Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

This introductory course seeks to explore a variety of ways in which people have portrayed political reality and defined political ideals. The material will be presented in historical sequence, with newly emerging ideas seen as responses both to newly arisen circumstances and to previous ideas. The course aims to stimulate critical thinking about politics more than to increase factual knowledge. Students' progress will be measured by written essays testing their ability to integrate material presented in lectures, discussion sections and reading. The course can be used as one of the two prerequisites for Political Science concentrators. (Meyer)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States which explores a wide range of topics including elections, interest groups, the presidency, Congress, and the courts. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? How do members of Congress decide how to vote? This is not a comprehensive list but suggests the kind of issues that are discussed in this course. There are two lectures and two discussion section meetings each week. There is generally a midterm, a final examination, and some other written work. (Kingdon)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems work and to familiarize them with concepts used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence political life; political parties and political competition; leadership succession; the role of political institutions; and the analysis of contemporary political conflicts. The course will offer two lectures per week, plus two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of communication. (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

This course analyzes world politics from a broad and general perspective, explaining and exploring the principles that undergird the operation of the global political system and illustrating those principles with contemporary material. The course begins by examining the basic structural features of the global political system. It considers the development of states, nationalism and nation states and then assesses the importance in the contemporary era of other actors, such as international governmental, international non-governmental, and transnational organizations. Several factors shaping the foreign policy behavior of states are considered next. Attention is then shifted to the techniques of foreign policy behavior diplomacy and negotiations, economic aid and sanctions, and the use or threat of use of military force. Finally, overall patterns of conflict and cooperation are studied. (Jacobson)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

320. Chicano Politics and the Chicano Community. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended to be a critical examination into the study of Chicano Politics.

353. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4). (SS).

This course is really called the Arab-Israeli conflict. It consists of an analysis of war and peace between the Arab states and Israel as well as between non-state actors and Israel. War and peace will be examined across three levels of analysis: 1. super-power inputs to the region 2. regional rivalries with a special focus on inter-Arab relations 3. domestic constraints. There will be a midterm and final a examination. A simulation will be offered in the course. (Tanter)

361. Current Issues in World Politics. (2). (SS).

This course will examine a range of World political issues including the East-West and North-South conflicts, the role of international organizations and multi-national corporations, war and serious disputes, and arms control and disarmament. We will bring scholarly research findings to bear on our discussion of each issue area. Final exam only. (Singer)

396/Econ. 396/REES 396/Slavic 396/Hist. 333/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

403. Development of Political Thought: Modern and Recent. Political Science 402 or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

We will focus on the major works of political philosophy from the seventeenth century to the end of the nineteenth century. In the process we will be concerned with the theoretical foundations of liberalism (the political philosophy which focuses on individual rights and equality within the political structure), its transformation over three centuries, and the critiques which have been offered of it by such authors as Marx and Nietzsche. We will read only the primary texts. Among the authors who will be discussed are Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, Bentham, Mill, Marx and Nietzsche. This course is a continuation of Political Science 402; although this and/or other courses in political theory would be helpful, they are not required. There will be two exams during the term, as well as a final. (Saxonhouse)

405. American Political Thought. Junior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores the democratic theory of the American regime. The "founding" principles a religious/providential one, derived from Christianity, and a scientific/rational one, derived from the Enlightenment are examined. Attention is then given to at least five competing notions of democracy (or the democratic majority): these center on national representation (Hamilton and Madison), local participation (Jefferson), national participation (Jackson), local representation (a state-based position), and national-local concurrence (Calhoun). Subsequently, the majorities that have come to predominate, as evidenced particularly during so-called critical realignments, are examined. The quarrels surrounding their formation (as ruling coalitions) are studied as those between colonialism and republicanism, con-federalism and federalism, sectionalism and nationalism, protectionalism and individualism, monopolism and progressivism, and privatism and social rationalism. Course readings are taken from a range of American authors. Special attention is given to the Federalist Papers; and works of Jefferson, Calhoun, Lincoln, Garrison, Emerson, Thoreau, Wilson, Bellamy, Veblen, Dewey, Lippmann, and others are investigated. Previous exposure to political theory is helpful but not necessary. Classes will entail lecture and discussion; and student performance will be evaluated on the basis of two hour exams (with a paper option for one of them), a final exam, and class preparation and participation. (Gondek)

