Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, Anthropology 161 serves as an introduction to Anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the concept of evolution and the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human "racial" variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. Three weekly lectures and one discussion section which functions as a fourth lecture hour with occasional quizzes will be conducted as review or question and answer sessions. One midterm and final exam: essay and short answer. Texts: Brace and Montagu, Human Evolution; Brace, Nelson Korn and Brace, Atlas of Human Evolution. (Brace)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

This course will focus on those areas of human biology which are influenced by and in turn influence culture. The emphasis will be on developing an appreciation for the biological determinants of human behavior. Topics to be considered include quantitative genetics, demography, nutrition and disease, human ecology, and reproductive strategies. Course grade is based on a midterm and a final examination. (Sattenspiel)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Text: A.R. Frisancho, Human Adaptation. (Brace)

369/Psychology 369. Primate Social Behavior II. (4). (NS).

This is a new course which examines social relationships both within and between primate groups. The overall aim is to use an evolutionary perspective to generate principles applicable also to human social relationships. Two lectures, one film and one discussion section per week. Two texts are required. R.A. Hinde, editor, 1983, Primate Social Relationships (Blackwell, Oxford) provides a comprehensive series of research reports on monkey social relationships. F. de Waal, 1982, Chimpanzee Politics (Harper and Row, New York) is a gripping account of social dynamics in a captive group of apes over a six-year period. The lectures provide a perspective on the development, evolution, proximate causes and biological significance of social relationships. One exam will be given, and some brief essays will be required also. There are no prerequisites for this course. (Smuts and Wrangham)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Wolpoff)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

An intermediate level introduction to human population genetics, emphasizing application of the basic concepts and quantitative methods of population genetics to anthropological data and human population structure. The first half of the course deals with models which consider one or a few loci. The second half deals with application of genetic models to quantitative measurements. Course grade is based on problem sets and a final examination. (Sattenspiel)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (NS).

The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. (Livingstone)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).
Section 001 Human Reproductive Ecology.
This lecture course is an introduction to recent developments in fertility analysis, especially as these relate to non-Western populations without access to modern contraceptives. The major features of the reproductive process will be considered using a combination of demographic and physiological approaches. Emphasis will be placed on accounting for the range of variation in natural fertility in human species as a whole, and on assessing the relative roles of physiological, cultural and environmental factors in controlling reproductive output. Special attention will be given to the design and implementation of field research in reproductive ecology, particularly research that combines demographic and endocrinological techniques with more traditional anthropological methods. Finally, the evolution of human reproductive patterns will be discussed in light of comparative studies of reproduction in other primate species. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one examination and a term paper. (Wood)

471. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

565. Evolution of Genus Homo. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for students concentrating in biological anthropology. (3). (NS).

The course begins with the appearance of Homo erectus and the unique aspects of the hominid line that accompany this event. Emphasis is placed on the ecological context and the adaptive shift to a hunting/gathering economy that seems to accompany the biological aspects that develop. The course traces the appearance of Homo sapiens, the development of regional differentiation, and the continued feedback between social/cultural and biological evolution. A regional approach is taken in the analysis of Homo sapiens evolution, with particular focus on the development of modern populations from the earlier more archaic ones, and discussion of particular problems such as the Neanderthal one. The subsequent evolution of modern Homo sapiens and the ancestry of living populations concludes the course. Material is presented through lectures, discussion, and individual laboratory work using the vast collection of the laboratory of physical anthropology. Requirements include a midterm and final exam, and a term paper emphasizing original research. (Wolpoff)

567. Forensic Anthropology. Anthro. 566. (4). (Excl).

Forensic anthropology is a specialized branch of biological anthropology that applies the methods of skeletal and dental identification and other techniques of physical anthropology to problems of civil and criminal identification. This course is an introduction to the general field of forensic anthropology, with laboratory training in selected methods and techniques, and field visits to crime labs, autopsy, court, and specialized facilities as appropriate. Requirements: primarily a graduate course but open to undergraduates with prerequisites of Anthropology 566 (Osteology) and/or with permission of the instructor. Recommended background: anatomy, osteology, comparative anatomy. Evaluation: student evaluation will be through demonstrated performance and practical tests. Recommended texts: T. D. Stewart, Essentials of Forensic Anthropology, C. C. Thomas, 1979, and W. M. Krogman, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Other selected readings and materials will be referenced. (Snyder)

