Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, semantic memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about areas of psychology which emphasize a study of the brain and behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Each section is taught individually by a graduate teaching fellow who has complete responsibility for his/her section. Because there are substantial variations among sections in content and teaching style, students are encouraged to sit in on several sections during the first week of classes before making their final choice. (McKeachie)

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a Time Slot ONLY (sections 001-009). Students should check the Final Edition of the TIME SCHEDULE for day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-009). At this meeting, instructors will explain their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. The students will then "apply" to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to their first choice instructor. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych 171. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-009) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR TO THE MEETING TO RETAIN THEIR SPACE IN THE COURSE OR ON THE WAIT LIST. Wait List (section 099) students must attend the Wait List Meeting listed in the Time Schedule to be placed in an open section.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation, emotion, child development, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy and interpersonal relations. The text for the course is Morris, Psychology (Fifth Edition). Purchase of the accompanying study guide/workbook and also a lecture course-pack (available at Kinko's) is recommended but not required. The discussion sections require additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects, term papers, etc. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. Students must keep Monday evenings open for course-wide examinations to be given on February 3 and March l7, 7-9 p.m. (Morris)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This section is taught on a "mastery system." Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell)

Section 003. This course offers a high level introduction to major issues in psychology. It focuses on competing theoretical perspectives on topics such as the nature of personality and its development through the lifespan, and makes frequent use of clinical examples to explore the relevance of various theories to everyday life. There is an extensive course pack instead of a textbook, so that students have the opportunity to read and critically evaluate what psychologists themselves say about their research and theories, rather than reading capsule summaries. Grading is based on two examinations and a research paper. Class time is spent in a mixture of informal lectures, discussions, and experiential learning (e.g., films, experiments, examination of case histories, role playing, group process demonstrations). Aside from the standard topics of personality, social psychology, brain and behavior, child and adult development, thought and emotion, the course will address a number of questions such as whether the incest taboo is innate or learned, how dreams are interpreted, how psychotherapy works, whether morality can be studied objectively, and how psychology continues to wrestle with fundamental philosophical questions about human nature (e.g., are we basically selfish or altruistic? how does the mind control the body, and vice versa?). (Westen)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per work including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule for proper credits, lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work placements, and general course information will be available at a Mass Meeting on Monday, November l8, 1985 at 7 p.m. For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two separate sections of Psych. 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

255(150). Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 457. (4). (SS).

In introductory and developmental psychology course for Inteflex students, covering psychological human development from conception to death. Theories and empirical research on infancy, early and middle childhood, adolescence, adulthood and aging will be supplemented by special topics geared to Inteflex students, like children with chronic illness. Two exams and a final. Term projects include a practicum option. (L. Nadelman)

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Committee on Undergraduate Studies. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.
Section 001 Working with Children.
Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS). No credit to students with credit for Psych. 431.

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; work and health; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be two general lectures and one small group discussion section. The discussion sections will review the materials of the texts and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (A. Tannenbaum)

369/Anthropology 369. Primate Social Behavior II. Psych. 368. (4). (NS).

See Biological Anthropology 369. (Smuts)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be two small papers and two long, integrative essays. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a critical overview of problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. Consistent with the underlying paradigms of the area, the course emphasizes understanding of social problems from the perspective of person-environment interactions and an ecological and general systems approach. In this framework, it examines the nature of community and community systems, aspects of helping and helping services, dynamics of social services institutions and community mental health, and emerging models of social and community intervention. Through widely varied readings, guest presentations, and class projects, the course explores issues of pro-active and preventive social programming, self-help and social support, empowerment and community action, and community-based research and social change. Student learning and grading will be based on active class participation, a series of short papers, and one major term project. Students are encouraged, but not required, to participate in volunteer field-work related to course content, and will be allowed to utilize that experience in addressing course requirements. Only sections 003 and 004 may be used for ECB credit. (Kieffer)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams and classroom contributions. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Hilton)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Additional readings from cultural anthropology, ethnographic criticism, sociology, and psychoanalytic commentary will be used to highlight ethical, political, and heuristic issues in the field of family studies. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion; grading to be based upon two exams (midterm and final) and a term paper. (Jessup)