407. Selected Topics in Political Theory. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

We often think of people as free agents who are appropriately bound by their own choices. But how much sense does that make? Just how far can one bind oneself by consenting? If I agree to be a slave for the rest of my life, am I bound to keep my word? Should we think of children, the mentally ill, prisoners, and members of organizations as free agents? Readings will be drawn from the history of political thought, philosophy, literature, anthropology, sociology, economics, and other areas. Students will be encouraged to develop their own views on these issues. Students will be required to write two five-page papers, each of which will be rewritten and resubmitted, and a five-page paper which will serve as a sketch for a ten-page paper. Class will generally be run in a discussion format, so students will be expected to keep up on the reading. (Herzog)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This course examines the formulation and implementation of public programs, mainly those of the U.S. central government, and mainly welfare-state in character. Lectures and readings concentrate on the contribution of political culture, institutional structure, and strategic choice to policy outcomes. The course proceeds by lectures and class discussion. Requirements are a midterm exam (for which a paper may be substituted) and a final exam. There are no prerequisites or enrollment limits. (Brown)

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).
Course Objectives
: 1) Provide an understanding of American mass politics, especially electoral politics, from both normative and empirical points of view and from the perspectives of the individual voter and the candidate for office. 2) Explore the extent, causes, and consequences of recent changes (or alleged changes) in public attitudes toward politics. 3) Introduce the modes of thinking and the analytical tools employed in the systematic study of American political behavior. Course Requirements : Midterm and final examinations, plus a term paper. The paper will involve original computer analysis of national election survey data. NO PRIOR STATISTICAL OR COMPUTER EXPERIENCE IS ASSUMED. (Markus)

414. The Politics of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The politics of civil liberties introduces students to a uniquely American contribution to the practice of politics: The constitutionally written specification of individual rights and liberties that citizens (and perhaps noncitizens?) possess against the state. Civil liberties is not, however, a course on law. It is instead a course in political science that has its subject the application of law to political and social disputes. Although we will examine the doctrinal development of specific liberties and rights, such as freedom of speech and religion and the right to privacy, we will focus more on questions about what rights and liberties are, from where they derive, and how they are known. In the course of this analysis, we shall also have occasion to examine the nature of constitutionalism and of constitutional government. Students must complete a short paper (4-5 pages), a moot court exercise, and a final exam. The materials will include selected Supreme Court opinions and articles that discuss those decisions. There are no prerequisites for the course. (Finn)

416/Amer. Inst. 462. Governing the Bureaucracy in the United States. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 462. (Aberbach)

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the politics of the legislative process, with special emphasis on the United States Congress. Among the major topics addressed will be: the theory and practice of representation; legislative-executive relations; Congress and budget policymaking; parties and coalition-building; congressmen's voting decisions. Throughout the course one of our main objectives will be to assess the policy making performance of Congress and to examine the proposals for institutional reform. Requirements: two to three exams, one paper. (Hall)

419/CAAS 418. Black Americans and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

A general survey of the place of Black Americans in the political system. Includes issues in public policy, national government and urban politics. (Rich)

420/Comm. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Poli. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to expose students to the way the news is made and the consequences for the operation of the political system. The central theme will be shifting roles of the media as objective reporter of events and as public agenda setter. Particular emphasis will be devoted to the importance of the media in electoral politics including the effects of the media on the electorate, the use of advertising in political campaigns and changing patterns of media use and exposure. In addition to readings and lectures, guest presentations will be made by leading journalists and political figures. There will be a midterm and a final examination, as well as a term paper involving independent research. (Traugott)

