Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, semantic memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about biological and cognitive areas of psychology. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Sections are taught by graduate teaching fellows who have responsibility for their own sections.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a Time Slot ONLY (sections 001-009). Students should check the Final Edition of the TIME SCHEDULE for day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-009). At this meeting, instructors will explain their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. The students will then "apply" to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to their first choice instructor. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych 171. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-009) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR TO THE MEETING TO RETAIN THEIR SPACE IN THE COURSE OR ON THE WAIT LIST. Wait List (section 099) students must attend the Wait List Meeting listed in the Time Schedule to be placed in an open section.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the major approaches psychologists use to understand people and the aspects of human thought, feeling, and action that psychologists have studied. Lectures and readings first present the major ways of thinking about psychological issues (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic and biological) and then address the nature of thought, emotion, development from infancy through death, and interactions of individuals with family, social, and cultural forces. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning, to analyze case studies, and to participate in more experiential forms of learning. Students must keep Monday evenings open for course-wide examinations and occasional films from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. The final course grade is based on two course-wide examinations and additional work (group presentations, research papers, etc.) assigned in section. (Westen)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This section is taught on a "mastery system." Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell)

Section 003. This course provides an even-handed treatment of the subject matter of psychology (psychoanalytic personality theory, social interaction, child development, learning, thinking, perceiving, statistical reasoning, nervous system and behavior). The emphasis is on the scientific aspects of psychology: What do we know: what is the evidence for what we know. Format: lecture, discussion, some films. (Relatively hard-nosed text, no papers). Exams require knowledge of subject matter plus reasoning. (Weintraub)

Section 004. This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology and will cover a broad area of topics: Part (1) presents a general introduction to psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part (2) is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomenon can be studied: First, the biological perspective will be discussed (sociobiology, the nervous system, physiological questions). Second, some basic processes such as perception, learning, information processing, motivation and emotion are studied. On the third level, the person is the center of attention (development, personality theories, clinical approaches). Finally individuals in their social context will be considered (attitudes and attitude change, attitude and behavior, intragroup processes, intergroup processes). Part (3) of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge of one specific problem, the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the different levels that were presented in part (2) of the course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical, one literature review, five quizzes (spaced biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is the second edition of Dember, Jenkins & Teyler, General Psychology, plus readings in a course pack. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. (Inglehart)

Section 005. This course is intended to provide an in-depth overview of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychological research and the "great ideas" or "great questions" addressed by thinkers over the ages who have applied prodigious minds and sensibilities to the same subjects. Among the questions we will consider are the following: (1) How do we know what we know? (2) To what extent is human personality and action influenced by nature vs. nurture? (3) What are the proper roles of reason and emotion in human behavior? (4) How is individual behavior affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, and class demonstrations. In addition to a textbook, students will read a course pack consisting of readings (essays, journal articles, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) corresponding to the topics presented in the textbook. Other course requirements include frequent quizzes, frequent short papers (four-six pages), and a comprehensive final examination. (Landman)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per work including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule for proper credits, lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work placements, and general course information will be available at a Mass Meeting on Monday, November l2, 1986 at 7 p.m. (See Time Schedule for location). For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two separate sections of Psych. 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Committee on Undergraduate Studies. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.
Section 001 Working with Children.
Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS). No credit to students with credit for Psych. 431.

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be two general lectures and one small group discussion section. The discussion sections will review the materials of the readings and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (A. Tannenbaum)

369/Anthropology 369. Primate and Human Social Relationships. Psych. 368. (4). (NS).

See Biological Anthropology 369. (Smuts)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Feild. There will be two long, integrative essays. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams and classroom contributions. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Hilton)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Additional readings from cultural anthropology, ethnographic criticism, sociology, and psychoanalytic commentary will be used to highlight ethical, political, and heuristic issues in the field of family studies. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion. (Olson)

391. Junior Honors: Research Methods in Psychology. Honors concentrators in Psychology. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is sufficiently challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. In addition, the course will contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (R. Kaplan)

Section 002. The principal purpose of this course is to help students progress toward development of the senior thesis project. One aspect of this is the selection of a topic area that is challenging and interesting. To facilitate this process, students will prepare reviews of the psychological literature on topics of their choice. The course will also contribute to the thesis formulation process by examining various aspects of research design. This course is only open to students who have been admitted to the Psychology Honors Program. (Manis)

403/Rel. 424. Personality and Religious Development. Introductory psychology. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

