Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Biological anthropology is a subfield dealing with human biology and evolution. This course surveys the major topics in the field, emphasizing current research and theoretical controversies. There are four sequential parts of the course: (1) evolutionary theory and human genetics, (2) primate behavior, ecology, and evolution, (3) the fossil record of the human species, and (4) human ecology, demography, and social evolution. Grading is based on three one-hour multiple choice exams and a required one-hour a week discussion section. No prerequisites. (Wrangham and Flinn)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

This course will focus on those areas of human biology which are influenced by and in turn influence culture. The emphasis will be on developing an appreciation for the biological determinants of human behavior. Topics to be considered include quantitative genetics, demography, nutrition and disease, human ecology, and reproductive strategies. Course grade is based on a midterm and a final examination. (Sattenspiel)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Text: A.R. Frisancho, Human Adaptation. (Brace)

369/Psychology 369. Primate Social Behavior II. Anthro. 368. (4). (NS).

This course examines several aspects of social relationships in primates, including: (a) communication, (b) dominance and aggression, (c) friendships and reciprocity, (d) male-female relationships and sex, (e) social development (infancy, childhood and adolescence). The overall aim is to use evolutionary theory and nonhuman primate data to generate principles applicable to human social behavior. For each topic listed above, we will consider studies of both nonhuman primates and humans. Anthropology 368 (cross-listed as Psychology 368) is a prerequisite for this course. This course differs from 368 in two ways. First, it is more advanced and specialized; it assumes a solid background in primate behavior and evolutionary theory, and it focuses on social relationships. Second, it will include more material on human behavior. One book is required: Chimpanzee Politics by F. de Waal, an engrossing account of social changes in a captive group of apes over a six-year period. Other readings will be provided in a course pack. Two lectures plus one discussion section per week; roughly one-third of the lectures will include a film. Grades will be based on two exams (one midterm and one exam on the last day of class) plus several short essays. (Smuts)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

An intermediate level introduction to human population genetics, emphasizing application of the basic concepts and quantitative methods of population genetics to anthropological data and human population structure. Detailed study of the models used in population genetics will be combined with discussion about actual studies that have used the models. Course grade will be based on three problem sets and a term paper.

466. Fossil Evidence and Evolutionary Theory. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course attempts to apply evolutionary theory to the specifics of human evolution. Both the fossil evidence and that derived from the study of man's closest living relatives will be considered in reconstructing the ecological adaptations that the human species has made in the past. The course grade is based on a midterm and non-cumulative final examination. (Livingstone)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).
Section 001 Human Reproductive Ecology.
This lecture course is an introduction to recent developments in fertility analysis, especially as these relate to non-Western populations without access to modern contraceptives. The major features of the reproductive process will be considered using a combination of demographic and physiological approaches. Emphasis will be placed on accounting for the range of variation in natural fertility in the human species as a whole, and on assessing the relative roles of physiological, cultural and environmental factors in controlling reproductive output. Special attention will be given to the design of field research in reproductive ecology, particularly research that combines demographic and endocrinological techniques with more traditional anthropological methods. Finally, the evolution of human reproductive patterns will be discussed in light of comparative studies of reproduction in other primate species. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one examination and a term paper. (Wood)

Section 002 : Attachment : Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Course prerequisites: (1) background in at least one of the following areas: (a) evolutionary theory/animal behavior (b) ethnology (c) developmental psychology (2) and permission of instructor. This is a new, experimental course for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students that considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, and psychiatry. The readings will include research and reviews on evolutionary theory and social behavior, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman animals, and ethnological studies of human attachment behavior, including data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives, and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation, a few short essays, and one longer, research paper. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. (Smuts)

566. Laboratory in Human Osteology. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

In this lab-styled course students will be expected to become thoroughly familiar with human bone anatomy and the analysis of human skeletal remains. Tri-weekly lectures will cover bone biology, morphology, and pathology; techniques for estimating stature, age, sex, and geographic origin; and (more briefly) demography, biomechanics, and the evolution of hominid osteological features. Lab time will be devoted to learning and employing techniques for cleaning, identifying, reconstructing, and interpreting skeletal remains. Course requirements will include weekly practical quizzes on bone identification, a midterm exam (practical), group skeletal report (written), notebook, and a final exam (written and practical). No prerequisites necessary.

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course evaluates the behavior of free-living primates from two perspectives. First, there is a full review of primate social organization that introduces students to biological and evolutionary problems of particular relevance to each sub-family. Second, topics are selected that highlight advances in understanding the nature and adaptive significance of behavior. These include morphological, physiological and environmental influences on social life, and detailed analyses of social behavior, especially cooperation and competition, reproduction and sexual behavior, development, dispersal and intergroup relations, communication, learning, emotion, and links with human behavior. Instruction is by lecture and discussion. Evaluation includes two papers and an exam. (Wrangham).