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course evaluates the behavior of free-living primates from two perspectives. The first half includes a full review of primate social organization and ecology by taxonomic groups and introduces students to biological and evolutionary problems of particular relevance to each sub-family or genus. The second half abandons the taxonomic approach to address issues which cut across species groups. Topics are selected to highlight advances in understanding the nature and adaptive significance of behavior. They include morphological, physiological and environmental influences on social life, detailed analyses of social behavior, including cooperation and competition, reproduction and sexual behavior, development, dispersal and inter-group relations, communication and learning, and links with human behavior. Instruction is by lecture and some discussion. Evaluation includes two exams and a term paper. (Wrangham)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although emphasizing cultural anthropology, Anthropology 101 is a survey introduction to basic principles that unify the four subdisciplines of anthropology: biological anthropology, archaeological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. While it is a basic course for anthropology concentrators, Anthropology 101 also aims at a general audience as the course examines several areas of contemporary public interest as well as areas of interest to social and biological scientists. Course topics include warfare and human aggression; sex roles in cross-cultural perspective; American culture; counterarguments to assertions of interrelationships between race and intelligence; theories of evolution; ecological perspectives applied cross-culturally to human populations; human evolution as exemplified in the fossil and archaeological record; the origins of civilization; ape communication; and kinship, marriage, politics, and religion in primitive, tribal, industrial, and underdeveloped societies. There are three weekly lectures; a text and paperbacks or a reader provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. The examinations are objective. Two or three hourly exams. No final. No term papers. Six credit hours option : Students who wish to explore the subject matter of anthropology in greater depth than is ordinarily possible in an introductory course should register for section 014 which will meet for two hours. Students who elect this section will receive 2 additional credits for a total of 6 credits. (In order to receive this credit students selecting section 014 should register for both Anthropology 101, for the regular 4 credits, and Anthropology 499, section 014, for the additional 2 credits.) The syllabus for students electing the 6-credit option will include extra reading that is not required of other students, and they will be required to submit extra written work. Those students will be encouraged to focus on those areas of anthropology in which they have a special interest. Students in the Honors Program are welcome to enroll in section 014 if they wish to earn the extra credit, but they are not required to do so. Interested students should obtain an override from the departmental office, 1054 LSA. (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. (Lockwood)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. (4). (SS).

The course will deal with several topics that relate language to society. (1) The evolution of language in the human species and the implications of our unique system of communication for the form of human society. (2) Language and social class, including the special characteristics of Black English, and the challenge that dialect differences pose in education and in other areas of our society. (3) National language policy toward dialect and language differences, particularly in developing nations. (4) Language acquisition as one part of cultural learning among children, and second language learning by adults. (5) The Whorfian hypothesis - varied ways of talking and varied ways of thinking. The interrelations between language and our mental processes. (6) The effect of writing upon human society. The differences between literate and non-literate cultures. (7) The impact of modern information processing and telecommunications upon human society. Readings will consist of Trudgill, Sociolinguistics, and a course pack. There will be two one-hour essay exams and a two-hour final. A term paper will be optional. The course has no prerequisite except for a curiosity about the interrelations between language and human society. (Burling)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare includes: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/222 or equivalent or junior standing. This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. (Kelly)

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on institutional characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. (Owusu)

418. Indians of South America. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

The course is a topically organized introduction to indigenous cultures of South America. Themes include: the invention of native South Americans; reciprocity as a way of life; spatial organization; social structure and alliance; gender; myth; rhetoric and poetic discourse; native South Americans and capitalism, guerrillas and revitalization movements. Each theme will compare ethnographic examples from lowland South America and the Andean highlands. Readings include Catherine Allen Wagner, Coca, chicha, and trago and selected articles. (Mannheim)

509. Ethnology of the Near East and North Africa. Anthro. 409, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course offers an examination of recent anthropological approaches to Near East ethnology. The topics to be considered include representations of the person, gender roles, local understandings of Islam, tribalism, forms of local history and constructions of social reality both in urban and rural settings. The authors to be examined include, among others, Geertz, Eickelman, Gellner, Peters and Gilsenan. The stress is on recent work. The aim is to develop an appreciation, and some constructive criticism, of what are rapidly becoming new analytic orthodoxies. At the same time we shall examine differences between the areas where such work has been done, paying particular attention to North Africa and South Arabia as well as to the great states of the central Near East. The extent to which (and the way in which) the Near East forms a single culture area will thus be open to question. Anthro 409 or graduate standing or instructor's permission is required. Historians and linguists would be particularly welcome, since interdisciplinary cooperation here is vital. The format will mix lectures and class discussion, with the aim of introducing seminar work if students wish it. Evaluation will be based on a number of short papers. (Dresch)

