Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the middle ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history - -the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. If essays are assigned, they will be short and based on the assigned readings. (Lindner)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

A survey of the last three centuries of European history, History 111 is an attempt to account for the changes that have shaped the modern world. It will emphasize broad themes of development, among others the expansion of the state; the growth of capitalism; industrialization and urbanization; the changing roles of social classes and family; religious change and the rise of secularism; the appearance of mass politics; and the intensification of international rivalries. The themes will be presented in various contexts, treated through a number of essential movements and episodes such as the Enlightenment, French Revolution, the unifications of Germany and Italy, the industrial revolution, two world wars, the Russian Revolution, fascism, imperialism and post-imperialism. A textbook provides the basic continuity, and other readings will permit students to sample major thinkers and important historical interpretations. The aim of the course is (1) to give the general knowledge of western history appropriate to anyone claiming a broad education, (2) to provide a background for the further study of history, and of the social sciences or humanities, and (3) to engage the student historical analysis. Students enrolling in the course will attend two lectures a week, a discussion section also meeting twice a week, and special exhibits and films when offered. Written work includes an hour exam, a final examination, and two papers (one short, one longer). Special topics or projects may be worked out on an individual basis as students may wish. (Bien, Grew)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 122. (Young)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This is the basic, introductory course in American history to 1865, and is the first half of one of the four survey sequence options required for concentration. It assumes some knowledge of the subject. There are two lectures and two discussion sections each week. Reading assignments are fairly heavy. A textbook (Blum, et al., The National Experience) is supplemented by extensive reading in the writings of eye-witnesses, from Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson to Harriet Beecher Stowe and Frederick Douglass. The final grade is based on midterm (25%) and final (50%) examinations, and an oral and written performance in the discussion sections (25% at the discretion of the section teacher). Although the traditional narrative of American history, from colonization to the Civil War, is not neglected, the main aim of the course is to explore certain themes and problems religion, race, expansion, democracy, and conflict. This exploration is done chiefly through the eyes and words of some of the most thoughtful and influential observers of the Old America. (Shy)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the U.S. since the end of the Civil War. It aims to familiarize students with what most historians now believe about the basic episodes in modern American history, including Reconstruction, Immigration, the Organization of Labor, the Darwinian Controversy, Populism, Imperialism, Progressivism, the Consolidation of the Capitalist Political Economy, the New Deal, World War II, the Atomic Bomb, the Origins of the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the Vietnam War. Format: Lecture, with sections taught by TA's (except for Honors section, taught by lecturer). Evaluation: midterm (20%), exercises in section (40%), final exam (40%). Assigned readings likely to include: Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; Livesay, Andrew Carnegie; Lippmann, Drift and Mastery; Speer, Black Chicago; Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby; Sherwin, A World Destroyed; and Hodgson, America in our Time. (Hollinger)

181. Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 351. (4). (SS).
Westerners in Asia from the time of Vasco de Gama.
This is really the same course as History 351, but those who register for it as 351 will do additional reading. There are no prerequisites, and the course will complement rather than build on History 280/380, but students from 280 are welcome. The focus will be on Westerners in Asia from the time of Vasco de Gama, and on Asian responses. Western enterprises in Asia commercial, missionary, and colonial or imperial are an important part of modern Western history and of the history of modern Asia. Cultural interactions between those two major parts of the world are involved too, and provide a useful theme for exploring other dimensions of their meeting. "Asia" is taken here to begin at the Khyber Pass and to include the Indian, Southeast Asian, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese worlds, but excludes Central Asia, the Arab-Turkish-Persian world of the Middle East, and Russia in Asia. Before one can engage in comparative analysis, one must learn something about the matters being compared, in this case the modern West and traditional as well as modern Asia. The interactions between them are the central subject of this course. Most readings are collected in a course pack. Two class meetings a week are designed to include both lectures and class discussion, in which individual participation is expected. There will be one midterm examination, of the essay type, and a similar final examination. Registrants for 351 will also write a short paper in addition. (R. Murphey)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (SS).

