carl Jung. Then we'll write our own spiritual autobiography, and we'll try out mandala drawing and other ways of representing the Self. The final paper will be an opportunity to rework and personally integrate selected course readings. Midterm and final exams will be designed to integrate course learnings and each will cover only half of the course. (J. Mann)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning November 5. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

435. Sensory Functions. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology, or Physiology. (3). (NS).

All information about the world around us as well as within us is made known through our various senses (vision, hearing, smell, etc.). Our sensory capacities, as revealed by our behavior in the detection and discrimination of different environmental events (visual, auditory, olfactory, etc.), and the manner in which the senses receive and transmit information to the central nervous system and brain form the subject matter of this course. Sample topics include color vision, depth perception, sound localization, and sensory disabilities such as color blindness and hearing loss brought about by exposure to loud noise. Instruction is by lecture-discussion format. Discussion is encouraged. (Green and Pollack)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is for students to gain a view in depth of the various issues related to the study of motivation. Some discussion of epistemological issues will introduce the review and critical evaluation of major approaches to the understanding of the motivational processes which underlie behavior. The links between the various approaches, the different strategies of research in personality and the different theories of society will be discussed. Classical and more recent contributions will be examined focusing on postulates, constructs, methods and practical implications. Attention will be paid to special topics such as frustration, methods to assess motivation, motivation in economical and political behavior and motivation and work organization. The role of individual and social differences will be examined in relation to the development of a system of motives. Some background in general and social psychology as well as in history and philosophy of science are recommended but not required. Lectures and group discussions will be the principal teaching methods. Assignments involve a combination of text and selected papers suggested during the course. Evaluation will be based on written work (critical essays) submitted during the term. (Caprara)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

This course is an advanced undergraduate course that deals with the complex aspects of (primarily) visual perception that have been objects of study and interest for many years to scientists and philosophers alike. Experimental psychology has had the most to say concerning this subject matter in recent years because of the empirical approach to the topic taken by scientists in this field. This course is a continuation of Psychology 435 (Sensory Processes) when taught by Professor Uttal. The former course deals with the peripheral physiological mechanisms of sensory mechanisms, while the present one deals with central mechanisms. Examinations in this course consist of three midterms and one final; one midterm may be dropped without penalty. The course is primarily a lecture course with assigned readings from a single textbook. (Uttal)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).
Section 001.
Through lectures and weekly discussions, this course will examine cognitive development from infancy through adolescence. The general issues are: how can we characterize children's thinking, and how can we explain developmental changes? Topics covered include: learning, memory, comprehension, logical thinking, perspective-taking, the effects of schooling and more. Major theories of development will be evaluated in light of recent research. There will be two exams (midterm and a final) and a paper. (Gelman)

Section 006. The focus of this section is adult human memory. We shall examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and limited discussion where appropriate. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in their junior or senior years.

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology - psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on two exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and two summaries of research articles. This section will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 519 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the literature on social and emotional development. Special attention is given to the developmental processes by which children become social beings. Development past childhood is also considered to provide a broader perspective in which to view child development. Social policy and personal implications are considered where applicable. (M. Hoffman)

454. Analysis of Interpersonal Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Sections 001-004.
The purpose of this course is for students to gain an understanding of interpersonal relations as they develop in an unstructured group setting. As members of the group, students observe and attempt to understand the processes of their own group. What caused the group to take the turn it did? Why is its mood different today? What norms are emerging? Who are its leaders - formal and informal? What myths, fantasies, or assumptions seem to underlie group moods or behaviors? What role does each of us play in the group? These are some of the questions we try to answer. In brief planned sessions students analyze the previous session, and apply concepts and insights from the literature on groups in the effort to understand this group's history and development. In longer unstructured sessions students interact and reflect on the process. Three papers during the term each include: (1) an analysis of a third of the sessions' key events, meanings, myths, mood shifts, norms, leaders, etc.; (2) further analysis of these sessions in terms of theories and concepts from readings; (3) an analysis of one's own part in the group. Psych 454 provides in depth, experiential learning about groups through participation in a self-analytic group limited to twenty people.

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to provide a lower division, undergraduate introduction to the literature on child psychology, with special attention to developmental processes. The course is organized into three major sections. First, we consider dispositional processes (e.g., elementary behavior genetics, Freud). Second, we consider acquisitional processes (e.g., learning, Bandura). Finally, we consider interactional processes (e.g., cognitive development, Piaget, Vygotsky). We begin and finish the course with the same question: What does it mean to say someone or something "develops?" There will be a minimum of fifty pages of required reading per week. There are additional readings relevant to the course SOME OF WHICH ARE OPTIONAL. There will be a special project which every person will be expected to complete. There will be three tests, each covering roughly a third of the course. (Graziano)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories of group behavior-formation and development, decision-making and problem-solving, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on organizations and work design and methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from the contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience. The final part of the course involves observing a work group, applying the methods and theory covered in the first two parts of the class, and working independently. (Denison)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course examines disturbed behavior, taking a psychodynamic approach. After a survey of necessary concepts, it will consider the psychoneuroses (phobias, hysterias, obsessions, and depressions), several personality disorders (substance abuse, criminality, sexual deviation, and some of the eating disorders), and the psychoses (schizophrenia, the bipolar conditions, and paranoia). The course will conclude by considering both treatment and management of emotional disorders, and some of the legal and ethical dilemmas we now confront. There are three lectures a week and a recommended discussion section. Students are evaluated by objective examinations. (Adelson)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course provides a survey of research on social behavior and those evaluative and/or intentional experiences variously termed attitude, opinion, feeling, belief, emotion, judgment, etc. We will include discussion of unconscious factors, methods of measurement, and predictions about individuals versus social groups. In addition to readings we will try practical analysis of experience. (Withey)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology, Natural Science. Psychology 170 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (NS).
Section 001 Psychological Mechanisms of Learning.
The purpose of this course is to describe, evaluate and place in historical context the findings, methods and concepts used in the study of brain mechanisms of learning and memory, and to show how study of these mechanisms has influenced models of memory and the diagnosis and treatment of memory disorders. (Butter)

