Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the middle ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history - the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Students will be evaluated on participation in discussions, three short essays based on the assigned reading, a midterm, and a final examination. (Tentler)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course will deal with Europe since 1700 in broad outline, focusing on large-scale changes in the economy, society and politics. The lectures will not provide basic narrative accounts of each country's history, but will be organized around the general themes, making reference to individual countries for illustration. For this reason it is important to follow the course through the assigned text-book and the associated readings, as the lectures have to leave a lot of background knowledge understood. The aim of the course is not just to communicate facts, but to deal with general ideas, and to introduce the problems of interpreting historical change or its absence. Assignments: critical review, midterm and final. (Eley)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 122. (Murphey)

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 112. (Hutterer)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This survey will trace the course of American history from its colonial beginnings to the end of the Civil War. The development and transformation of republic political institutions and ideas provides an organizing theme, with social, economic, and cultural changes considered largely in their relations to this theme. The class will meet as a whole for two hours of lectures and in smaller sections for two hours of discussion each week. Reading (about 200 pp. per week) will include a textbook and supplementary works. Grades will be based on a midterm and a final exam, a paper, and discussion. (Turner)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the U.S. since the end of the Civil War. It aims to familiarize students with what most historians now believe about the basic episodes in modern American history, including Reconstruction, Immigration, the Organization of Labor, the Darwinian Controversy, Populism, Imperialism, Progressivism, the Consolidation of the Capitalist Political Economy, the New Deal, World War II, the Atomic Bomb, the Origins of the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the Vietnam War. Format: Lecture, with sections taught by TA's (except for Honors section, taught by lecturer). Evaluation: midterm (20%), exercises in section (40%), final exam (40%). Assigned readings may include: Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; Livesay, Andrew Carnegie; Lippmann, Drift and Mastery; Spear, Black Chicago; Cowley, The Dream of the Golden Mountains; Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby; Sherwin, A World Destroyed; and Herring, The Longest War. (Hollinger)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (SS).
Ordinary People in the Past.
This seminar is concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be upon examining the life, work, living conditions, and problems confronted by working people and families who lived during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered for comparative purposes and to better identify patterns of change. An opportunity will be provided to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual original source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people and other groups. These include a unique collection of computerized source material concerned with the living conditions of industrial workers and their families during the Guilded Age. Secondary studies will also be employed. Through these materials the seminar will provide a glimpse of the way people actually lived at the time. Instruction will be conducted through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

The course traces the history of the Romans from their early Italian origins in the eighth century B.C. through their conquest of the Mediterranean basin and western Europe, to the reign of the Emperor Constantine in the fourth century A.D. The emphasis of the course is on the related questions of foreign policy, political development, and social change. These, along with a wide variety of secondary themes are considered the chronological, topical and methodological lectures which introduce the students to the main issues of Roman history and to the approaches historians use to study ancient history. Students attend two lectures and one discussion section meeting (led by GSTAs) each week. At the section meeting the students discuss the lecture material in relationship to the required readings, which consist primarily by works by ancient authors in translation. The course assumes no prior preparation in ancient studies, although it is the second course in a two-part sequence (History 200: Greece is the first part) on the history of classical antiquity. Grading is on the basis of essay examinations and papers. (Ober)

202/RC SS. 202. The Twentieth Century: A Global View (4). (SS).
The World in the Twentieth Century.
See RC Social Science 202. (Bright)

251. Modern China. (4). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. (Feuerwerker)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 230. (Holt)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

333/Econ. 396/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (4). (SS).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women - as a group, as individuals, as members of different classes, races, religions, and ethnic communities. Using "work" as an organizing concept, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experiences from 1870 to the present. Special attention is paid to women organizing women around issues of working conditions, suffrage, sexual behavior, reproductive freedom, civil rights, and welfare rights. (Karlsen)

376/Amer. Cult. 372/Eng. Hums. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (SS).