This seminar is concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be upon examining the life, work, living conditions, and problems confronted by working people and families who lived during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered for comparative purposes and to better identify patterns of change. An opportunity will be provided to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual original source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people and other groups. These include a unique collection of computerized source material concerned with the living conditions of industrial workers and their families during the Guilded Age. Secondary studies will also be employed. Through these materials the seminar will provide a glimpse of the way people actually lived at the time. Instruction will be conducted through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

The course will cover the history of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire from c. 753 B.C. to 400 A.D. The aim is to present major developments and changes in socio-economic, political and religious organization during this period and to introduce students to primary historical sources (in translation) and the problems of interpreting them. Archaeological evidence will be discussed as well as texts, and slides will be shown. Two hour lectures and one hour section discussion weekly. Evaluation by essay exams and multiple choice tests, spread through the term. Required texts: C. Starr, A History of the Ancient World; N. Lewis and M. Reinhold, Roman Civilization, vols. 1-2 (Harper Torchbooks). (Humphreys)

202/RC Soc. Sci. 202. The Twentieth Century: A Global View. (4). (SS).

The Twentieth Century, A Global View Cross listed with Residential College. This course develops basic themes in the history of the 20th century designed to provide freshmen and sophomores with a solid background to current affairs. Its perspective is global and its focus is not to offer a cluster of familiar themes, but to develop a systematic historical approach to the dynamic forces that create and transform the modern world system. We will organize the course around three interrelated themes: the mutations of the domestic and international division of labor as expressed in internal social conflict, imperialism, and anti-colonial resistance movements; competing strategies and ideologies for achieving national and international stabilization; and the manifestation of these interactions in everyday economic and political decisions. And we will pursue these themes through three interrelated arenas of investigation: the international order, seen as a world system; the politics and economic problems of advanced industrial nations; and the third world in its struggle with independency. This may sound fairly difficult, but we hope to clarify matters by a combination of general historical analysis and good stories. The course requires no previous knowledge. We hope only for your interest and curiosity. Readings will include a number of monographs and a course pack. (Bright, Geyer)

251. Modern China. (4). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. (Feuerwerker)

262. The American South. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course concerns the history of one of America's largest minorities: Southerners. Beginning with the colonial origins of Southern society, it will explore the social, economic, political, cultural, and religious characteristics that have, until recently, made the South a region unto itself. Readings will include the work of distinguished historians of the South like C. Vann Woodward, Charles Sydnor, Edmund Morgan, Eugene Genovese, John Hope Franklin, and Harold Woodman, as well as the work of literary and journalistic interpreters of the South, such as Frederick Law Olmsted, Michael Shaara, and William Faulkner. Some background in American history is advisable though, for energetic students, not essential. The course will be taught through lectures and discussion. Requirements include midterm and final examinations, and a short (10-page) final paper. (Fields)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

333/Econ. 396/Poli. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

351. Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures II. Permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 181. (4). (SS).

See History 181. (Murphey)

372/Women's Studies 372. Women in European History, 1750 to the Present. (4). (SS).

Lecture course with discussion which will cover economic, social and political aspects of women's lives in Europe from about 1700 to the present. Rural and urban, upper and lower class women will be discussed. Specific topics may include demographic factors, sex and sexuality, women's movements, women's work, education, religion, family. (Yeo)

376/Amer. Cult. 372/Eng. Hums. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (SS).