428/Phil. 428/Econ. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).
China's Evolution Under Communism
is the university's introductory interdisciplinary course on contemporary China. Although it gives credit toward concentrations in philosophy, Asian studies, sociology, and political science, the course also is aimed at undergraduates in the sciences, engineering, business administration, education, and so on. The emergence of China as a major factor in world affairs increasingly affects our country. What are the implications of China's rise, both for the Chinese people and for us? That is the central question of this course. To answer it, we will explore China's historical background, its cultural traditions, the beliefs of its leaders, its economic and political systems, the social conditions of its people, and its foreign policy. Guest lecturers will come from UM's distinguished faculty of China specialists. Grades will be based on an hour exam, book report, and a final exam. Required books will include John Fairbank, The United States and China and David Bonavia The Chinese. (Yahuda)

434. Government and Public Policy. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will examine government policies in four areas. These areas will likely be chosen from: education, equal opportunity, social insurance programs, energy, crime, and transportation. Students will write 10 short papers. The method of instruction is lecture and discussion. (Corcoran)

437/Amer. Inst. 440 Financial Institutions and Economic Change. Econ. 201 and 202. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 440. (Jackson)

440. Comparative Politics. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with recent advances in comparative politics. Particular attention will be given to such topics as the political role of religious and ethnic movements, the rise of authoritarian regimes, democratization, and the interaction between ideology and political mobilization. The prerequisites are two courses in political science. Grades will be based largely on three to four short essays. There is no single text; most of the readings will be drawn from journal articles. (McDonough)

444. Government and Politics of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a course on the origins and the nature of the Russian/Soviet political system and on the ways in which our understanding of its political dynamics could influence its future. (Yanov)

445. Eastern Europe: Revolution, Reaction, and Reform. (4). (SS).

This course traces the political development of the socialist countries of Eastern Europe from revolution through reaction to attempts at reform. After examining the political cultures of the region, the course analyzes the Stalinist period, attempts at de-Stalinization and the search for political alternatives. The interaction of rulers and the ruled is examined by studying the elites, ethnic and social groups, public opinion and dissent in the area. Attempts at political and economic reform and the prospects for change are also included. This is a lecture course requiring a final examination and a choice of midterm examination or term paper. (Gitelman)

448. Governments and Politics of Latin America. Poli. Sci. 140 or 440; or a course on Latin America elected through another department. (4). (SS).

An introduction to the study of social and political conflict and change in contemporary Latin America. The class combines attention to major issues and trends with in-depth analysis of selected cases. Among the issues and cases to be considered in Winter 1986 are the following: the changing role of the Catholic Church, the expansion of the state, patterns of economic transformation and their political implications, formation and mobilization of peasantries, international influences on domestic politics. Detailed attention will be paid to cases such as Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Chili, Peru, Brazil, Columbia. Class format combines lecture with discussion. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. (Levine)

455. Government and Politics of China. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to offer students a way of understanding the politics of China as a process of grappling with long-standing political and social issues the country continues to confront. We will do this by looking at various aspects and styles of politics, policy-making, and state-populace relations, and by reviewing the major episodes and periods in the political history of post-1949 China and the events since the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. Thus, the course will be broken down into four nearly equal parts: (1)the social, political and international issues fueling the Communist revolution of 1949; (2) styles and aspects of Chinese politics (historically and under communism);(3) major episodes and periods, 1949-1976; and (4) post-Mao China: reforms and succession. Evaluation will be based on a midterm (25% of the grade); a 10-page term paper (35%); and a final exam (40%). There is no required prerequisite for this course. There will be three textbooks and a course pack. Instructional methods will include both lecture and discussion of the readings. (Solinger)