See American Culture 372. (Doyle)

385. History of Zionism and the State of Israel. (4). (SS).

This course will trace the rise of Jewish nationalism from its origins in the late-nineteenth century through the creation of the State of Israel. Emphasis will be placed on the political context out of which Zionism developed and on the larger cultural trends that shaped the variety of ideologies within the Zionist movement. Significant time will also be devoted to examining the role of Zionist activity within the histories of major Jewish communities in the Diaspora prior to the rise of Hitler and the competing ideologies and movements (socialism and assimilationism, for example) that challenged the Zionist solution to the Jewish Question. The tragic confrontation between Jews and Arabs within the Land of Israel will be explored in some depth, with particular attention being paid to the genesis of the confrontation and its exacerbation by the British under the Mandate. The course will conclude with a discussion of the cultural, social, and political problems that have beset the State of Israel from its establishment in 1948 to the present and of the links between these and tensions within modern Jewish history as a whole. There will be a midterm examination, a ten-page analytical paper, and a comprehensive final. (Endelman)

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (4). (SS).

The course deals with the experience of war, mainly in the Western societies (Europe and North America), from the appearance of permanent military forces in the eighteenth century to the present time. It emphasizes certain themes or problems: the relationship of armed forces to the societies they are supposed to defend; the effects of change political, social, economic, and technological - on warfare and the military policy; the problem of using armed force purposefully, together with the related problem of unexpected and unintended effects of warfare; and the relationship between military theory and military practice. The approach is comparative, stressing the commonalities of Western military experience during the last three centuries, and also identifying the differences that make the American military experience in certain respects peculiar. The course is not a history of military operations as such, but uses selected military operations in an illustrative way. There is a two-hour final examination. Required texts: Michael Howard, War in European History; John Keegan, Face of Battle; Makers of Modern Strategy; A.J.P. Taylor, History of First World War; Russell Weigley, The American Way of War. (J. Shy)

395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Japan in World War II.
This course will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the Missouri in 1945. We will examine different aspects of the war through a text, Ronald H. Spector's Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan (Free Press, 1984), and readings in a course pack. Classes will be devoted to specific themes based on assigned readings and the presentation of oral reports on designated topics. Students will be evaluated on their contributions to discussions and their oral reports, but special weight will be given to three written reports (eight to ten typewritten pages). (Hackett)

Section 002 American Family Life in the Past. This course is an undergraduate research and writing seminar which provides an opportunity for students to do original research. Students who have taken the previous lecture course on American Institutions and the development of the Family (American Institutions 471/History 571) will be encouraged to enroll, but others will be admitted as well. Students will write an original research paper on the interaction between American Institutions and the family using historical sources. The focus of the seminar will be on family life in mid-nineteenth-century Michigan. Students will have an opportunity to utilize extensive individual-level census data-set on four townships in Washtenaw County in 1860 (about 10,000 cases) that has been developed especially for this seminar. Those who would prefer not to use this machine-readable data-set may rely more heavily upon the primary literary materials located at the Michigan Historical Collections on North Campus. Throughout the course, the emphasis will be on the basic elements of research design and the production of an original term paper that is not only well-researched, but also clearly and concisely written. The grade in the course will be based mainly upon the final research paper although the quality of the student's classroom participation will also be taken into consideration. (Vinovskis)

Section 003. This course provides students with an opportunity to do historical research using original historical papers and documents housed in the Bentley Historical Library. The first part of the course explores readings raising general questions about the growth of industry in the United States and the so called "progressive response." During the second half of the course, each student explores one of these questions in a Michigan context through the use of original historical records housed in the Bentley Library. Readings include Dunbar and May's Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State and Alfred Chandler's The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Student evaluation is based on class participation, a midterm examination, and a major paper. After a few lectures, the course will focus on discussion. The course is designed to give students an opportunity to develop oral-written communication abilities. (Blouin)