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although emphasizing cultural anthropology, Anthropology 101 is a survey introduction to basic principles that unify the four subdisciplines of anthropology: biological anthropology, archaeological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. While it is a basic course for anthropology concentrators, Anthropology 101 also aims at a general audience as the course examines several areas of contemporary public interest as well as areas of interest to social and biological scientists. Course topics include: warfare and human aggression; sex roles in cross-cultural perspective; American culture; counterarguments to assertions of interrelationships between race and intelligence; theories of evolution; ecological perspectives applied cross-culturally to human populations; human evolution as exemplified in the fossil and archaeological record; the origins of civilization; ape communication; and kinship, marriage, politics, and religion in primitive, tribal, industrial, and underdeveloped societies. There are three weekly lecture; a text and paperbacks or a reader provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. The examinations are objective. Two or three hourly exams. No final. No term papers. Six credit hours option : Students who wish to explore the subject matter of anthropology in greater depth than is ordinarily possible in an introductory course should register for either section 014 or 021 which will meet for two hours. Students who elect this section will receive 2 additional credits for a total of 6 credits. (In order to receive this credit students selecting section 014 or 021 should register for both Anthropology 101, for the regular 4 credits, and Anthropology 499, section 014 or 021, for the additional 2 credits.) The syllabus for students electing the 6-credit option will include extra reading that is not required of other students, and they will be required to submit extra written work. Those students will be encouraged to focus on those areas of anthropology in which they have a special interest. Students in the Honors Program are welcome to enroll in section 014 if they wish to earn extra credit, but they are not required to do so. Interested students should obtain an override from the departmental office, 1054 LSA. (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. (Lockwood)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. (4). (SS).

The course will deal with a number of topics that relate to society. Topics will include: (1) The nature of the linguistic sign, and a general consideration of the use of signs in society and culture; (2) Discussion of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, and study of 'grammar' as a cultural system which provides speakers with an orientation toward the world; (3) The relation between language use and social variables, including ethnicity (a focus will be consideration of the characteristics of Black English), gender, and social class. The relation between linguistic etiquette and social structure will also be considered. (4) The politics of language use in society, including national language policy toward dialect and language use in society, particularly in developing countries; (5) The study of verbal art and oratory, and its place in society. There will be two one-hour essay exams, and a two-hour final. A term paper will be optional. Texts will include Trudgill's Sociolinguistics, Innis' Semiotics, and a course pack. The course has no prerequisites, though background in linguistics or anthropology would be helpful. (DeBarnardi)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

323. Pacific Islands Anthropology. (3). (SS).

This course part lecture and part seminar is an introduction to the traditional societies and cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and, to a lesser extent, insular Melanesia. We shall review the evidence for the peopling of the Pacific Basin, the theories of migration, and the (somewhat limited) evidence of prehistory and studies of "race." Also the main features of traditional social organizations, politics, interethnic relations, religion, law, etc. The colonial histories of the different island groups, their contemporary status, demographics, international relations, and trade will also be outlined. Students will be expected to read together four classic ethnographic monographs, familiarize themselves with the main points in the above topics (for which quizzes will be devised), and perhaps working with other students - master the ethnographic literature for one island group and provide oral and written reports on it. (Carroll)

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare includes: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/222 or equivalent or junior standing. This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. (Kelly)

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course introduces students to the tremendous cultural diversity and key research issues in the anthropology of South Asia (including India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan). The region, with peoples as varied as Buddhist highlanders in the Himalaya, Hindu and Muslim Punjabi peasants, and urban Christians in Madras, will be approached through unifying themes in South Asian research. Classes will involve lecture and discussions with presentations by anthropologists and others involved in on-going fieldwork in South Asia. Key material covered will include broad sketches of history and regional variation with closer examination of issues in caste, marriage, gender, and household. Students should expect to leave the class with a solid comparative perspective on South Asia. Grades will be based on three one hour exams covering material from the preceding weeks and two brief book reviews of outside reading in which students are encouraged to pursue their own interests. Graduate credit will include an additional project to be discussed with the instructor. Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/222 or P.I. Texts: Louis Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus; Prakash Tanson, Punjabi Century; J. Goody & S.J. Tambiah, Bridewealth and Dowry; Ursula Sharma, Women, Work, and Property in North-West India. (Fricke)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on institutional characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. (Owusu)