457. Governments and Politics of India and South Asia. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The main focus of the course will be on India, but selected developments in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka will be analyzed in a comparative perspective. Similarly the main emphasis will be on internal political developments and not on international relations. TOPICS: Historical antecedents with reference to ancient Hindu, Muslim and the British colonial impacts; The roots and consequences of the partition; the legacy of Gandhi; Institutional framework (government, legislature, judiciary, party system and elections); Politics and social structure (caste, language and religion); Politics of Development (planning process, federal politics, political decentralization and local government, politics of redistribution, role of bureaucracy in development); Grass-root peoples' movements and their role in democracy, development and social justice; Political culture; International environment. EVALUATION: a midterm assignment and a final term-end exam. (40-60 weightage) TEXT: Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr. India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation. Third Edition. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 1980) A couple of other books may be announced later. METHOD: Mainly lecture, a few case discussions, and political films from India, if available. (Maru)

459/CAAS 449. Africa: Development and Dependence. Prior or concurrent study of the Third World; Poli. Sci. 465 is recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course is intended as a multidisciplinary survey of African politics. (Elaigwu)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This course will introduce the student to theoretical approaches to the explanation of international conflict. The course falls roughly into three parts, first, an illustration of the scientific approach to theory through an examination of flawed theories of war; second, a presentation of two useful theories of war, expected utility and bureaucratic politics; and finally, an application of those two theories to the nuclear age. The student should emerge from the course with a better understanding of both why international conflict occurs and how the scientific process works. The material will generally be presented as lectures with opportunities for discussion. No special background is required of the student, only an open mind and a willingness to challenge accepted wisdom. Students will be evaluated from two midterm and one final examination. (Morrow)

465. Political Development and Dependence. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will provide an overview of the literature on the problems and prospects for the Third World development, both political and economic. We will begin by examining what American political science has prescribed for Third World development. This will be followed by a more in-depth study of newer perspectives (often Third World in origin) which deal with problems of imperialism, dependency, stagnation, authoritarianism and highly unequal patterns of growth. A central concern throughout will be to achieve some understanding of the multitude of patterns of development in the Third World and the roadblocks that stand in the way of more rapid development. Also of central concern will be the human costs and benefits in alternative models of development and underdevelopment. Previous political science courses on comparative or world politics would be helpful, but the only real requirement is an interest in the problems of the developing world. The format for the course will be largely lecture with as much discussion as the constraint of class size will allow. Grades will be based on a midterm and a final. (Hawes)

470. Comparative Foreign Policy. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

A comparative examination of the dynamics of the foreign policies of selected states such as China, the Soviet Union and the United States with the aim of developing a framework for the analysis of and generalization about state behavior. (Zimmerman)

472. International Security Affairs. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Political Science 472 focuses on the development of American national security policy since the end of the Second World War. The topics to be examined include the evolution of nuclear strategy, doctrine, and forces; strategic arms control; limited war and the role of conventional forces in the nuclear era; and defense management and the defense reform movement. Course grades will be based on a term paper, midterm, and final. (Powell)

486. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Pressure Groups. One course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is about the influence "the people" have on the decisions and actions taken by those in official governmental positions; it is about the ways "pressure" is brought to bear to affect the course of public policy. Several channels for that influence will be investigated. We will study the ways that public opinion is (or is not) relevant as a devise for swaying governmental action, through the competing claims made at any time about the "mandate" public opinion bestows, and the diverse institutional arrangements in which public opinion is created. We will look at the different modes of political participation in which people can engage voting, campaigning, mass protest, etc. with an eye to finding out both how people come to be involved in these various activities and the extent to which their participating in these various ways can be considered effective. We will consider the ways organizations having political relevance, including political parties, are created and maintained. We will examine the ways Members of Congress are led to respect the wishes of their constituents, or at least the wishes of some of their constituents. Overall, we will see that efforts to influence government policy are by no means restricted to the legislative field; interventions by the "people" both before proposals for policies come up for legislative consideration and after those proposals get through the legislative labyrinth are at least as important. The format for the course will be a combination of lectures and discussion. A background of at least one course in American government is strongly recommended. (Mebane)