Section 004 Comparative Revolutionary Elites. The course will study and compare the personalities and the writings of selected leaders of opposition movements advocating radical social change. The focus of the comparison will be a contrast between several violent and non-violent trends. The examples of violent movements to be studied are: (1) Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism; (2) Anarchism; and (3) Fascism. The non-violent movements are those associated with (1) Gandhi, Tolsty, and related "non-violent" resistance groups; (2) and the 60's and "New Age," waves of "narcissism" with their emphasis on an "inward" voyage as the route to follow towards solving individual and social problems. The real theme will be contemporary religious Fundamentalism. The course will be especially interested in relating the ideals and ideas to the personalities of their authors and in evaluating the social consequences of those ideas and ideals, judging, that is, their success or failure and their social costs. The course will involve, mainly, discussions of the assigned readings. In addition to active participation in those discussions, the requirements are one term paper and a final exam. (Mendel)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 002 Women and Society in Traditional Japan.
The dramatic transformation in women's status is a key feature of Japan's premodern history. This course will examine the patterns of change in the female gender role from the seventh through nineteenth centuries by reviewing primary sources (in English translation) and relevant articles. We will seek to understand the correlation between structure of dominant institutions and the experiences of women of various classes. Sexual-religious culture, property and inheritance rights, marriage practices, work, and formal political authority will be some of the themes explored. Apart from participation in discussion at weekly meetings, the course requires completion of two sets of take-home examinations. There are no prerequisites but general familiarity with Japanese history is helpful. (Tonomura)

Section 003 Medieval Jewry in the Orbit of Islam. This course will deal thematically with Muslim-Jewish relations in the Islamic lands of the Near East. The focus will be on the Medieval period. The analysis of events and Institutions will pay careful attention to how the Medieval communities perceived of one another according to categories that were mutually understood. Among the topics to be discussed: Methodological Concerns and Definitions of Terms; Muhammad, the Jews, and the Origins of the Islamic Community; The Expansion of the Islamic State and the Social and Political Status of the Jews; The Formation of Attitudes: Muslim Uses of Jewish Past and Jewish Responses; Cross Cultural Influences; The Structure of Jewish Communal Organization under Islamic Rule; and time permitting, The Rise of Jewish Messianism in the Medieval Near East. Classes will combine lectures, discussion, and reports. All students will be expected to keep a journal evaluating classroom activity in lieu of a term paper. There will also be a take-home final. Students able to use original sources or secondary sources in foreign languages may substitute a special project for the take-home final. (Lassner)

Section 004 African Family History 1500-1986. This course will examine the history of African work and African families from precolonial times through the post-colonial era. Students will work with a variety of African sources as well as scholarly studies. (White)

Section 005 Health and Disease in the Age of Victoria, 1830-1900. The Victorian Era began with a devastating cholera epidemic, and ended with the revolutionary discoveries that shaped modern medicine. This course will examine the history of health and disease in Britain and the United States during the age of unprecedented medical and social change. Topics will include: the health effects of industrialization, immigration, urban growth, feminism, and colonialism; the influence of health and medicine on society, the arts, and politics; the growth of the organized healing professions; natural healing; hospitals and mental asylums; aging; sexuality; anesthesia; antisepsis; and evolution. No background in history or medicine is required, although a previous introduction to either would be helpful. Class will be discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Students will be expected to read and discuss thoughtfully about 200 pages per week, drawn from a variety of different sources. A 15 page paper based on original historical research, and a 5 page book review paper are required of each student. Papers will be due several weeks before the end of the term to allow in-class sharing of findings. No written exams. Those absent from the first class without advance permission will not be allowed to remain in the course. (Pernick)

Section 006 Racism in American Life. Colored minorities in America have a common history of dispossession, discrimination, and oppression. But there are also striking differences in their experiences, especially in the 20th century. This course will explore possible reasons for both the commonalities and differences in these experiences. We will test both scholarly theories and popular notions about racism against the comparative histories of three main racial groups Asians, Blacks, and Chicanos. For comparative purposes some attention will be given to Native Americans and selected white ethnic groups as well. The course format will be readings and discussions. Requirements include two short papers and a term paper. (Holt)

Section 008 Politics, Power and the Public Sector. What historical forces have helped to shape the public sector in contemporary America? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists to analyze the development of the public sector at local, state, and national levels in pre-New Deal America. The course will be conducted as a colloquium and, therefore, will be organized around weekly meetings to discuss assigned readings which will include both theoretical works and historical case studies. Among the former will be pluralist and neo-Marxist theories of power and the state, and collective choice theories and models of political mobilization. Historical case studies will focus on the relationships among socioeconomic change, political action, and demands for the expansion of the public sector at critical moments in the nation's history. Of political interest in the case studies will be the question of from where demands for the expansion of the public sector originated. Students will write brief, weekly papers on the assigned readings and longer papers comparing theoretical and historical works. (McDonald)