See American Culture 372. (Doyle)

384. Modern Jewish History 1880-1948. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the Jewish people in Europe, America, and the Middle East from the resurgence of anti-Semitism in the late nineteenth century to the creation of the State of Israel in 1948. Lectures and readings focus on the failure of emancipation and emergence of the "Jewish Question," a communal and individual response to political and social antisemitism (such as assimilation, nationalism, revolutionary socialism, emigration, and conversion), the destruction of European Jewry, and the struggle to create a Jewish state. There will be an essay-style midterm examination, a paper of approximately seven to ten pages, and a comprehensive final examination. (Endelman)

395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Under the Eagle's Wings: The American Occupation of Japan, 1945-1952.
No segment of Japan's remarkable post-war history is more seminal or fascinating than the Allied occupation from 1945-1952. This course will examine the extraordinary episode during which the United States operated through the Supreme Commander Allied Powers (General MacArthur) to bring about fundamental changes in Japan's political and social institutions, values and behavior. It will focus on the planning for this unparalleled undertaking, the reforms enacted, the response of the Japanese, and the long-term impact of SCAP policies. Kuzuo Kawai's Japan's American Interlude (University of Chicago Press, 1980) and a course pack will be used for background reading. Emphasis will be given to class discussions of assigned readings, to oral reports, and to two or three written assignments covering specific aspects of the Occupation and its aftermath. There will be one quiz during the term. (Hackett)

Section 002 American Family Life in the Past . This course is an undergraduate research and writing seminar which provides an opportunity for students to do original research. Students who have taken the previous lecture course on American Institutions and the Development of the Family (American Institutions 471/History 571) will be encouraged to enroll, but others will be admitted as well. Students will write an original research paper on the interaction between American Institutions and the family using historical sources. The focus of the seminar will be on family life in mid-nineteenth century Michigan. Students will have an opportunity to utilize an extensive individual-level census data-set on four townships in Washtenaw County in 1860 (about 10,000 cases) that has been developed especially for this seminar. Those who would prefer not to use this machine-readable data-set may rely more heavily upon the primary literary materials located at the Michigan Historical Collections on North Campus. Throughout the course, the emphasis will be on the basic elements of research design and the production of an original term paper that is not only well-researched, but also clearly and concisely written. The grade in the course will be based mainly upon the final research paper although the quality of the students' classroom participation will also be taken into consideration. (Vinovskis)

Section 003 Northern Renaissance. A discussion and analysis of the principal ideas of the Italian Renaissance pertaining to scholarship, literature, the fine arts, and politics will serve as an introduction. Next, a comparison between the societies of the cities of north and central Italy with that of northern Europe, particularly England and the Low Countries. The migration and reception of Renaissance ideas will be considered with special reference to the education of the aristocracy of the North, their impact on religious thought and effects on literature and political theory. Readings from More's Utopia, selected works of Erasmus, Rabelais, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes will be interpreted. The students will write reports on the readings and the class will be conducted through lecture and discussion. (Becker)

Section 004 Myths and Models in American History. This colloquium examines the close connections among myths, models, methods, morals, methodologies, and metahistories in the production of historical knowledge and understanding. It postulates that history as actual past and history as-written-text interpenetrate in such important essentials that history, historiography, and philosophy of history are often the same thing. The medium of the course will be United States history by way of example. Recent, well-received books in the field that exemplify clear models, morals, etc., - and of American history will be the subject of the weekly discussions and brief papers: Lockridge, A New England Town; Boyer and Nissenbaum, Salem Possessed; Trachtenberg, Incorporation of America; Smith, Virgin Land, and others. The student will learn to read American histories in a new, more complex and active way and understand better the multiple perspectives and epistemologies fused in the narrative synthesis of the United States past. (Berkhofer)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Section 001 Women and Education in the United States: Historical Issues and Patterns. This course will examine the major intellectual and social issues involved in the history of women and education in the United States. Attention will be paid to ideological views about women and education, to the educational options available to women during different historical periods, to the educational institutions most involved in the education of women, and to the effects of education on the position of women as a group and for selected individuals. The focus of the course will be on reading and discussion; evaluation will be based upon class discussions and written work, which will probably consist of three short (approximately five page) papers. Reading will include Helen Horowitz, Alma Mater: Design and Experience in Women's Colleges; Sharon Lee Rich and Ariel Phillips, Women's Experiences and Education; and Barbara Miller Solomon, In the Company of Educated Women; A History of Women and Higher Education in America. It would be helpful for students to have some background in American women's history, but it is not essential. Students without any relevant background will be encouraged to do some supplemental reading at the beginning of the term. (Jacoby)