391. Junior Honors: Research Methods in Psychology. Honors concentrators in Psychology. (3). (Excl).

The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is sufficiently challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. In addition, the course will contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (Section 001 R. Kaplan)

403/Rel. 424. Personality and Religious Development. Introductory psychology. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

The course is offered for four credit hours. It is designed to help students explore the psychological and spiritual dimensions of personal change and growth. Lectures will focus first on the spiritual dimension of personality growth through expected and unexpected crises of the life cycle such as birth, infancy, identity crisis, midlife crisis, dying and death. The spontaneous process of intensified spiritual development leading to realization, a process known as the mystic way or sadhana, will be included in this life cycle study. Lectures will then explore spiritual aspects of personality dynamics by differentiating Jung from Freud, understanding Jung's contribution, and studying conversion. Lectures in the final third will analyze states of awareness such as dreaming, creativity, intentionality, neurosis, psychosis, and realization. Work in discussion groups will include oral reports on selected spiritual autobiographies and personal experience talks. Brief reflection papers will help us connect concepts with experience. Midterm and final exams designed to integrate course learnings will each cover only half of the course. (J. Mann)

404. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001 Nonverbal Communication.
This course is designed to cover through lectures, readings and discussions the role of nonverbal communication in social interaction. The class will review the theoretical and empirical literatures on nonverbal communication which span a number of related topics. These topics include emotional expressions, visual behavior, body movements, paralanguage, personal appearance, personal space, and territoriality among others. The second half of the course will focus on the applied aspects of nonverbal behavior such as the acquisition and development of it in children; deceptive communication, cross-cultural differences, etc. The course requirements include a midterm, a final and a major class project. Some of the readings are: M. Knapp, Nonverbal Communication in Social Interaction; E. T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension; and N. Henley, Body Politics. The course will meet for Section 001 (Lecture) on Tuesday-Thursday 2:00-3:00 p.m., Section 002 (Discussion) Thursday 4:00-5:00 p.m., Section 003 (Discussion) Wednesday 1:00-2:00 p.m. (Coleman)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning November 21. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

435. Sensory Functions. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology, or Physiology. (3). (NS).

All information about the world around us as well as within us is made known through our various senses (hearing, vision, smell, etc.). Our sensory capacities determine how we detect and discriminate different environmental events. The manner in which the senses receive and transmit information to the central nervous system form the subject matter of this course. An overview of sensory coding and representation of information in the brain will be followed by topics in audition and vision. Sample topics include detection of sounds and visual cues near the threshold, our spatial perception of the world around us through sight and sound, and sensory disabilities such as hearing loss and color blindness. Instruction is by lecture-discussion format. Discussion is encouraged. (Clopton and Green)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course presents a systematic study of the nature of social incentives across the life span how they originate in human development, how they persist as generalized motives, and how they are aroused in everyday adult life. The course relies heavily on a 1984 book, Human Motivation, by McClelland. Lectures will highlight the lecturer's own developmental perspective. Discussions will cover not only the readings (students assigned discussion responsibilities)j but also research methods. A motivational self-analysis or research design is required as a term project. Both short-answer and essay in-class exams. (Veroff)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

This is an advanced undergraduate course that concentrates on visual and auditory perception. There are two lectures per week with time set aside during class hours for demonstrations of perceptual phenomena. Evaluation is based on three one-hour exams and a project. The first theme of the course is the problem of perception: How does an organism build a stable and accurate representation of its world given the fragmentary, often noisy information available to it? The second theme is the duplication of these perceptual abilities: How could you build a machine that can see or hear? I will draw on three sources of information: (1) perceptual psychology and psychophysics, (2) neurophysiology, and (3) recent results in computer vision and audition. The primary emphasis is on the strategies by which organisms extract information from the environment embodied in perception. (Maloney)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).
Section 001.
The focus of this section is adult human memory. We shall examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and discussion. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in the junior or senior years. (Phinney)