Section 009 The Social Structure of the Greek City. Course will deal mainly with Greek cities of the eastern Mediterranean after Alexander. Topics will include city finances, social stratification, religion, definitions of citizenship, role of women, slavery. Can be used as sequence with History 200 and 201 but these courses are not prerequisite. Type of course is colloquium, assessed on class discussion and papers. Coursepack will be prepared. (van Bremen)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (McDonald)

401. Problems in Greek History II. (4). (HU).
Women and Family in Ancient Greece.
Position of women and forms of family organizations will be studied from Homer through the first century B.C. Literary sources, medical writings, documents will all be used (in translation). Instruction will combine lectures and discussion. Assessment by papers. Required text: Fant and Lefkowitz, Women's Life in Greece and Rome. (plus course pack) (van Bremen)

431. Byzantine Empire, 867-1453. (4). (HU).

A survey taking the Byzantine Empire from the accession of the Macedonians till the Empire's fall to the Ottomans. The course focuses on both internal political history and foreign affairs (relations with the West; the great Church split between Rome and Constantinople; relations with Crusaders and with Slavic neighbors - Russians, Bulgarians, and Serbs, relations with the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks). The main texts are Ostrogarsky's History of the Byzantine State and Jenkins' Byzantium: the Imperial Centuries : and for the final two centuries, Nicol's The Last Centuries of Byzantium. Flexible requirements: Besides the final examination, various options exist: (1) a short paper and hour exam (1 hour written or 1/2 hour oral); (2) a longer paper and no exam. (J. Fine)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

This course deals with the Russian Imperial state and the multi-national empire over which it presided, from the reign of Peter the Great (1682-1725) to the 1917 Revolution. The main theme of the course is the periodic adjustments made by the tsarist state in response to external and internal pressures, and the unintended consequences of those adjustments. In particular, it focuses on the unstable relationship between the nobility and the rise of a radical intelligentsia; the transformation of an essentially 'feudal' social order into a complex multi-layered formation; state-sponsored modernization and industrialization and the emergence of revolutionary Marxism and an industrial working class; the 1905 Revolution and the semi-constitutional system that emerged from it, and the war and revolution that brought down the tsarist state. (Siegelbaum)

439. Eastern Europe Since 1900. (4). (SS).

This course explores the history of those peoples who live or have lived in the area of present-day Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet republics of the Ukraine, Belorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Their 20th century history is reviewed in a broader regional and European context. Attention is given to political movements and ideologies, such as Socialism, Nationalism, Fascism, and Communism. The course examines the two world wars and their impact on the demographic and ethnic structure of Eastern Europe (transfers of population, deportations, genocide). A survey of post-1945 events includes the formation of the Soviet bloc; de-Stalinization and "different roads to socialism"; the events of 1956 in Poland and Hungary; Czechoslovakia in 1968; East Europe and the USSR in the 1970's; and the "Solidarity" period (1980-1981) and its aftermath. There is no single basic textbook in this course. Readings will include: Ascherson, Neal, The Polish August, Penguin; Rothschild, Joseph, East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars, University of Washington pb; Pipes, Richard, The Formation of the Soviet Union, Atheneum pb; Kundera, Milan, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, Penguin pb; Milosz, Czelaw, The Captive Mind, Vintage pb; Mastny, Vojtech, Russia's Road to the Cold War, Columbia pb; Davies, Norman, God's Playground, Columbia. There will be one midterm (in class) and a final (take-home) examination. A short (ten pp.) paper will be due on the last day of classes, on a topic of particular interest to the writer. Graduate students should discuss their program of work (including paper) on an individual basis. The purpose of the paper is to give every student an opportunity to explore independently and more thoroughly a theme suggested in reading and/or lectures, or other topic that interests the author. (Szporluk)

442. The Ottoman Enterprise. History 110 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This is a course in the history of the Near East during the era of Turkish domination. I plan to treat this period and its features from a historiographical standpoint, that is, with special emphasis on how people saw, understood, and explained their successes and failures: people in the past, and scholars in the present. Class time will be devoted to lecture and discussion of the readings, and students will be responsible for discussing the readings in class and for analyzing the lectures and readings in the examinations. Although we will discuss all the readings in class, I must state that the course requires a lot of reading. (Lindner)

448/CAAS 448. Africa in the Twentieth Century. (4). (SS).