424. Peoples and Cultures of Australia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course is focused on providing an understanding of Aboriginal Australian culture with emphasis on how Aboriginals relate to land, how Aboriginals cosmological structures work as part of social structure, and finally the role of myth in integrating Aboriginals to land, to other humans, and to the problems of classification. Selected readings are provided to cover the basic internal variations among Aboriginal cultures and how Aboriginal culture has related to the coming of the European. A short paper and a final examination are required. (Yengoyan)

509. Ethnology of the Near East and North Africa. Anthro. 409, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course offers an examination of recent anthropological approaches to Near East ethnology. The topics to be considered include representations of the person, gender roles, local understandings of Islam, tribalism, forms of local history and constructions of social reality both in urban and rural settings. The authors to be examined include, among others, Geertz, Eickelman, Gellner, Peters and Gilsenan. The stress is on recent work. The aim is to develop an appreciation, and some constructive criticism, of what are rapidly becoming new analytic orthodoxies. At the same time we shall examine differences between the areas where such work has been done, paying particular attention to North Africa and South Arabia as well as to the great states of the central Near East. The extent to which (and the way in which) the Near East forms a single culture area will thus be open to question. Anthro 409 or graduate standing or instructor's permission is required. Historians and linguists would be particularly welcome, since interdisciplinary cooperation here is vital. The format will mix lectures and class discussion, with the aim of introducing seminar work if students wish it. Evaluation will be based on a number of short papers. (Dresch)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

310. Religious Movements and Social Change. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course deals with religion as a dynamic force in society. Religious changes accompany all major social changes, and often play a leading role in the direction of those changes. Issues to be covered include: the general characteristics of religious movements; the factors typically precipitating such movements; the ways in which religious movements interact with economic and political forces; and the circumstances under which religion is conservative or progressive (and even sometimes revolutionary). Topics likely to be covered include: Melanesian "cargo cults"; messianic movements in native North America; prophetic movements and the Protestant reformation in historical Europe; liberation theology in contemporary Latin America; and others. Lectures, discussion, outside speakers. Take-home essay examinations. Sophomore standing. (Ortner)

352/RC Soc. Sci. 352. Social Perspectives: Cross-Cultural Study of Women. One social science course or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).
Section 001 The Latina.
In Winter Term, 1986, this section is jointly offered with American Culture 410.003. (Moya-Raggio)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

While few in our society can agree upon a definition of it, art is generally believed to be recognizable. That being the practical rule, we have admired and collected the objects of other cultures, "recognizing" them as art despite the fact that they have been created within an entirely different set of cultural assumptions. This course will question whether visual art can be understood cross-culturally through an exploration of the relationship between societies and the art which they produce. Notions of what art and an artist are in a selection of cultures will be juxtaposed to our own concepts of art and artists. A variety of objects produced in other societies will be examined in an attempt to see what can and cannot be understood about them. The meaning of art will be approached from a number of directions: the manner in which a culture's beliefs, values, and ideas are illustrated symbolically in art; the use of formal principles to express cultural concepts and values in art; and an examination of both the intentional and the unnoticed social messages concealed in art. There are no prerequisites; evaluation will be based upon a reading log and two take-home exams; a lecture will form the core of each class, but extensive discussion is expected. (Joy)

359. Workshop in Cultural Analysis. Anthro. 330. (2). (SS).

This course is complementary to Anthropology 330 in that it provides an opportunity to do cultural analysis of familiar materials (from one's own culture) in a small seminar format. Course requirements consist of: (1) three papers of moderate length (e.g., 12 pp.) presented at monthly intervals containing data and analysis; (2) preliminary version of each paper; and (3) a prospectus for the project (early in the term). The materials assembled by each participant will be discussed thoroughly in class, and the methods of analysis will be elaborated upon in detail by the instructor. (Carroll)

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors Program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second term of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first term of their senior year. Interested students should consult with Prof. Carroll, the Department Honors Advisor. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. Anthropology 399 is a continuation of Anthropology 398. Both constitute the senior Honors sequence for students who are accepted into the Anthropology-Archaeology Honors Program. Anthropology 399 is devoted to completing an individual Honors research project and to writing and defending an Honors Thesis. (Ford)