Section 002 Reproductive Behavior in Mammals. This course on mechanisms in mammalian reproductive behavior is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in the biological basis of behavior. The course assumes that students have a basic background in Biology (e.g., Biol. 105, 112, or 114) and behavior (e.g., Psych 331, 430, or Psych/Anthro 368), but there are no specific prerequisites. Humans will be discussed in the course, but only as one of many examples in mammalian reproduction. Course format will involve a combination of lectures and student discussions of research articles. Proximal mechanisms will be stressed in the treatment of various topics: the genetic determination of sex and sexual behavior, hormonal influences on sexual behavior, pubertal maturation, pregnancy and parental care, seasonal breeding and the timing of reproduction, and the influence of social and environmental factors on reproduction. Grades will be assigned on the basis on in-class essay exams, a short paper, and participation in discussions. (Holmes)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (SS).
Section 001 Seminar on Social policy for children and families .
The course is designed to teach students about social policy for children and their families. The course content will center on the components and process of formulating policies that affect children including: (a) social, economic, demographic, and ideological factors that create the context for policy-making; (b) individual actors and institutions involved; (c) the role of the media; (d) the role of research; and(e) advocacy. The structures of the legislative, budget, regulatory, judicial, and administrative aspects of policy-making will be taught with emphasis on both formal structures and the more abstract processes involved. We will discuss these processes at both the federal and state level, with the primary emphasis on American policy-making and programs for children. The course will explore the development and implementation of specific policies of interest to the class, such as day care, special education for handicapped children, children's mental health, child welfare, elementary and secondary education, and child abuse. The proposed three credit hour seminar will meet twice each week for 1- ^ hours. Although it is intended for upper level undergraduates majoring in psychology, students majoring in other social science disciplines (economics, sociology, political science) with an interest in social policy relating to children and families will be welcome. The course is not part of a psychology department sequence. Format: lecture and discussion. Students will be expected to participate actively in discussion, having done the assigned readings. Each student will be required to complete a 10-15 page analysis of a policy affecting children or families in America. Historical antecedents and the role of the various components in the policy process should be fully explored. In addition, each student will work in a small group to prepare and present a mock congressional hearing to the class on a selected topic. The class members will take the roles of witnesses, congressional panel members, staff and press. Hearing testimony, briefing memos, press releases, and hearing questions will be prepared and presented in written form as part of the class requirement. There will be no exams. Grades will be based on class participation and written material. (J. Meyers)

Section 002 Reactions to Critical Life Events. This course is designed to provide an upper-division, undergraduate-level introduction to the research on reactions to critical life events. The approach taken integrates two areas of social psychological research. On one hand there is a rich literature on critical life events. A wide range of variables (such as social support, experience with prior stressors etc.) and situations (for example, bereavement, migration) are investigated. On the other hand, a great deal of current basic research focuses on psychological processes (such as information processing, attribution) but is largely unrelated to the research in critical life events. The purpose of this course is to explore possible connections between these two streams of research. Course requirements: It is presumed that participants have taken an introductory psychology course. There will be required readings each week. To encourage the participants to keep up with these readings there will be two tests. Each of these tests will count for 30% of the course grade. In order to encourage the students to apply the learned concepts they are expected to write a paper in the last third of the term. This paper will count for 40% of the course grade. Details of this paper will be provided in a special handout in the first week of the term. (Rosch)

Section 004 Development of Social Cognition. This course is designed to provide an upper-division, undergraduate level introduction to the research on the development of person perception and social cognition. Certain graduate students may also find the course useful. Currently, this research falls at the boundary between social and developmental psychology. Some of the topics in this area are considered in some social psychology courses, while other parts are considered in developmental psychology courses. Rarely, however, is the developmental dimension systematically integrated into the literature based on the performance of adults. Rarely is such an integration offered at the upper-division undergraduate level. This course seeks to offer just such a course. The course is roughly organized into four sections. First, we consider basic issues which have been best articulated by social psychologists. In this section, we consider attribution theories, and the ways basic cognitive processes in attention and memory influence social cognition. Second, we consider how social cognition can help people meet the demands of the interpersonal environment. In this section, we pay special attention to cognitive developmental processes in the regulation of affect. Third, we consider the ways social cognition helps coordinate cognition and the development of children's friendships. Finally, we consider limitations of this approach, and future directions for research. (Graziano)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