This course stresses the diverse experience of Africans faced with the expansion of capitalism and colonial rule. It includes extended case studies as well as an overview and examines the internal dynamics and external relationships of African societies in the mid-nineteenth century, imperialism. conquest, the nature of the colonial state and the colonial economy, social change in rural and urban Africa, and nationalism. It will look at the lasting effects of social, economic, and political change on the independent states of Africa, as well as the ongoing struggles over racial and class domination in southern Africa. The course will include discussions of reading including documents, novels, and autobiographies as well as historical literature in addition to lectures. (White)

450. Japan to 1800. (4). (SS).

Japan offers one of the most colorful of the world's premodern histories. This course will explore the evolution of Japanese civilization from its prehistoric days to the last phase of the age of the samurai, covering such major topics as the emergence of the state, aristocratic lifestyle, rise of the warriors, feudalism, peasant and lord, and mass culture. The course is organized in a chronological fashion. Occasional films and slide presentations will supplement lectures. Students will complete two take-home examinations and write a brief paper. The basic text is John W. Hall's Japan from Prehistory to Modern Times. No prerequisites for taking the course. (Tonomura)

455. Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (4). (HU).

The greater part of this course concerns itself with the history of ancient India in its classical age beginning with the empire of the Guptas, and attempts to analyze the components of Indian civilization in its classical form (kinship, caste, political organization, religious institutions). It then examines the Turkish invasions and the challenges posed by Islamic rule. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of any of its participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

A different course every term it is taught, in general "Colonial America" focuses on the people of the time often speaking in their own voices, and on their cultural characteristics and problems as the nation moved toward the Revolution. One paper and an exam are the usual assignments. (Lockridge)

463. Jacksonian America. (4). (SS).

The course centers upon the principal political, economic and social developments of the Jacksonian period, 1828-1845. Political party formation and their socio-economic foundations will have special emphasis. Discussion is encouraged during the three weekly lectures. The midterm and final examinations will be of the "take-home" variety, with the limited option of a term paper. The required reading will include such books as Tocqueville's Democracy in America, Formisano's The Birth of Mass Political Parties, Silbey's The Transformation of American Politics, 1840-60, and Katz' The Irony of Early School Reform. The average weekly reading will be 200 pages. (Livermore)

464. The Ordeal of the Union, 1840-1877. (4). (SS).

This course deals primarily with the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of the antebellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It explores the sense in which social and economic conflicts in America come to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. The last three weeks of the course deal with the reconstruction episode, in an effort to show how the failure of this experiment was dictated by the assumptions which had produced the War. There will be a midterm examination, a paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. (Thornton)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; and the presidencies of Carter and Reagan. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491. (Roehl)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493. (Roehl)

513. Great Britain From 1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will survey the broad changes in British society, economy and politics in the past 150 years. At the beginning of this period Britain remained a predominantly rural society, its politics and government dominated by a landowning elite. We will focus upon the transformation of this society as it became increasingly urban, industrial and democratic in the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Particular attention will be paid to the effects of this process upon different groups men and women, employers and workers, rural and urban elites and to their responses to it. Alongside these changes and connected to them were others as a result of which Britain's position in the world advanced through a combination of industrial pre-eminence, navel supremacy, and imperial conquest. British history since the end of the First World War is one of the descent from this dominance. The outline of decline and its causes will be treated and the main developments in British society since 1918 such as the advance of organized labor, the increasing role of the state in economic and social life, the changing place of women in society will be analyzed in the context of national decline and difficulties and conflicts produced by it. (Feldman)