432. Social Theory. (3). (SS).
Shamanism and Tragedy.
In this course I want to work on Tragedy as both a form in drama and as a personal and social experience. Centering myself in a Marxist discussion (Raymond Williams, Modern Tragedy), I wish to take up the specific question as to how tragedy, on both the historic and personal level, can be transformed or destabilized by extracting magic from it in the form of theater, as in vision, dream, song, tears and laughter of shamanic enactment of profound historical change and trauma. In this exploration I want to ask how radical theoreticians of drama such as Brecht and Artaud may assist in the deconstruction of two interrelating discourses, anthropological and colonial: the theorization of ritual, and the western constructs of "magic" and of "shamanism." In asking this question my aim is not simply to derive a universal truth or a clever analysis. Rather, my aim is to develop a way of talking from what we are here talking about. In addition to drawing upon the Ghost Dance in the late 19th century USA, certain messianic movements such as that composing da Cunha's Rebellion in the Backlands in late 19th century Brazil, Haitian Voodoo, and de Certeau's "oppositional practices of everyday life, I will be drawing upon my own work with native healers in the Upper Amazon where Dada and Brechtian impulses are enacted in shamanic theater so as to counter-image the demonic power attributed by the colonist to wildness and the "primitive." Here I am especially concerned with the ways by which doubt and fragmentation are worked into a political aesthetic of Disorder so as to contest the disorderliness upon which the modern economy and state depend. (Taussig)

434. Comparative Political Organization. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

Politics seems at first glance to be a category of action one would find in any society. In practice few concepts are as problematic to apply cross-culturally. The ideas which are taken for granted in our own discussions of the subject turn out to map very poorly onto those of other cultures. One of the aims of the course is to examine our own preconceptions (for instance, those concerning the state, the individual, power and authority) by holding them up to the ideas we find elsewhere. Material is drawn from India, Africa, the Middle East, South-East Asia and medieval Europe. The writers to be considered include Dumont, De Tocqueville, Michaud (on feudalism), Lenin (on imperialism), Anderson (on nationalism) and Ortega y Gasset. The object of the exercise is to question the apparently obvious and thus to set our own values in perspective, not least as those values have infected or been imposed on the world at large. Junior standing or the permission of the instructor is required. Evaluation is based on a midterm and final (both of them take-homes), with an additional term-paper for graduate students. Instruction is based on lectures, but extensive class discussion is looked for. (Dresch)

438. Urban Anthropology. (3). (SS).

The city and urban life as presented in the writings of modern Western scholars is our starting point. We then look to non-western societies for a critique on this perspective to see how it must be modified, enlarged, or even subverted to produce a more universal statement of what cities and city life are all about. In the course of doing so we will cover the classic topics of urban anthropology: the origin of cities and the nature of the preindustrial city, the structure of social and physical dimensions of urban space, and aspects of contemporary urbanization such as migration, ethnicity, and the strategies people develop in coping with impersonal urban environments. Instruction will consist of lectures, movies, and class discussions. Student evaluation will be based on two examinations and a research paper. Course prerequisites: permission of instructor. (Edwards)

439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

An introduction to economic anthropology and development in village-based tribal, peasant urbanizing and industrializing societies of the Third World; the nature of economic anthropology; anthropological perspectives on development; case studies of development and underdevelopment. The course focuses on the problems of economic development and sociocultural and political change in contemporary Third World countries. It examines dominant theories and strategies of economic development as they bear on the "realities" of village or local level economies. Special attention is paid to discussing anthropology's contribution to the understanding of the effects on local communities of the process of nation-building and state penetration, proletarianization, peasantization, urbanization, etc. The course is designed to attract students concerned with problems and issues in Third World development in general. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Lecture/discussion format. Films, guest lecturers when available. (Owusu)

454. Symbolic Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 330, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

How do symbolic forms communicate and constitute meaning in other cultures? How have ethnographers gone about examining the languages, rituals, and cosmologies of other societies as symbolic systems? Central to our inquiry will be the claim for the autonomy of the symbolic realm that has come out of structuralist linguistics: how this challenges attempts to ground symbolism in other domains (material, social, psychological); how it is challenged in turn by arguments for seeing symbol systems as partly (or relatively) constrained ("motivated"). Course materials focus on ethnographic studies of non-Western societies which illustrate these theoretical perspectives. Instruction consists of lectures and classroom discussions; student evaluation will be based on two examinations and an essay. Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/330/junior standing. (Edwards)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Walter Benjamin and His World.
Brilliant but obscure, Walter Benjamin is said to be amongst the foremost critics of our age. His amazingly original way of doing criticism was to not only "brush history against the grain" but to do so by burrowing into what he called in his essay on Surrealism "the image realm" and thereby wrest counter-discursive voices from the domination of ruling class control. In contemplating the implications of his work for contemporary culture critique, Marxist social theory, and Anthropology, I wish to concentrate on his work on history and memory, the modern city, and commodity fetishism. Above all I want to emphasize the need to focus on the activity the doing of culture-critique and here his notion of montage and the "dialectic at a standstill" are relevant to the redemption of the object from the commodity fetish structure. In addition, to his own essays I will be using commentary by Jameson, Eagleton, Buck-Morss, Scholem, Adorno, Louis Aragon, and Raymond Williams. In so doing I need to work through this world the rise of Fascism, the appeal of Marxism, Dada and Surrealism, art in the age of mechanical reproduction, and Brecht. (Taussig)