Section 002 Michigan The Era of Industrialization. This course provides students with an opportunity to do historical research using original historical papers and documents housed in the Bentley Historical Library. The first part of the course explores readings raising general questions about the growth of industry in the United States and the so called "progressive response." During the second half of the course, each student explores one of these questions in a Michigan context through the resources of the Bentley Library. Readings include Dunbar and May's, Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State, and Alfred Chandler's; The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Student evaluation is based on class participation, a midterm examination, and a major paper. After a few lectures, the course will focus on discussion. (Blouin)

Section 003 Economics and Culture. Two rather different ways of thinking about society are found in modern thought. According to the "economistic" model, society is an aggregate of self-seeking individuals. The idea of culture, on the other hand, entails the existence of collective concepts and rules which shape individual conduct. The first view is individualistic and egocentric, the second is collectivist and sociocentric. The social sciences, popular ideologies and government policies embody one or the other of these models. The purpose of the course will be to examine the two models, their roles in the social sciences, and the relation of the social sciences to ideology and policy. Our method will be the historical study of social science ideas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the period of their birth and first successes. The ultimate goal is to reach an overall conception of the social sciences which is both critical and constructive. (Trautmann)

Section 004 People of the Old South. This course will invite students to use primary documents in order to draw a picture of life in the Old South as experienced by its people: masters, slaves, free Black people, and the white yeomanry. Students will read and discuss short selections by historians addressing important questions concerning the social character of the Old South. Making use of these as background, they will be asked to prepare two short papers and one longer paper marshaling primary evidence in support of their own arguments. (Fields)

Section 005 The Immigrant Experience in America. The course is designed to explore the personal and collective experience of immigrants arriving in the U.S. during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In successive weeks the focus will fall on Irish, Jewish, Polish, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, Armenian and Puerto Rican migrants. Categories of special interest will include immigrant expectation and adaptation; the tension between ethnic exclusiveness and assimilation; the fit of the immigrant within the new city and its politics; native-born reactions; and the condition of ethnicity in contemporary America. One or more meetings may offer films or may call on members of local ethnic communities to convey particular ethnic patterns. Tentative marking requirements include vigorous class discussion and several short analytical essays. The course does not form part of a departmental sequence, nor do special background or prerequisite courses bear on its successful completion. (Linderman)

Section 007 Understanding the Classics of Sociology. In this colloquium we shall try to match Parsons' understanding of Weber, Durkheim, Marx a.o. with our reading in these authors. The point will be evaluate the legacy of some important writers who helped to shape sociology. My thesis will be that given Parsons' interpretation something went wrong with sociology in this century. The course will involve reading a fair number of classical texts and the writing of two small papers and one somewhat larger one. The course may interest students majoring in any of the social services or in history (though I include that among the social sciences). The course is not part of a departmental sequence but is geared to a lecture-course, Utopia and Reality (History 591.002). (van Holten)

398. Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. (4). (SS).

This course is required of juniors who are members of the History Department's Honors Program. It is not available for general enrollment. (McDonald and Scott)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (McDonald)

408. The Medieval Empire, 800-1250. History 110 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This is a lecture/discussion course about medieval Austria and Germany from the Carolingian through the Hohenstaufen, with special attention to the history of culture. The readings will come from some scholarly studies and many primary sources (in translation), and there will be considerable emphasis on the historiography of the subject. I expect to require two short essays in addition to the final examination. (Lindner)

417. Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (4). (HU).

The Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present is a lecture discussion of the chief ideas of "modernity" from the inception of the symbolist movement and the anti-positivist revolt to the beginnings of the post-modernist period following 1945. The course will consist of lectures and bi-weekly discussions of five books chosen to illuminate particular ideas and problems dealt with in the course. There will be a midterm and a final examination. An effort will be made to give a coherent account of the impact of symbolism and elite aesthetic and social theory on the development of art, literature and politics. Elite theories of socialism, anti-democratic biological, cultural and social theories, the rise of authoritarianism and ideology, the loss of religious faith and the growth of Irrationalism, the revolution in science and technology and the anti-technological response will all be discussed. Books to be purchased and read by the student: Renato Poggioli, The Theory of the Avant-Garde; Ernst Nolfe, Three Faces of Fascism; Vladimir Lenin, What is to Be Done, Burning Questions of Our Movement; Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence; Walter Laqueur, Weimer, A Cultural History. (Tonsor)

428. History of Scandinavia. Open to all students of junior standing and above, or with permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This lecture course will deal with the history of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, and Finland, from pre-Viking times to the present. It will be chronological, but with emphasis placed on certain key periods in Scandinavian development. The emphasis will be greater the closer these periods are to the present, except for the Viking era, because of both its great impact on the rest of Europe, and importance to Scandinavia's own history. The union of all Scandinavia in the late 14th century is another key period. The upheavals and consolidation during the times of the Reformation resulted in two major states, Denmark and Sweden, dominating. The formation of these nations and their relationship to the rest of Europe during the 17th century is covered, along with the great cultural, political and social changes of the 18th century. The 19th century sees the growth of nationalism, and the evolvement leading to the five modern states that exist today. In our own time Scandinavia has been a laboratory of social ideas, and a workplace of creative activity. There will be one major essay required and a final exam. The required text is T.K. Derry's A History of Scandinavia. (Marzolf)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of Russia from Peter the Great until the revolution of 1917. The nature of autocracy, the rise of bureaucracy, the vicissitudes of the landed nobility, as well as the evolution of the peasantry, working class, and intelligentsia, will be examined. Readings will include works by Marc Raeff, Leopold H. Haimson, A. Walicki, as well as some primary sources and Russian literature. A paper and two exams are required. Two lectures a week plus attendance at a discussion section. NO PREREQUISITES, though History 432 is recommended. (Suny)

436. Nineteenth-Century Russian Thought: Political, Social, and Religious. (4). (HU).

Nineteenth Century Russian Thought: Political, Social, and Religious. Beginning with a discussion of the "intelligentsia" in general and their emergence in Russia, the course covers the various, competing trends in 19th century Russian social, political and religious thought. The focus is on the contradictions in theory and practice that result when a "westernized" elite tries to come to terms with a profoundly non-western society that is essentially alien to them. Among the central themes are the Westerner-Slavophile dispute, the Nihilists of the 1850's and 1860's, the aristocratic rebels (those like Alexander Herzen and Mikhael Bakunin), Russian Populism, Christian Socialism (Dostoevsky and Tolstoy), and the birth of Russian Marxism. Reading assignments are the original works of the individuals studied, with emphasis on Russian literature. There will be a required final examination and an optional midterm. (Mendel)

439. Eastern Europe Since 1900. (4). (SS).

This course explores the history of those peoples who live or have lived in the area of present-day Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet republics of the Ukraine, Belorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Their 20th century history is reviewed in a broader regional and European context. Attention is given to political movements and ideologies, such as Socialism, Nationalism, Fascism, and Communism. The course examines the two world wars and their impact on the demographic and ethnic structure of Eastern Europe (transfers of population, deportations, genocide). A survey of post-1945 events includes the formation of the Soviet bloc; de-Stalinization and "different roads to socialism"; the events of 1956 in Poland and Hungary; Czechoslovakia in 1968; East Europe and the USSR in the 1970's; and the "Solidarity" period (1980-1981) and its aftermath. There is no single basic textbook in this course. Readings will include: Ascherson, Neal, The Polish August, Penguin; Rothschild, Joseph, East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars, University of Washington pb; Pipes, Richard, The Formation of the Soviet Union, Atheneum pb; Kundera, Milan, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, Penguin pb; Milosz, Czelaw, The Captive Mind, Vintage pb; Mastny, Vojtech, Russia's Road to the Cold War, Columbia pb; Davies, Norman, God's Playground, Columbia. There will be one midterm (in class) and a final (take-home) examination. A short (ten pp.) paper will be due on the last day of classes, on a topic of particular interest to the writer. Graduate students should discuss their program of work (including paper) on an individual basis. The purpose of the paper is to give every student an opportunity to explore independently and more thoroughly a theme suggested in reading and/or lectures, or other topic that interests the author. (Szporluk)