The course is offered for four credit hours. It is designed to help students explore the psychological and spiritual dimensions of personal change and growth. Lectures will focus first on the spiritual dimension of personality growth through expected and unexpected crises of the life cycle such as birth, infancy, identity crisis, midlife crisis, dying and death. The spontaneous process of intensified spiritual development leading to realization, a process known as the mystic way or sadhana, will be included in this life cycle study. Lectures will then explore spiritual aspects of personality dynamics by differentiating Jung from Freud, understanding Jung's contribution, and studying conversion. Lectures in the final third will analyze states of awareness such as dreaming, creativity, intentionality, neurosis, psychosis, and realization. Work in discussion groups will include oral reports on selected spiritual autobiographies and personal experience talks. Brief reflection papers will help us connect concepts with experience. Midterm and final exams designed to integrate course learnings will each cover only half of the course. (J. Mann)

404. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

This course is designed to cover through lectures, discussions, readings and projects, the role of non-verbal communication in social interaction. The class will review theoretical and empirical literatures on nonverbal communications which span related topics. These topics include emotional expressions, visual behavior, body movements, paralanguage and territoriality among others. The second half of the course will focus on the applied aspects of nonverbal behavior such as the acquisition and development of it in children; business settings, cross-cultural differences, deceptive and discrepant communications, etc. The course requirements include a midterm, final, major class and/or individual project. Class participation is required. (Beale)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning November 19. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, actions, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide an introduction to theory and research on human motivation, drawing particularly on contributions from social and personality psychologists. In order to illustrate the development of a science of motivation, we will examine how drive-reduction theories, expectancy-value theories, attributional theories, and dynamic theories explain achievement motivation and behavior. Within this context we will consider basic conceptual issues, such as the relative roles of affect and cognition in motivation, methodological issues, such as the assessment of motives, the applications of motivational psychology in such domains as the alleviation of learned helplessness and test anxiety. Lectures will be held twice weekly, on Mondays and Wednesdays from l:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. In addition, discussion/demonstration sections will meet once a week. All students will be expected to write two essays during the term, reflecting critical analysis of issues raised in lectures, assigned readings, or relevant supplementary reading. Grading will be based on these essays, a midterm and final exam, and section participation. Students should have already taken one course in introductory psychology. Familiarity with statistics and experimental design will be helpful. (Reuman)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

This is an advanced undergraduate course that concentrates on visual and auditory perception. There are two lectures per week with time set aside during class hours for demonstrations of perceptual phenomena. Evaluation is based on three one-hour exams and a project. The first theme of the course is the problem of perception: How does an organism build a stable and accurate representation of its world given the fragmentary, often noisy information available to it? The second theme is the duplication of these perceptual abilities: How could you build a machine that can see or hear? I will draw on three sources of information: (1) perceptual psychology and psychophysics, (2) neurophysiology, and (3) recent results in computer vision and audition. The primary emphasis is on the strategies by which organisms extract information from the environment embodied in perception. (Maloney)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on two exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and two summaries of research articles. This section will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 519 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

456. Human Infancy. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers developmental and maturational phenomena of human development from conception to the third year of life. Topics include physical growth, elements of early attachment and relatedness, cognitive development, emotional expression and communication, the growth of personal and interpersonal competence, the role and status of infancy in the family and society, and careers centered on early human development. Sessions will include lectures, audio-visual presentations and discussions. Exams: Midterm and Final. (Horner)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is a survey of child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, language development, and socialization are examined. Special attention is devoted to children's intellectual development and learning. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week and to attend lectures and weekly discussion groups. Opportunities to work directly with children are optional but can be arranged. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a short paper. (Byrnes)

474. Introduction to Behavior Modification. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Major theories of behavior change will be reviewed, and clinical assessment/treatment methods based on these approaches will be discussed. The largest portion of the course covers behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques applied to specific childhood and adult psychological disorders. This course is most appropriate for advanced undergraduates, especially those who wish to establish careers in medicine, clinical psychology or social work. Introductory psychology is a prerequisite. Psychology courses in child and adult psychopathology would be helpful, but are not prerequisites. Students are expected to attend weekly lecture and discussion sections. (Olson)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course overviews abnormal psychology, emphasizing psychological explanations of such problems in living as anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sexual dysfunction, as well as their treatment by psychological means. There are two lectures and one discussion per week. Grades are based on examination performance. Books include Rosenhan and Seligman's Abnormal Psychology and Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. Additional readings may be assigned. (Peterson)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Psychobiology of Learning and Memory.
The purpose of this course is to describe, evaluate and place in historical context the findings, methods and concepts used in the study of brain mechanisms of learning and memory, and to show how study of these mechanisms has influenced models of memory and the diagnosis and treatment of memory disorders. (Butter)