531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course investigates: (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g., kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. (Kelly)

554. Structuralist Approaches to the Analysis of Praxis. Concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

We will begin by understanding concepts central to the structuralist method and by examining the method as it is demonstrated in the earlier works of Levi-Strauss. However, stress this term will be on the works of "post-structuralist" writers such as Foucault, Derrida, Lacan, and Barthes. Our purpose will be two-fold: first, to understand the ways in which post-structuralism can be the basis for critical inquiry into the relations between knowledge and power. Then, to explore the means by which the same method can be used to articulate that knowledge which derives from the essentially politicized perspective of the "Other." Evaluation will be based on seminar participation and a term paper whose topic will be developed by the student in consultation with me. (Davis-Roberts)


473/Linguistics 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics or literature, or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term)). (HU).

How do we understand the verbal art of non-western peoples without imposing our preconceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship and textuality? If poetic form, devices and traditions vary so much from culture to culture, how can we even hope to understand them? And if we do manage to understand how another culture patterns its verbal art in performance, how do we translate and represent it without parodying the other culture? The course will consider recent (and some not-so-recent) efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels: first, we will want to develop a methodology which allows us to discover "unsuspected devices and intentions" which form indigenous poetries and texts, "unsuspected" in that they have often been collected and published without cognizance of those devices and intentions. This forces us to develop a view of language which is adequate to interpret "oral literatures" as they shape and are shaped by the cultures of which they are part. What relevance does such a view of language have for our culture's theories of verbal art, text, and performance? Finally, in what ways can it contribute to reshaping anthropology itself? The format includes lectures with discussions. Texts: Ellen Basso, A musical view of the universe; Dell Hymes, In vain I tried to tell you. ..; Roman Jakobson, Verbal art, verbal sign, verbal time; Dennis Tedlock, The spoken word and the work of interpretation; selected articles by Bakhtin, Bauman, Boas, Derrida, Duncan, Feld, Friedrich, Gates, Kristeva, Lowie, Ricoeur, and Williams. (Mannheim)


386. Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course takes an evolutionary perspective on the early civilizations of Mesoamerica, Andean South America, Mesopotamia, and the Nile Valley. Our basic concern will be: how and why did the cultures that we know as Maya, Aztec, Inca, Sumerian and Egyptian develop from simple beginnings through a series of successive stages to levels of impressive social complexity and artistic sophistication? We will consider how archaeologists infer political, economic, and religious behavior from the non-perishable remains of these prehistoric societies. There will be an attempt to define general developmental processes common to all the situations we examine. In conclusion we will discuss some implications for our own society of the rise and decline of these early civilizations. No special background is required. Instruction will be primarily lecture. Student evaluation will be on the basis of two exams (midterm and final). The course text will be R. J. Wenke, Patterns in Prehistory, Oxford University Press. (Parsons)

482. European Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This is a general survey of the prehistoric archaeology of Europe and the British Isles from the earliest evidence for human occupation to the Roman conquest. Primary emphasis is on Western and Central Europe and on the history and evolution of social and economic systems in this area. Lecture course. Evaluation based on a paper and examinations. (Whallon)

488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

Archaeology of Mexico from earliest time to Spanish conquest; late Pleistocene hunters, the origins of agriculture and village life, the rise of classic cities such as Monte Alban and Teotihuacan, and the postclassic Aztec and Mixtec states. (Flannery)

582. Archaeology II. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course introduces theories explaining the origins of agriculture, the development of ranked and stratified societies, and the origins of states and empires. Exemplary data from Mesopotamia, India, China, Mesoamerica, Eastern North America, and the Central Andes will be used to evaluate these theories. The participants undertake two projects, one a research paper and one a take-home essay examination. Though the course forms a sequence with Archaeology I, it can be taken independently without prior archaeological experience. (Wright)

lsa logo

University of Michigan | College of LS&A | Student Academic Affairs | LS&A Bulletin Index

This page maintained by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, 1228 Angell Hall

The Regents of the University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA +1 734 764-1817

Trademarks of the University of Michigan may not be electronically or otherwise altered or separated from this document or used for any non-University purpose.