487. Psychological Perspectives on Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Explanations of political phenomena often rest on psychological assumptions. Studies of leadership, decision-making, socialization, public opinion and voting, violence and revolution, propaganda and persuasion all have a psychological base. The purpose of this lecture course is to survey major currents of theoretical and empirical work in the psychological analysis of politics. Extensive background in political science and psychology courses is not required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. Grades will be based on examinations and at least one paper. (Kinder)

490. Political Socialization. One course in political science. (4). (SS).

Course focuses on the influence of early learning, the family, peer groups, school, work place, military service and other adult organizations on the political attitudes and behavior of the mass public and political elites. We examine selected learning models as a means of organizing and understanding the literature and its relevance to adult political behavior. Method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Student evaluation is based on midterm and final exams and optional term paper. (Langton)

492. Directed Studies. Two courses in political science and permission of instructor and the Director of Undergraduate Studies. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). Political Science 491 and 492 may be elected for a total of eight credits. No more than four hours of directed study credit may be elected as part of a concentration program in Political Science.

A directed study on any subject agreed upon by a student and an advising instructor that does not duplicate a regular course offering. May be elected for 1-6 hours; a maximum of 4 credits may be applied toward the concentration core in political science. Students wishing to enroll for a directed study course are urged to work out the details of the course before the start of the term.

494. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). No more than four hours of Honors credit may be elected as part of a concentration plan in Political Science.

Open to seniors with Honors concentration in Political Science. Thesis writing course.

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Legitimacy Obligation Disobedience.
What does it take to make the state legitimate? Or can the state ever be legitimate? Are we obliged to obey the law? If so, why? When may we disobey? And how? Can violence be justified? To explore such questions, we'll examine a mix of readings from the history of political thought, literature, and contemporary political debates. A background in political theory is helpful but not required. Seminar will meet once weekly for two hours; students will write three 5-page papers and one 10-page paper during the term. (Herzog)

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Economic Democracy.
This seminar on "Economic Democracy" examines the theory and practice of self-management (SM) of the work organization. Who advocates SM and why ("cooling out," self-actualization and humanization of work, democratic politics, humane socialism?)? Where has SM been tried (USA, Europe, Israel, Chile, Peru, Yugoslavia etc.)? What are the effect of SM programs on production, labor conflict, personal development, democratic and political participation, and the structure and culture of the larger society? What has been the influence of external institutions on the success or failure of SM enterprises (state, political parties, market, military, prior socialization in family and school, unions, etc.). The method of instruction is seminar discussion. Student evaluation will be based on seminar discussion and paper. (Langton)

Section 002 Woman and Public Policy. The course will cover policy areas which affect women's lives. Topics will include sex-role socialization, adolescent pregnancy, women and employment, women and the law, the ERA, female headed families and income policies, elderly women and pension rights. It is a discussion class. Students will be required to write 10 short (2-4 page) and a longer paper. (Corcoran)

Section 003 Exploring Political Mind. How do people understand political affairs? Indeed, what is "understanding" in the first place? And what, if anything, is essentially political about it? The point of this seminar is to grapple with some of the main theoretical and methodological issues that stand in the way of efforts we might make to get good answers to these questions. Discussion in the course will be based on readings drawn from a variety of domains beyond political science (narrowly construed), including both classic and contemporary work done in psychology (William James, Nisbett and Ross, Abelson), cognitive science (Schank, Hinton and Anderson), psychoanalysis (Freud), sociology (Goffman), phenomenological philosophy (Natanson, Ricoeur, Foucault) and analytic philosophy (Austin, Searle, Quine). Specific reading assignments will be chosen based on the interests and backgrounds of the people in the course. Course requirements will include short (one-two pages) written commentary on the reading every week, a mid-sized (five-ten pages) final paper, and active participation in class discussion. A strong background in a pertinent social science is strongly recommended as preparation for the course. (Mebane)