Section 006. Through lectures and discussions, this course will examine cognitive development from infancy through adolescence. The general issues are: how can we characterize children's thinking, and how can we explain developmental changes? Topics covered include: learning, memory, comprehension, logical thinking, perspective-taking, the effects of schooling and more. Major theories of development will be evaluated in light of recent research There will be three or four exams. (Akiyama)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology - psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on two exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and one paper. This course will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 519 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001 .
The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the child becomes a social being. Attention is given to the influence of the family, and particularly the parents, and also to the influence of the influence of the school, peers, and the social community. Topics include the development of attachment, peer interaction, moral development, sex roles, and the stability of personality. The role of social change and its impact on development will be considered. (Hoffman)

Section 002. Comparison of the dominant psychological and sociological theories of socialization; special emphasis on the role of the environment (ecological, economic, political variables) in socialization of children and adults. (Gurin)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is a survey of child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, language development, and socialization are examined. Special attention is devoted to children's intellectual development and learning. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week and to attend lectures and weekly discussion groups. Opportunities to work directly with children are optional but can be arranged. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a short paper. (Paris)

458. Gender and the Individual. Introductory Psych. (3). (SS).

This course examines the psychology of gender roles and their impact on human development, paying special attention to the impact on women due to the sparcity of information on males and gender roles. The course will cover four basic areas: the existence of sex differences, the origin of gender roles and sex differences, the implications of gender roles for individual development, and the nature of gender-role stereotyping in light of theories regarding the social construction of knowledge and perception. Specifically, we will: (a) consider the evidence for sex differences in physical, social, and intellectual functioning, (b) discuss the origins of sex differences, with specific attention to pre- and post-natal biological determinants, environmental and socialization determinants, and the interaction of biological and experiential variables (both animal and human research will be considered), and (c) consider the consequences of gender-role structure for achievement motivation, self-concept, mental health, sexuality, interpersonal relationships, marital and occupational status, and the attitudes of others towards women's advancement. Students will attend lectures twice a week and a discussion section once a week. Grades will be based on weekly journals and/or short essays, two one hour exams, five-eight short projects associated with the discussion section, and participation in a discussion section. (Eccles)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 363 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories in group behavior. Topics in this section include the formation and development of groups, their decision-making and problem-solving processes, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on the design of groups and organizations along with methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience. The final part of the course involves observing a work group, and applying the methods and theory covered in the first two parts of the class while working independently. Grades will be based on a midterm, a final exam, a group observation project and class participation. (Denison/Hart)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course examines a wide spectrum of deviant behavior, including normal variants of functioning, neurotic difficulties, character pathology, and the psychoses. Selected additional topics vary somewhat, but can include childhood psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, multiple personality, manic-depressive disorder, and the issue of the criminal insanity defense. The possible causes of the various forms of psychopathology are examined, with emphasis on psychological causation; attention is also given to recent advances in psychophysiological correlates of mental illness. Treatment modalities are addressed, including forms of psychotherapy, behavioral methods, and psychopharmacology. Finally, there will be discussion of social and legal issues relevant to the deviant individual. This is a lecture course, with a recommended discussion section. Students will be evaluated primarily on the basis of examinations. (Adelson)