Section 002 Psychobiology of Motivation. Brain and behavioral mechanisms of motivation. Topics include motivational concepts and measurement; arousal and sleep; hunger, thirst, aggression, and brain stimulation-induced behavior; interaction between competing motivational systems; etc. Format will be lecture, discussion, and student participation. (Berridge)

Section 003 The major subjects covered are dose-effect analysis of drug action, behavioral effects of drugs and disease states. The major classes of CNS active agents: neuroleptics, minor tranquilizers, anti-depressants, alcohol, stimulants, depressants, narcotics, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are also covered. The course may become part of a sequence of psychobiology. It will be offered in the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). Compiled readings will be available at the beginning of the term. The course will be taught with both PSI and discussion. (J.H.Woods)

Section 004 Mathematical topics in the study of Vision. Lectures will provide enough background material concerning biological perception to permit us to frame a series of mathematical models relevant to the study of biological and computational vision. Information concerning relevant areas of math and statistics will also be presented. Among the topics to be included are how photoreceptors work; the retinal image; (b) detecting signals in noise; (c) correctly estimating surface properties of objects despite changes in the illumination on a scene (color constancy); (d) opponent-colors encoding as maximizing information transmission on the optic nerve (Buchsbaum) etc. The course will be problem-oriented. Each week a series of exercises will be handed out to serve as variations on the theme developed in lecture. The exercises are the heart of the course. There will be weekly problem sets. Three of the problem sets will serve as take-home exams. Mathematics through linear algebra and at least one of the following are the prerequisites: introductory mathematical statistics, Fourier analysis, a physics course beyond the introductory level, or permission of the instructor. No previous knowledge about human perception or physiology assumed. There is no textbook. Coursepack will be provided. (Maloney)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Dreams as Models of Personal Conflicts and Resolutions.
The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th Century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others') the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as well as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

Section 002 The Psychological Study of Lives. This course addresses the shaping of lives from two convergent directions the social-psychological and the psychodynamic. On the one hand, the progress of a life is determined by the person's social and cultural situation (family, social class, subculture, gender-role, economics). On the other, a life story manifests a continuity of tendencies and themes that have the stamp of individuality. Against cultural changes, these subjective factors assert their striving for sameness. Students will learn to interpret biographical and autobiographical materials in social-psychological and individual-psychological terms. Class discussion of theory, research, and case materials will be the medium of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the basis of several group or individual projects and one or two exams. (Rosenwald)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Analogy and Creativity.
This course will explore the way in which analogy reveals the structure of the fringes of concepts, and how pushing at the fringes of concepts is at the root of creativity. The course will involve a great deal of day-to-day student participation, including the execution and class presentation of between six and twelve small projects, as well as much in-class discussion. There will be, in addition, two written papers. Grades will depend heavily upon clarity of expression. Poor or mediocre writers are hereby warned that they should steer clear of this course. The readings will be variegated, and will all be included in a course pack. (Hofstadter)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001.
This lab will explore various techniques for describing and analyzing the dynamics of spiritual crisis, intervention, and resolution. We will develop coding schemes for examining scriptural, fictional, and poetic expressions of these dynamics, and we will also undertake a series of interviews using projective and fantasy techniques. The prerequisites (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) will be enforced, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at 554 Thompson. There will be a series of small lab reports and one final project. Early in the term each student will be trained in the use of MTS and CONFER in order to create an electronic conference containing both the data and the commentary of the members of the lab. (R. Mann)

Section 002 Advanced Laboratory in Organizational Psychology. This advanced laboratory will survey four theoretical and empirical approaches to group and organizational effectiveness: (1) participative planning; (2) goal setting; (3) role analysis and (4) task redesign. Each approach will be examined through a laboratory simulation, discussion of relevant theory and research, and field observation project. Course requirements include four short field observation reports and a final integrative report. (Price)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