Section 004 The Politics of Terrorism. Few phenomena are as much feared and so poorly understood as terrorism. Indeed, its contemporary prominence is so great that we often forget that terrorism is as old as politics itself. Any form of political and social organization generates inequality and division and, finally, the demand for change. Whatever else it might be, terrorism is an age-old tool, a violent and bloody one to be sure, but nonetheless a tool for change, for the satisfaction of grievances both real and imagined. However ancient and familiar it might be, however, we know very little about terrorism. What are the causes of terrorism? Is this form of political violence grounded in the psychopathologies of individual terrorists or in economic or political preconditions? Is terrorism an effective or rational strategy for political action? When (if ever) does terrorism succeed and when does it fail? How can states control terrorism? Are there limits to a nation's right of self-defense? Do terrorists have rights? The causes of terrorism, the strategies of terrorism, and the control of terrorism are the issues we confront in this course. I am as yet uncertain concerning the particulars of course requirements no doubt there will be a short paper and a final exam (or perhaps a second, longer paper). There are no prerequisites for the course. (Finn)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Electoral Politics France & the U.S..
Within the broad framework of the role assigned to elections in democratic theory, electoral practices in the United States and France will be analyzed from the perspectives of both the voters and the candidates. Both presidential and legislative elections will be considered, and the French legislative elections of March 1986 will be closely monitored. Discussion will center around such topics as the long-term and the short-term determinants of electoral choice; candidate selection and campaign strategies; the impact of differences in party systems and electoral laws on popular electoral behavior; and the role of the media. Each student will prepare a research paper and report to the seminar toward the end of the term. Students will perform computer analysis of sample survey data, but no prior statistical or computer experience is assumed. A reading knowledge of French is recommended but not required. (Pierce)

Section 002 America and Nikita Khrushchev. This is part II of the research seminar that started last term and is devoted to the unraveling of one of the greatest intellectual failures of the West in modern times. Those who didn't participate in Part I are welcome along with those who did. What do people in America usually remember about Khrushchev? The Cuban Crisis. The banging of the shoe in the UN. The Berlin Wall. The misfortunate, mistranslated and misinterpreted phrase "We will bury you." For some reason we remember precisely what his adversaries and successors in Kremlin who crushed and disgraced him two decades ago wanted us to remember. They intended to murder Khrushchev twice, first politically and then in the memory of the people of the world. One of the most mysterious paradoxes of our time is that they succeeded. Who indeed remembers Khrushchev now as the only Soviet leader who refused to participate in the strategic nuclear race, i.e., did something that none of the superpower leaders in the nuclear age, be it before him or after, in Moscow or in Washington dared to do? Who remembers Khrushchev as the only Soviet leader who put an end to Moscow's territorial expansion? No wonder that his adversaries and successors had to try to murder him in the memory of the people. One can see quite clearly why they wanted it just by comparing the records of two Soviet regimes. His successors, the leaders of political stagnation, initiated the greatest (before Reagan) nuclear race in history, while he stopped it. They sent Cuban mercenaries to Africa and invaded Afghanistan, while he stopped Soviet expansion. They reestablished concentration camps for political prisoners, brutally crushed the dissident movement along with all independent thought in the country, while under him in the short interval between terror and stagnation people could breathe freely and think independently. Khrushchev's successors brought the country into a deadlock, while he tried to move the nation again. This is why his successors feared the comparison. This is why they wanted Moscow's only reformist leader in post-Stalin's times to be remembered only by his errors, not by his accomplishments. Being the undisputed masters of their country they succeeded in their country endeavour in Russia. No mystery about it. But how they managed to succeed in America? This is where lies the mystery our seminar is to unravel. By no means, however, is it an exercise in political history per se. Its implications are much broader. In essence, it is about how America perceives a Russian reformist leader for which its perception of Khrushchev serves only as a model. If Mikhail Gorbachev is indeed a new reformist leader of Russia, then in fact he is Khrushchev's - not Brezhnev's, not Andropov's and not Chernenko's political successor. America did not support Khrushchev's reformist breakthrough, he had to wage an impossible battle on two fronts against his and American military machines, against the conservative inertia of the Soviet party machine and against the intellectual inertia of American media. He lost his battle. As a result we had two decades of a nuclear race which could have been avoided had America helped this man. It is possible then to prevent a dramatic repetition of the old and fateful failure now, in the 1980's, with another Soviet reformist leader? Step by step and year by year we will recreate in this seminar the reactions of American media and intellectual community to a Soviet reform. This seminar might be taken in combination with a direct study course with the instructor (491) or direct research study (891). Each student is required to write two research papers (based on primary sources) as well as to take two regular assignments, for example, to write a regular paper (based on secondary sources) and to comment on someone else's paper. Research papers might serve as preliminary work for an Honors Thesis. (Yanov)