441/GNE 471. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 471. (Ehrenkrentz)

449. Modern Egypt and North Africa Since 1500. (4). (SS).

This course will cover the history of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya from 1500 to the present, with an emphasis on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The course will take a look at such topics as relations between tribes and states, European imperialism, nationalist movements, the formation of modern nation-states, and ideological trends: Arab nationalism, Islamic movements, and socialism. There are no prerequisites for this course. Undergraduate students will be assigned take home essays and a final exam. Graduate students are expected to write a term paper and take the final exam. (Commins)

450. Japan to 1800. (4). (SS).

This course is a survey of Japan's history from the foundation of the archaic state until the eve of the Meiji Restoration. The primary focus of the course is on the evolution of Japan's political, economic, and social institutions, but attention is also given to the history of literature, religion, and thought. Among the themes treated within the latter sphere are the nature of Japan's classical aristocratic culture, the warrior culture of late medieval Japan, and the impact of Buddhism and Confucianism. Grading will be done on the basis of two examinations (a midterm and a final). (Arnesen)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (4). (SS).

This course describes the modern European conquest and transformation of Southeast Asia, and the indigenous responses to external influences. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). The course will conclude with an in-depth examination of post-World War Two developments, including the Vietnam Wars. In particular the course attempts to explain why individual Southeast Asian countries have developed military, Western parliamentary, or Communist regimes. Lectures and readings assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and an optional term paper. (Lieberman)

455. Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (4). (HU).

The greater part of this course concerns itself with the history of ancient India in its classical age beginning with the empire of the Guptas, and attempts to analyze the components of Indian civilization in its classical form (kinship, caste, political organization, religious institutions). It then examines the Turkish invasions and the challenges posed by Islamic rule. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of any of its participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

We will travel through several colonial American communities, above all in New England and in Virginia. In most cases modern historians will be our guides, through their books on these communities. But we will be free to second-guess the experts, and in some cases we will be looking at the original documents directly. We will be playing the role of cultural anthropologists, seeking out the evolving ethos of each community. Then we will become cosmic generalizers, relating life in these localities to such great issues as the forming of the American character, the meaning of the American Revolution, and the gains and losses involved in living in today's organized industrial world. Grades based on discussion performance , a quiz, a short paper, a long (10 pp.) paper and a final. (Lockridge)

463. Jacksonian America. (4). (SS).

The course centers upon the principal political, economic and social developments of the Jacksonian period, 1828-1845. Political party formation and their socio-economic foundations will have special emphasis. Discussion is encouraged during the three weekly lectures. The midterm and final examinations will be of the "take-home" variety, with the limited option of a term paper. The required reading will include such books as Tocqueville's Democracy in America, Formisano's The Birth of Mass Political Parties, Silbey's The Transformation of American Politics, 1840-60, and Katz' The Irony of Early School Reform. The average weekly reading will be 200 pages. (Livermore)

465. Emergence of the Modern United States, 1876-1901. (4). (SS).

History 465 will trace via talks, books and perhaps films - the transformation of the U.S., 1876-1901, from a war-riven, socially-fragmented society to a unified nation of foremost industrial power. In successive weeks the focus will fall on the small-town setting and its transformation; the New South and the problem of race; the triumph of industrialism; labor organization and industrial violence; the rise of the city; the immigrant experience; the nineteenth-century family; the culture of the Gilded Age; the conquest of the West; politics in the Gilded Age; the agrarian revolt; and the Spanish-American War. The general format of the class will be that of the lecture, but the instructor invites, and needs, frequent and vigorous student intervention. Reading assignments will generally require the mastery of one paperback volume each week. Tentative marking requirements include a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. There are no history course prerequisites for History 465. (Linderman)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; and the presidencies of Carter and Reagan. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

487/Engl. 416. Women in Victorian England. (4). (HU).