511. Advanced Laboratory in Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or 431. (4). (Excl).

This laboratory course is intended to provide practical experience with some of the basic research paradigms and techniques used in the study of brain-behavior relations. Laboratory exercises include sessions on functional neuroanatomy (dissection of sheep brain), the behavioral effects of manipulating brain neurotransmitters and psychoactive drugs, the hormonal control of reproductive behavior, animal models of psychiatric and movement disorders, electrical stimulation and recording from brain structures, and methods of analyzing behavior, etc. There is a one hour lecture, and a three hour lab each week. Grades are based on lab reports written in a formal scientific style. (Robinson)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Inference and Social Behavior.
This section will demonstrate a variety of techniques of experimental social psychology. Special emphasis will be placed on the study of social inferences judgments that we make about ourselves and others. Students will carry out their own study or experiment. (Hilton)

Section 002. "Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political currents to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, independent fashion with other students and the instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term probably as part of a loosely-structured team. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some six additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, socio-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students engage in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering theory, research issues, methods, and actual studies in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in the Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted off campus, each involving different methods and different aged-subjects. Evaluation is primarily based on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Byrnes)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).
Section 002.
This course provides an opportunity to carry out empirical research in personality, examining how personality and circumstances influence behavior independently and in interaction. There are weekly in-class lectures and discussions during the first part of the course, leading to the design and execution of group research projects. Course requirements include an examination, several short papers, and a final paper which is a formal report of the research project and its results. (Landman)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (NS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average around "B." (Yates)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (Excl). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (SS).

This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. (Adelson)

559. Personality Theory. Psychology 452 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

There are about a dozen personality theories on the books. Is there a way of choosing among them that is not a simple exercise of taste? What should we expect from any future theory of personality? The positions of various authors (Freud, Allport, Mischel, Piaget, Maslow, Erikson) concerning basic issues in personality theory will be studied through the readings and subjected to critical analysis in discussion sections and lectures. How theories fit in with ordinary experience, with the society in which we live, and with the logic of inquiry will be the central critical challenges. Basic familiarity with major concepts is assumed from previous study. Evaluation will be by several short papers and class participation. (Rosenwald)

560. Human Performance and Technology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The focus of the course is on the interaction between people and machines. Person and machine can be viewed as a system with a set of defined goals. (A driver and an automobile comprise such a person-machine system). The emphasis of the course is on human capabilities and capacities that bear on the design and operation of machines. Human senses (information intake), cognitive activities (information processing), and actions (performance) will be considered. The course is not an engineering course, but it is concerned with basic design principles, a few examples of displays and controls. Facility with algebra is required and at least a nodding acquaintance with probability and calculus is strongly recommended. Hour examinations, laboratory exercises, and a final examination will be used for student evaluation. (Weintraub)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course examines some of the properties and major problems of human organizations, emphasizing system-level variables and activities. Organizational structure, adaptation to the environment, and problem solving in such key areas as coordination and control, integration, and conflict, and related social-psychological phenomena constitute its main concerns. The course considers several theories of organization, but it mainly approaches organizational structure and functioning from the perspective of open system theory. (Georgopoulos)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. The Clinical Perspective. Psych. 452 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed primarily for Junior and Senior students who are concentrating in psychology and who are considering the mental health profession as a career. Professional issues in Psychology, Social Work and Psychiatry will be addressed. The clinical inference process will be emphasized through readings and discussion of clinical interviews, psychological test protocols and research data. The course will integrate theories of normal psychological development, psychopathology and a variety of orientations to psychotherapy. The prerequisites suggested for this class are: Introductory Psychology, Psychopathology and Developmental Psychology. In order to facilitate in-depth discussion of the clinical materials, the class size will be limited to approximately twenty students. Evaluation of students will be based on a combination of several brief analytical papers, a midterm and a final exam. An approximation of the syllabus of this course for the Winter Term is available in the form of the Fall, 1986 requirements for Psychology 574. (Hatcher)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

583/Soc. 583. Introduction to Survey Research I. Introductory psychology and statistics; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended to familiarize students with all major steps in the conduct of survey research broadly defined as research that relies upon questionnaires or personal interviews as a primary means of data collection. This course runs along two parallel tracks. The first involves conventional lectures and discussions covering the following topics: problem formation and study design, questionnaire and interview design, sampling, techniques of personal interviewing, code development, computerized data processing and data analysis. At the same time, class members, working as a group, conduct a survey in the Ann Arbor area, beginning with the formation of a hypothesis and ending with the preparation of reports. The class survey is intended to concretize the principles developed in the lectures and discussions and to familiarize students with the "nuts and bolts" of survey procedures. (Quinn)

591. Senior Honors Research II. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

The course, second in the sequence for Psychology Honors seniors, is intended to assist each student in carrying out an independent research project that culminates in an oral presentation and a formal written report. (Section 001 Brown; Section 002 Zajonc)


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