Section 003 Comparative Study of Political Elites. This seminar will review the theoretical and empirical materials, for the U.S. and many other countries, on political leadership. Topics include: the social backgrounds of political elites, their pathways to political power, their ideologies and attitudes, the relationships to the publics in their societies, and the changes over time in their composition and performance. A key question we will address is does it matter who governs does elite change lead to policy change? In preparation for this course, work in comparative government and politics would be helpful. Lecture and discussion course. Research papers and a final exam will be required. (Eldersveld)

Section 004 Comparing Industrial Policy of China, Japan, France. This is a course in broad, macro-level political comparison of three societies, not just a study of industrial policy per se. The aim is not only to understand how industrial policy itself is formed and implemented in these three countries, but to look at all the social structural features (cultural, sociological, ideological, historical, and organizational) of these societies that have enabled them in distinction to the U.S. to bring about large-scale structural transformation of their national economies in the face of economic crisis or upheaval. Another purpose of the course is to consider the differences between two private enterprise (capitalist) economies and one state ownership (socialist) economy when the same general policy is undertaken. After investigating the social structural features facilitating industrial policy, we will focus on periods when industrial policy was introduced in each country (France, the Monnet Plan, 1946-52; Japan, the first postwar decade; China, 1979-82), looking at the context, the tools and measures used, and the political resistance encountered. The instructor is engaged in research on this topic and welcomes student feedback. Background on the politics or history of at least one of the three countries is encouraged. Evaluation will be based on a term paper and a final exam. There will be one required text on the political system of each country, and a course pack of readings. Instruction will be by class discussion. (Solinger)

Section 005 Ethnopolitics in USSR. Designed for students with some previous knowledge of the Soviet system, this seminar focuses on the political aspects of the multi-national character of the USSR. It begins with a review of Marxist-Leninist theory on the nationality question and the situation of the non-Russians in the Russian Empire, and then traces the evolution of Soviet policy toward the nationalities. Most of the course is devoted to contemporary issues such as language, personnel and resource allocation policies, the relationship between ethnicity and religion, the political uses of ethnicity, ethnic relations, and ethnopolitics and Soviet foreign policy. Case studies are used. Requirements include extensive reading, class discussions, and a substantial research paper. (Gitelman)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 War in World Politics.
We will begin with an examination of several of the more interesting models that seek to explain why there are so many militarized disputes in international politics, yet so few wars. After that, we will turn to the scholarly research literature in order to evaluate these models. Students will write abstracts of a few journal articles as well as prepare a research design; final exam optional. Text, etc. to be decided. (Singer)

Section 002 Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control. Nuclear weapons and arms control is a seminar that provides an introduction to deterrence theory, weapons systems, and arms control. The seminar will follow the on-going Geneva Nuclear and Space Arms Negotiations. After receiving a common perspective, participants will focus on: 1. space/defense; 2. strategic nuclear arms; 3. intermediate nuclear forces. There will be a midterm examination and an end of term policy analysis. (Tanter)

Section 003 International Relations of Africa. This section will focus on the international relations of Africa. It will be taught by a visiting professor from the University of Jos in Nigeria. (Eligawu)

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