513/CAAS 424. Urbanization and Technological Change in Africa. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Applied anthropology, social-impact assessment, community involvement in the development process, and appropriate technologies for the development of rural Africa will be foci of this seminar. Why do people leave rural areas for cities, and what interventions might improve services to make remaining or returning to rural farmlands more attractive? Who gets to decide what technologies are "appropriate," and what way do/can rural Africans have in deciding what is done for/to them? This is anthropology with a cutting edge. Case studies from Mali, Bourkina Fasso, Gabon, Zimbabwe and elsewhere where the lecturer has worked will be discussed, with emphasis upon renewable-energy technologies. Readings will range from Malinowski's Culture Contact in Africa to Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Development to The Culture of Development to Social Impact Assessment Methods to Women and Work in Africa to Development by People. Active discussion by students is expected; an essay and take-home final will be assigned. Seminar, three credits, Thursdays 7:00 to 9: 30 p.m. (Roberts)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Readings, discussions, and reports on problems in modern ethnology. (Burling)

359. Workshop in Cultural Analysis. Anthro. 330. (2). (SS).

This course is complementary to Anthropology 330 in that it provides an opportunity to do cultural analysis of familiar materials (from one's own culture) in a small seminar format. Course requirements consist of: (1) a final paper containing data and analysis; (2) a preliminary version of the paper; and (3) a prospectus for the project (early in the term). The materials assembled by each participant will be discussed thoroughly in class, and the methods of analysis will be elaborated upon in detail by the instructor. (Carroll)

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second term of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first term of their senior year. Interested students should consult with Prof. Carroll, the Department Honors Adviser. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. Anthropology 399 is a continuation of Anthropology 398. Both constitute the senior Honors sequence for students who are accepted into the Anthropology-Archaeology Honors Program. Anthropology 399 is devoted to completing an individual Honors research project and to writing and defending an Honors Thesis. (Ford)

419/Religion 419. Religion and Society in Native North America. Anthro. 315 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course explores the relationship between religion, socio-political organization, and subsistence activities among the various native North American peoples. Among the topics covered are native beliefs about the cosmos, human nature, and the relationship between mankind and other inhabitants of the universe; theories of illness and healing rituals; ideas about supernatural (or superhuman) power and ways of acquiring it; the role of the sacred in defining, maintaining, and legitimizing the social order. The course also examines some of the major changes in North American Indian religions caused by the European colonization, such as the development of nativistic and redemptive movements, (e.g., the Ghost Dance), and of the indigenous forms of interpreting Christianity (e.g., the Peyote Religion). Several case studies are examined in order to discuss various anthropological approaches to the analysis of myth, belief, and ritual. Prerequisites for the course are Anthropology 315 or the equivalent, or permission of the instructor. Some background in American Indian ethnography will be helpful but not required. The course is designed for students interested in anthropology and/or religion, whose major goal is to gain a better understanding of the diverse religions of North American Indians and the ways in which anthropologists have looked at them. Student evaluation is based on one take-home examination and a research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor. Method of instruction combines lectures and discussion; active student participation in the latter is expected. Several films on native American religions will be shown. (Kan)

432. Social Theory. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Social Realism and Modernism. The
Modernist upheaval in aesthetics and rise of modern social theory (Marx, Weber, Durkheim) were concurrent events but are rarely, if ever, discussed as such. As an institutionalized form of the Primitivism espoused by the Modernist challenge, and dependent on the imperialism and social theorizing of the industrial revolution, Anthropology forms a peculiarly vulnerable and fruitful practice for unpicking the ways by which scientism and Positivism effaced the ways by which Modernist theories and techniques of representation could have made Social Theory an exciting, powerful, radical activity. Working through the construction of truth and authority in depiction of social reality in selected anthropological texts (Evans-Prithcard on witchcraft, Malinowski on non-capitalist economics, V. Turner on symbolism and ritual, Levi-Strauss on shamanism and Structuralism..) I wish to initiate just that "unpicking," so as to allow the subversive force of Modernist conceptions of realism to confront the social realism of Social Theory and Ethnographic Authority. In so doing, I will be concerned with creating alternative modes of writing and representing social reality, paying special attention to Nietzschian critiques of order, depth, power, and drawing on my own work plus that of Benjamin, Brecht, Strindberg, Bakhtin, Flaubert, Conrad, Faulkner, Surrealism, and Latin American Magical Realism. (Taussig)