476/Environ. Studies 355. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 476 is cross-disciplinary both in emphasis and in student population, with psychology, environmental studies, planning, design and natural resources among the disciplines which are typically represented. The course deals with how people experience the physical environment, with what people care about most and with the conditions under which people act most reasonably. A major goal of the course is to develop a working model of human nature, a concept of what people are like in their interactions with the environment. The course focuses on human needs in terms of informational requirements and on the ways in which environments support or hinder the processing of information. Such topics as environmental perception and knowledge; community and privacy; conservation and stewardship; and the role of culture are viewed in the context of this informational approach. Course requirements include reading logs, three take home mini-papers and participation in classroom exercises and group projects. Readings are taken from the course text, Humanscape: Environments for People by Kaplan and Kaplan and a course pack. (Talbot, De Young)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 002 Psychobiology of Motivation.
Brain and behavioral mechanisms of motivation. Topics include motivational concepts and measurement; arousal and sleep; hunger, thirst, aggression, and brain stimulation-induced behavior; interaction between competing motivational systems; etc. Format will be lecture, discussion, and student participation. (Berridge)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (SS).
Section 001 Reactions to Critical Life Events.
This course is designed to provide an upper-division, undergraduate-level introduction to the research on reactions to critical life events. The approach taken integrates two areas of social psychological research. On one hand there is a rich literature on critical life events. A wide range of variables (such as social support, experience with prior stressors, etc.) and situations (for example, bereavement, migration) are investigated. On the other hand, a great deal of current basic research focuses on psychological processes (such as information processing, attribution) but is largely unrelated to the research in critical life events. The purpose of this course is to explore possible connections between these two streams of research. Course requirements: It is presumed that participants have taken an introductory psychology course. There will be required readings each week. To encourage the participants to keep up with these readings there will be two tests. Each of these tests will count for 30% of the course grade. In order to encourage the students to apply the learned concepts they are expected to write a paper in the last third of the term. This paper will count for 40% of the course grade. Details of this paper will be provided in a special handout in the first of the term. (Rosch)

Section 002 Dreams as Models of Personal Conflicts and Resolutions. The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th Century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others') the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as well as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

Section 003 Language and Social Psychology. The primary aim of this course is to explore the impact of language on social behavior and to discuss how major theoretical perspectives in social psychology might be enhanced and modified by the study of language. How is society and culture tied to thought, language, and language use? What can we learn from the study of language about social psychology in general, and society, social interactions and social identity more specifically? Language use, for example, can reveal a great deal about identity and the development of the self (self-concept and self-esteem in particular), social cognition, ethnic or group identity, and the social and political structure of society. Among the topics to be covered are language and thought, verbal art forms, gender and language use, language attitudes, code-switching, language and identity, and language and politics. Special attention will be given to the links between effect and the development of the self as expressed in language, politeness and symbolic interactionism. Students will be required to write two short papers, conduct a major project and make a presentation. (Coleman)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).
Attachment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.
Recommended prerequisites include (1) a background in at least one of the following areas: (a) evolutionary theory/animal behavior (b) developmental psychology (c) ethnology (2) and permission of instructor. This is a new, experimental course for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students that considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, psychiatry, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory and social behavior, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman animals, and ethnological studies of human attachment behavior, including data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation, a few short essays, and one longer, research paper. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. (B.B. Smuts)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

510. Advanced Laboratory in Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 331 or 430 or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to train students in the observation and quantitative description of animal behavior in order to understand its adaptive significance. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection will provide the theoretical basis for the interpretation of observed behavior. Several animal groups will be studied (e.g., insects, fishes, birds, mammals, humans) during laboratory and occasional field (outdoor) exercises. Exercises will consist of a short introductory lecture and a longer "hands on" lab in which naturalistic behavior (e.g., aggression, courtship, feeding) will be observed and recorded. A journal article related to each lab will be read. Student evaluation will be based on weekly lab reports, and a research design paper on some topic in animal behavior. (Holmes)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The purpose is to teach basic research techniques of social psychology. Students do survey, field study, and experiment. For extra credit they may also design and carry out their own research project under supervision of the instructor. Projects are usually done in groups of two or three. Class attendance is important. Students must work outside of class to complete projects. Grade is based on final examination (15%) and individual research reports (85%). (Burnstein)

Section 002. "Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political currents to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, independent fashion with other students and the instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term probably as part of a loosely-structured team. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some six additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is designed to familiarize students with the major research methods used in personality psychology (e.g., self-report, observational, experimental, case study, behavior genetics, cross-cultural and longitudinal methods) and to give students experience utilizing many of these methods. There will be weekly discussion of theoretical and methodological issues. In addition, the class will design and carry out a group research project in the lab. Students will also be given an introduction to computerized data analysis, be taught to keep a research notebook and be shown how to write up a research report. Course requirements include class participation, involvement in the group research project, maintaining a research notebook, writing a research report and one exam. (Phinney)

Section 002. This course provides an opportunity to carry out empirical research in personality. There are weekly in-class lectures and discussions during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of group research projects. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal report of the research project and its results. (Landman)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (SS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average around "B." (Yates)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (Excl).