This is an interdisciplinary course using history and literature to explore the position of women in Victorian England (1837-1901). You may receive either English or History credit. The Victorian age in England saw some of the most culturally repressive attitudes toward women, but also some of the strongest efforts to emancipate women. These extremes coincided with the first industrial revolution, and a time of great disparities in wealth and poverty. We will explore the stereotypes of the ideal woman, and the many responses to her; the struggle to improve women's education and to open the professions; the living conditions and lives of rural and urban working women; and such general issues as sexuality, crime and prostitution. Readings will include a course pack, three novels, an autobiography, critical essays of the times and modern interpretations. Requirements include one paper, an annotated bibliography and a final exam. (Vicinus)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493. (Webb)

513. Great Britain From 1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

A survey of British history from the 1830's to the 1950's emphasizing the character of 19th century middle class liberalism, the rise of socialism and the trade union movement, the problems and limitations of great power status and the decline in Britain's power position since 1918. Attention is also given to the Irish question and to religious divisions within Britain. The course is given in lectures and involves about 100 pages of reading (text, articles, documents) per week. History 111 and 121 is recommended as background. There will be a final, two hour exams (the second optional in some cases) and an optional term paper. (Price)

517. History of Ireland Since 1603. (4). (HU).

A narrative history of modern Ireland from the time of the collapse of Gaelic culture at the Tudor conquest until the present. Lectures will treat aspects of cultural and social as well as political theory. The main texts used will be Moody & Martin, The Course of Irish History and J.C. Beckett's The Making of Modern Ireland. Course work will include two hour exams, one term paper, a final examination. There is no course prerequisite and no prior knowledge of Ireland is required. (McNamara)

521. Germany Since 1870. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the development of the German nation(s) from approximately 1870 to the present. It will begin with a discussion of German unification and the difficulties experienced then and since in matching the German state and the German-speaking cultural region in Central Europe. Otherwise the guiding question will be how the German state and the German people coped with industrialization. This will lead us into economic, social, political, and cultural interpretations. The two world wars will obviously play an important part in the course, but this is not a course in military history or about the German army. The course will conclude with a discussion of the German Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic. There are no formal prerequisites, although some knowledge of European history would be an advantage. Students should expect to do a heavy amount of reading and produce a substantial term paper. (Eley)

535/Armenian Studies 535. Armenia and the Armenians in the 20th Century. History 287 recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course investigates the modern history of the Armenian people, both in historical Armenia and in the diaspora. It begins with the revival of Armenian culture and the national liberation movement of the late 18th century, proceeds through the years of political formation and the rise of Armenian nationalism, to the 20th-century genocide and establishment of Soviet Armenia. The course will be of interest to people in Middle East studies, Soviet studies, as well as those interested in Armenian history specifically. The course is based on lectures, discussions, and readings. One research paper is required, as well as an oral examination at the end of the term. (Suny)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (4). (HU).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: 1) the concept and structure of empire; 2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; 3) society, cities, and literature; 4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; 5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. (Chang)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (4). (SS).