434. Comparative Political Organization. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

Politics seems at first glance to be a category of action one would find in any society. In practice few concepts are as problematic to apply cross-culturally. The ideas which are taken for granted in our own discussions of the subject turn out to map very poorly onto those of other cultures. One of the aims of the course is to examine our own preconceptions (for instance, those concerning the state, the individual, power and authority) by holding them up to the ideas we find elsewhere. Material is drawn from India, Africa, the Middle East, South-East Asia and medieval Europe. The writers to be considered include Dumont, De Tocqueville, Michaud (on feudalism), Lenin (on imperialism), Anderson (on nationalism) and Ortega y Gasset. The object of the exercise is to question the apparently obvious and thus to set our own values in perspective, not least as those values have infected or been imposed on the world at large. Junior standing or the permission of the instructor is required. Evaluation is based on a midterm and final (both of them take-homes), with an additional term-paper for graduate students. Instruction is based on lectures, but extensive class discussion is looked for. (Dresch)

438. Urban Anthropology. (3). (SS).

The city and urban life as presented in the writings of modern Western scholars is our starting point. We then look to non-western societies for a critique on this perspective to see how it must be modified, enlarged, or even subverted to produce a more universal statement of what cities and city life are all about. In the course of doing so we will cover the classic topics of urban anthropology: the origin of cities and the nature of the preindustrial city, the structure of social and physical dimensions of urban space, and aspects of contemporary urbanization such as migration, ethnicity, and the strategies people develop in coping with impersonal urban environments. Instruction will consist of lectures, movies, and class discussions. Student evaluation will be based on a midterm and a research paper. Course prerequisites: permission of instructor. (Edwards)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course approaches universal aspects of religion-religious experience, the concept of the sacred, the sense of the divine, the notion of occult power, through an analysis of the most prevalent form of religious behavior, namely ritual. Having examined and discussed religious concepts and actions in their own right the course will consider their places in human affairs. Although the course will be universalist in its orientation, illustrative materials will be drawn from a range of simple and complex societies. There are two take home examinations. Although there are no prerequisites a background in anthropology, the social sciences generally, religion or philosophy will be helpful. Junior standing is required; enrollment is generally about 75% undergraduate, 25% graduate students. (Rappaport)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Culture and Resistance.
Drawing on histories, current realities, and fictional accounts of dictatorship and terror (mainly) in Latin America, I want to set up a workshop-inquiry into the cultural politics of terror and resistance. I am particularly concerned with ways by which terror through the fragmentation and multiplication of reality can, as in the texts of Asturias, Carpentier, and Garcia Marquez, create magically real representations, and how, conversely, these very same principles of fragmentation, multiplicity, transformation, uncertainty and magic can constitute the basis of a resistance and of healing (as in shamanic healing rites of misfortune in many colonial and neo-colonial societies). These issues lead to questions of theory in and about social science itself, particularly the question of order and depth in explanation and their political implications. In trying to develop notions that could be useful to resistance and healing, it will be useful, therefore, to compare Brecht's epic theater with Aristotelian notions of catharsis, and to subject neo-Romanticism/Positivism to a Modernist/post-Modernist critique. (Taussig)

Section 002 Introduction to Economic Anthropology and Development. This course is intended as an introduction to economic anthropology and development in village based tribal, peasant and urbanizing societies of Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America. The first part of the course reviews the basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation of economic anthropology focusing on selected readings from Firth, Redfield, Wolf, Geertz, Weber, Marx and Polanyi. The second part of the course discusses anthropological perspectives on development : evolution, progress, acculturation, applied anthropology and micro-development. The third part of the course is concerned with specific case studies of economic development and underdevelopment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators, students interested in comparative cultures and world development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. Grades are based on four three-five typewritten page papers. Lecture/discussion format. (Owusu)

531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course investigates: (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g., kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. (Kelly)

535/Soc. 556. Peasant Society and Culture. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course deals with peasantry as a social class in a number of pre-modern and developing societies around the world. We will discuss variant aspects of economic organization and relationships to the larger society, the concept of "folk culture," peasant uprisings and religious movements, peasantry as an "ideal type," the peasant's role in modern revolutionary movements, and the idea of a post-peasantry. Much of the course material will be drawn from East and Southeast Asia and Western Europe. A course in cultural anthropology or work in area-studies is helpful. This is a lecture and discussion course, with essay exams and a term-paper requirement. Students are asked to do a short oral presentation on their papers, for the class. (Diamond)

552. Women in Traditional and Modernizing Societies. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is concerned with the roles and status of women in societies at different levels of socio-economic development. It deals with sex roles in hunter/gatherer societies, subsistence farming economies, and in peasant and post-peasant societies as well as with women in the modern industrial sector. The course is open to advanced undergraduates and to graduate students. At least one introductory course in cultural anthropology is required as a prerequisite. The course is given partly as a lecture course, with the last 1/3 of the term devoted to presentation of student papers. All students are required to write a research paper and give an oral presentation on it: grades are based on that requirement plus participation in discussion of the weekly readings. Assigned texts are Reiter, R. Toward an Anthropology of Women, Rosaldo and Lamphere Women, Culture and Society with other assigned readings on reserve. (Diamond)