Designed to educate the student about (1) the application of scientific inquiry to the domain of human behavior and development; (2) some principles of developmental and social psychology; and (3) the specific effects on human behavior of adolescence, a period of rapid biological, psychological and social change. Intended as a contribution to students' liberal education; to provide them with concepts which may enrich their appreciation of a broad range of scientific and cultural materials; and to help them lead more self-conscious lives. Approach to adolescence is bio-social. Adolescence will be treated as a particular instance of interaction between sociological, psychological and social development, centering about the attainment of adult sexuality, increasing cognitive skills, and preparation for taking adult roles in the individual's society. Students must already have successfully completed at least one course in child or lifespan development or in the socialization of the child. Evaluation will be based on written work: four take-home essay examinations and a term paper. Reading will include a textbook, a course pack of theoretical and empirical papers on adolescence, and three autobiographies of adolescents. One lecture (or film) and one discussion section per week. (Gold)

559. Personality Theory. Psychology 452 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

There are about a dozen personality theories on the books. Is there a way of choosing among them that is not a simple exercise of taste? What should we expect from any future theory of personality? The positions of various authors (Freud, Allport, Mischel, Piaget, Maslow, Erikson) concerning basic issues in personality theory will be studied through the readings and subjected to critical analysis in discussion sections and lectures. How theories fit in with ordinary experience, with the society in which we live, and with the logic of inquiry will be the central critical challenges. Basic familiarity with major concepts is assumed from previous study. Evaluation will be by several short papers and class participation. (Rosenwald)

560. Human Performance and Technology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The focus of the course is on the interaction between people and machines. Person and machine can be viewed as a system with a set of defined goals. (A driver and an automobile comprise such a person-machine system). The emphasis of the course is on human capabilities and capacities that bear on the design and operation of machines. Human senses (information intake), cognitive activities (information processing), and actions (performance) will be considered. The course is not an engineering course, but it is concerned with basic principles of design, e.g., displays and controls. Facility with algebra is required and at least a nodding acquaintance with probability and calculus are required. Hour examinations, a paper, and a final examination will be used for student evaluation. (Weintraub)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

This course examines some of the properties and major problems of human organizations, emphasizing system-level variables and activities. Organizational structure, adaptation to the environment, and problem solving in such key areas as coordination and control, integration, and conflict, and related social-psychological phenomena constitute its main concerns. The course approaches organizational structure and functioning from the perspective of open system theory. (Harris)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. The Clinical Perspective. Psych. 452 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2) to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. (Lohr)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

583/Soc. 583. Introduction to Survey Research I. Introductory psychology and statistics; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is intended to familiarize students with all major steps in the conduct of survey research broadly defined as research that relies upon questionnaires or personal interviews as a primary means of data collection. This course runs along two parallel tracks. The first involves conventional lectures and discussions covering the following topics: problem formation and study design, questionnaire and interview design, sampling, techniques of personal interviewing, code development, computerized data processing and data analysis. At the same time, class members, working as a group, conduct a survey in the Ann Arbor area, beginning with the formation of a hypothesis and ending with the preparation of reports. The class survey is intended to concretize the principles developed in the lectures and discussions and to familiarize students with the "nuts and bolts" of survey procedures. (Quinn)

591. Senior Honors Research II. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

The course, second in the sequence for Psychology Honors seniors, is intended to assist each student in carrying out an independent research project that culminates in an oral presentation and a formal written report. (Section 001 Brown; Section 002 Staff)

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