517. History of Ireland Since 1603. (4). (HU).

A narrative history of modern Ireland from the time of the collapse of Gaelic culture at the Tudor conquest until the present. Lectures will treat aspects of cultural and social as well as political theory. The main texts used will be Moody & Martin, The Course of Irish History and J.C. Beckett's The Making of Modern Ireland. Course work will include two hour exams, one term paper, a final examination. There is no course prerequisite and no prior knowledge of Ireland is required. (McNamara)

531. History of the Balkans Since 1800. (4). (SS).

History 531 is a lecture course which surveys the history of the modern Balkans the area which consists of the present-day countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. There are no pre-requisites nor required background. Interested freshman should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam (with the option of having a one-hour written exam, writing on one essay question out of about four, or a half-hour oral), one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor) and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: liberation movements of the Serbs and Greeks from the Ottomans, development of their two states, the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonia problem, terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. (J. Fine)

542. Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (4). (SS).

This course will deal with the 20th century evolution of the Persian Gulf States of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. The course will focus on the rise and fall of the Pahlevi dynasty with appropriate attention given to those elements of Safavid and Qajar Persia which shaped the formation of modern Iran. Similar attention will be given to the creation of the modern Arab sates around the Gulf and the evolution of the "Arab Gulf" concept. The histories of these nations will be treated in the context of the regional and international relations of these countries to both the Eastern and Western worlds, "defense" strategies in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean and, of course, the central issue of energy and oil. A central concern will be the implications for internal, regional and international policies of the rising wave of Muslim "revival" and "fundamentalism" as dramatised in the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Lectures will be laced with discussions; a book review, and a final examination are required. (Cole)

581. Utopian and Millennial Movements. (4). (HU).

This course surveys past utopian and millennial movements and begins with a study of the most recent of them, the "counter culture" of the late 1960s. The course then takes a great leap backward to the beginnings of utopian idealism as represented by the prophetic message of ancient Judaism and the Christian apocalyptic vision. These two traditions are then compared with the Buddhist "Nirvana" and similar eastern ideals. After a rather brief review of the principal millennial trends of the middle ages, the course focuses on four utopian movements of modern times: the rationalist utopians of the French Revolution; communism from Hegel through Marx, Lenin, and Stalin to Mao; the Nazi vision of a "Third Reich"; and anarchism. The course then returns to the present with an analysis of recent and current communalism including an evaluation of the Israeli kibbutz. If time permits, modern science fiction as a form of utopian thought and sentiment will also be considered. (Mendel)

591. Topics in European History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Approaches to the Study of Victorian England.
This course will introduce students to interdisciplinary studies through the examination of a wide variety of primary sources. It is not an introductory course to the nineteenth century; students are expected to be familiar with the main contours of Victorian literature and history. Our readings will focus upon industrialization and the working class during the early part of the century, and upon the "woman question" during the second half. We will be reading Mrs. Gaskell, Carlyle, Engels, Chadwick, Mayhew, Shaw, Pinero, the popular novelist G.W.M. Reynolds, and a selection of working-class poetry and plays. Critical readings will include Mary Douglas, Michel Foucault, Steven Marcus, Asa Briggs, and other lesser known literary, anthropological and historical critics. Students will probably give one oral report, to be handed in later (8-10 pages) and one term paper (20 pages). Students who are uneasy about their background should read Raymond Williams' Culture and Society, 1780-1950 and Asa Brigg's Age of Improvement or another history textbook before the class begins. The first class will be held TUESDAY, JANUARY 6th, 7-10 p.m., in Haven 1603; thereafter all classes will be held on Mondays, 7-10 p.m. (Vicinus)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
History of Burma.
This course will examine the entire history of Burma, one of the least well known countries of Asia, but among the most culturally exciting and intellectually challenging. The course will begin with the history of Burma's first architecturally magnificent civilization, that of Pagan. It will proceed to examine precolonial society, Buddhism, and kingship; the colonial conquest; and the Burmese response to European rule. After discussing the contributions of Marxism and of traditional thought to anti-colonialization, the course will conclude with an examination of Burma's achievement of independence, the problems of post-war government, and the policies of the current socialist, military leadership. This course requires no previous knowledge of Southeast Asian history. The format will be discussions and papers, without formal exams. (Lieberman)

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