Linguistics

472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

Professors Becker and Mannheim will present different ways of understanding cross-cultural variability in language. Becker's emphasis will be on sources of constraint on text-building, and how they differ across cultures. Mannheim's emphasis will be on the way language as an activity constitutes the cultural and social worlds in which we live. The format of the course will be dialogic lecture. Students will select a small text or activity from another or our own culture and approach it from a diversity of perspectives, presenting each perspective in a series of short (single page) essays. There will be a final exam. Readings will include the works of Goffman, Geertz, Rosaldo, Ricouer, Searle, Burke, Tedlock, Jakobson, Friedrich, and others. (Mannheim and Becker)

474/Ling. 410. Nonstandard English. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Fodale)

475/Ling. 411. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 411. (Markey)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

See Linguistics 417. (Hill)

Archaeology

386. Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course takes an evolutionary perspective on the early civilizations of Mesoamerica, Andean South America, Mesopotamia, and the Nile Valley. Our basic concern will be: how and why did the cultures that we know as Maya, Aztec, Inca, Sumerian and Egyptian develop from simple beginnings through a series of successive stages to levels of impressive social complexity and artistic sophistication? We will consider how archaeologists infer political, economic, and religious behavior from the non-perishable remains of these prehistoric societies. There will be an attempt to define general developmental processes common to all the situations we examine. In conclusion we will discuss some implications for our own society of the rise and decline of these early civilizations. No special background is required. Instruction will be primarily lecture. Student evaluation will be on the basis of two exams (midterm and final). The course text will be R. J. Wenke, Patterns in Prehistory, Oxford University Press. (Parsons)

390. Primitive Technology. (4). (SS).

A look at the material culture of non-Western, non-industrial societies. We will examine raw materials available to non-industrial societies (e.g., stone, clay, basic metals, leather, bone, wood, etc.) and alternative ways of using them. We will look at how the inherent properties of such raw materials affect their human use as well as how technological systems (hunting, agriculture, transportation, architecture, etc.) are affected by environment, social organization, and cultural preferences. The role of technology in human society and culture will be discussed and a variety of ethnographic, historic and prehistoric technologies will be compared and analyzed. The course will consist of three lectures per week plus a three-hour lab session in which students will have the opportunity to familiarize themselves directly with different materials and technological applications. There will be two examinations (midterm and final) and one laboratory report. Anthropology 101 is recommended as background but not required. Students with widely different interests and backgrounds are encouraged to enroll. (Hutterer)

482. European Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This is a general survey of the prehistoric archaeology of Europe and the British Isles from the earliest evidence for human occupation to the Roman conquest. Primary emphasis is on Western and Central Europe and on the history and evolution of social and economic systems in this area. Lecture course. Evaluation based on a paper and examinations. (Whallon)

491. Prehistory of the Central Andes. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course attempts to describe and explain prehistoric cultural evolution in Andean South America between the earliest definite human occupation about 12,000 years ago and European contact in A.D. 1532. The course is primarily in lecture form, and it presupposes some general familiarity with basic anthropological concepts. Student evaluation will be in the form of two take-home exams. There is no required text, but packets of key journal papers will be made available at local copy centers. (Parsons)

582. Archaeology II. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is for senior concentrators and graduate students with permission of instructor. It introduces theories of the origin of agriculture, the development of ranked and stratified societies, and the origin of states and empires. Exemplary data from Mesoamerica, the Central Andes and Mesopotamia are used to test these theories. (Wright)

588. Archaeology of Pleistocene Hunters. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

A consideration of hunting and gathering societies as elements in a functioning ecosystem, with emphasis on late Pleistocene hunters of northern Eurasia and North America. Requires some background in both archaeology and ethnology beyond the elementary level, but not necessarily specifically of hunter-gatherer societies. One hour of lecture and two hours of seminar discussion per week. Evaluation based on seminar participation, one major seminar presentation, and a final paper. (Whallon)

593. Archaeological Systematics. Senior concentrators, graduates, with permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed principally for graduate students in anthropology, It examines the epistemological basis for archaeology, major theoretical frameworks for reconstructing past human organization and studying its change, and methodological approaches appropriate for such investigations. The course is designed as a seminar, with strong emphasis on active student participation. There are no exams, but a paper is required at the end of the term. Prerequisites include graduate standing in anthropology, or permission of the instructor. (Hutterer)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

499. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 hours credit.

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

 


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