510. Advanced Laboratory in Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 430 and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to train students in the observation and quantitative description of animal behavior in order to understand its adaptive significance. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection will provide the theoretical basis for the interpretation of observed behavior. Several animal groups will be studied (e.g., insects, fishes, birds, mammals, humans) during laboratory and occasional field (outdoor) exercises. Exercises will consist of a short introductory lecture and a longer "hands on" lab in which naturalistic behavior (e.g., aggression, courtship, feeding) will be observed and recorded. A journal article related to each lab will be read. Student evaluation will be based on weekly lab reports, and a research design paper on some topic in animal behavior. (Holmes)

511. Advanced Laboratory in Physiological Psychology. May not be elected without concurrent enrollment in Psychology 431. (3). (NS).

This laboratory course is intended to provide practical experience with some of the basic research paradigms and techniques used in the study of brain-behavior relations. Laboratory exercises include sessions on functional neuroanatomy (dissection of sheep brain), the behavioral effects of manipulating brain neurotransmitters and psychoactive drugs, the hormonal control of reproductive behavior, animal models of psychiatric and movement disorders, electrical stimulation and recording from brain structures, and methods of analyzing behavior, etc. There is a one hour lecture, and a three hour lab each week. Grades are based on lab reports written in a formal scientific style. (Robinson)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
Purpose is to teach basic research techniques of social psychology. Students do survey, field study, and experiment. For extra credit they may also design and carry out their own research project under supervision of the instructor. Projects are usually done in groups of two or three. Class attendance is important. Students must work three-four hours each week outside of class to complete projects. Grade is based on final examination (20%) and individual research reports (80%). (Burnstein)

Section 002 Political Social Psychology. This is a new course in-the-making. I am currently doing field research with an extremist group, and would like to work in this course with students who will help me think about linkages between personality processes and political life. Our exploration will require students to do both library work and their own field research. It will call for a good deal of self-motivation and independence. To apply, come Friday afternoons to 3449C Mason Hall during early registration. I am looking for thoughtful people with relevant experiences and real questions. I cannot give any preference to those who need a lab to graduate. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459, and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. Application blanks are on the bulletin board near 3406A Mason Hall. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in-class discussions during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Cantor)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (SS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average around "B." (Yates)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (Excl).

This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. (Adelson)

559. Personality Theory. Psychology 452 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

There are about a dozen personality theories on the books. Is there a way of choosing among them that is not a simple exercise of taste? What should we expect from any future theory of personality? The positions of various authors (Freud, Allport, Mischel, Piaget, Maslow, Erikson) concerning basic issues in personality theory will be studied through the readings and subjected to critical analysis in discussion sections and lectures. How theories fit in with ordinary experience, with the society in which we live, and with the logic of inquiry will be the central critical challenges. Basic familiarity with major concepts is assumed from previous study. Evaluation will be by several short papers and class participation. (Rosenwald)

560. Human Performance and Technology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The focus of the course is on the interaction between people and machines. Person and machine can be viewed as a system with a set of defined goals. (A driver and an automobile comprise such a person-machine system). The emphasis of the course is on human capabilities and capacities that bear on the design and operation of machines. Human senses (information intake), cognitive activities (information processing), and actions (performance) will be considered. The course is not an engineering course, but it is concerned with basic principles of design, e.g., displays and controls. Facility with algebra is required and at least a nodding acquaintance with probability and calculus are required. Hour examinations, a paper, and a final examination will be used for student evaluation. (Weintraub)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

This course is oriented toward description and theory of organization-level activities including: structuring, problem-solving and implementation of technologies. From the perspective or organizations as systems, this course will cover issues such as: adaptation to environmental change, organizational change and innovation, and growth. The course will involve lectures and discussion. Grades will be determined by performance on a midterm, final exam, term paper, and class participation.

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. The Clinical Perspective. Psych. 452 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2) to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. (Lohr)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

583/Soc. 583. Introduction to Survey Research I. Introductory psychology and statistics; or permission of instructor. I: (3); III b: (4). (SS).

This course is intended to familiarize students with all major steps in the conduct of survey research broadly defined as research that relies upon questionnaires or personal interviews as a primary means of data collection. This course runs along two parallel tracks. The first involves conventional lectures and discussions covering the following topics: problem formation and study design, questionnaire and interview design, sampling, techniques of personal interviewing, code development, computerized data processing and data analysis. At the same time, class members, working as a group, conduct a survey in the Ann Arbor area, beginning with the formation of a hypothesis and ending with the preparation of reports. The class survey is intended to concretize the principles developed in the lectures and discussions and to familiarize students with the "nuts and bolts" of survey procedures. (Quinn)

591. Senior Honors Research II. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

The course, second in the sequence for Psychology Honors seniors, is intended to assist each student in carrying out an independent research project that culminates in an oral presentation and a formal written report. (Weintraub: Section 001) (Staff: Section 002)

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