This course deals with American diplomacy since 1914, with major emphasis falling on the two World Wars and the Cold War. World Politics, policy making and American domestic politics are all considered. The course is a rather standard lecture course in format, with a textbook and reading for a term paper required. There is a one hour exam and a final. (Perkins)

562. History of Ideas in America: Puritanism to Romanticism, 1620-1865. (4). (HU).

History 562 will trace major themes in the development of American thought, in the context of social change, from the early English settlements through the middle of the nineteenth century. Special emphasis will fall on religious and political ideas, but with attention also to science and social thought. The course will be taught through lectures. Required readings will come from the writings of significant figures in American intellectual history, such as Jonathan Edwards, Thomas Jefferson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Joseph Henry. Course requirements also include a midterm and a final exam (both essay) and a ten-page paper. No special background is required, but students ought to have some general knowledge of American history in the period. (Turner)

584. American Constitutional and Legal History. (4). (SS).

This course is a survey of the evolution of American constitutional law from 1789 to the present. It will rely primarily upon reading the selections from the opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court to be found in A.T. Mason and W.M. Beaney, eds., American Constitutional Law (7th ed.). The goal will be to discover how the different material circumstances and social and political assumptions of each age in American history have been reflected in the Supreme Court's shifting conceptions of the meaning of the Constitution. In this way, we will seek to define how beliefs about the essential character of American republicanism have been altered through time, and in addition, to appreciate the Supreme Court's changing understanding of its own role in the constitutional order. There are no prerequisites for the course, but History 160-161 or an equivalent understanding of the general structure of American history is assumed. There will be a midterm examination of one hour, a ten-page term paper, and a two-hour final examination. (Thornton)

591. Topics in European History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation, 1400-1600.
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Catholic Church was confronted with the challenges of heresy, schism, and the Protestant Reformation. It faced new secular claimants to supreme authority, as nation-states emerged in Western Europe. It suffered internal tensions, as proponents and opponents of reform debated how best to meet these challenges. The Catholic response to this crisis was articulated at the Council of Trent. In intermittent meetings over the course of 18 years, the participants in this council redesigned the institutions and redefined the dogma of the Catholic Church. The result was a church vastly different from that of the Middle Ages; it was, in essence, the modern Catholic Church as it existed down to Vatican II. This course will explore the transformation of the Catholic Church, beginning with the first calls for a council to reform the church and ending with the application of the Tridentine decrees. Lectures and class discussion will focus on the issues of continuity and change in belief and practice, connections between institutions and spirituality, and the shifting relations between religious leaders and the masses of the faithful. Readings will include original sources (some translated especially for this course), a concise general history of the Catholic Reformation, and interpretive essays by major European and American scholars. Requirements: two short papers, midterm, final exam. (Bornstein)

Section 002 Utopia and Reality: An Analysis of Theories about the State and Society, 1815-1915. In this set of lectures the idea of a number of important political philosophers, economists, psychologists, historians and sociologists who were writing and thinking during the formative period of the 19th century will be treated. The thesis I shall pursue is that initially thinkers tried to restore the blows dealt by the French Revolution of 1789 to the cognitive apparatus by trying to reinterpret some traditional concepts like the State. When that did not work one reaction was to eliminate the normative element from the cognitive apparatus, another one was to subject concepts to a kind of hypertrophy draining all reality value from them. Credit points can be earned by writing two small papers and a substantial one at the end. Some of the authors treated in this lecture course will be discussed in the colloquium (History 397, 007 Understanding the Classics of Sociology). This course may interest students in the social sciences as well as history. (van Holten)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
History of Burma.
This course will examine the entire history of Burma, one of the least well known countries of Asia, but among the most culturally exciting and intellectually challenging. The course will begin with the history of Burma's first architecturally magnificent civilization, that of Pagan. It will proceed to examine precolonial society, Buddhism, and kingship; the colonial conquest; and the Burmese response to European rule. After discussing the contributions of Marxism and of traditional thought to anti-colonialization, the course will conclude with an examination of Burma's achievement of independence, the problems of post-war government, and the policies of the current socialist, military leadership. This course requires no previous knowledge of Southeast Asian history. The format will be discussions and papers, without formal exams. (Lieberman)

593. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Mexican-American History.
In Winter Term, 1986, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 496.001. (Chavez)

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