Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Biological anthropology is a subfield of anthropology dealing with human biology and evolution. This course presents a survey of the major topics in the field. The course is divided into four major parts, (1) human genetics and evolutionary theory, (2) primate behavior and evolution, (3) the human fossil record, and (4) biological variability in modern populations. Grading will be based on three one-hour multiple choice exams and a required 1-hour a week discussion section. No special background knowledge is required or assumed. (Brace)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

This course will focus on those areas of human biology which are influenced by and in turn influence culture. The emphasis will be on developing an appreciation for the biological determinants of human behavior. Topics to be considered include quantitative genetics, demography, nutrition and disease, human ecology, and reproductive strategies. Course grade is based on three one and a half hour exams. (Sattenspiel)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Text: A.R. Frisancho, Human Adaptation. (Brace)

369/Psychology 369. Primate and Human Social Relationships. Anthro. 368 or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This course examines several aspects of social relationships in primates, including: communication, dominance and aggression, reciprocity and friendship, male-female relationships, sex, and social development (infancy, childhood and adolescence). The overall aim is to use evolutionary theory and nonhuman primate data to generate principles applicable to human social behavior. For each topic listed above, we will consider studies of both nonhuman primates and humans. Anthropology 368 (cross-listed as Psychology 368) is a prerequisite for this course. This course differs from 368 in two ways. First, it is more advanced and specialized; it assumes a solid background in primate behavior and evolutionary theory, and it focuses on social relationships. Second, it will include more material on human behavior. One book is required: Chimpanzee Politics by F. de Waal, an engrossing account of social changes in a captive group of apes over a six year period. Other readings will be provided in a course pack. Two lectures plus one discussion section per week; roughly 1/3 of the lectures will include a film. Grades will be based on one midterm exam, several short essays, and one research project. (Smuts)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Frisancho)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

An intermediate level introduction to human population genetics, emphasizing application of the basic concepts and quantitative methods of population genetics to anthropological data and human population structure. Detailed study of the models used in population genetics will be combined with discussion about actual studies that have used the models. Course grade will be based on three problem sets and a term paper. (Sattenspiel)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (NS).

The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. (Livingstone)

564. Hominid Origins. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for biological anthropology concentrators. (3). (NS).

It has been known since Darwin's time that humans originated in Africa. Darwin suggested some explanations of why this new species might have become so unique, that his thinking has oriented the direction of human origins theorizing ever since. Only recently, however, has it become possible to use the fossil record to help understand the "who, what, when, where, and why" of human origins. This course examines what is known of our most ancient roots, emphasizing how we know what we do and where research might most profitably go from here. Anthropology 365 or its equivalent is the required prerequisite. (Wolpoff)

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course evaluates the behavior of free-living primates from two perspectives. The first half includes a full review of primate social organization and ecology by taxonomic groups and introduces students to biological and evolutionary problems of particular relevance to each sub-family or genus. The second half abandons the taxonomic approach to address issues which cut across species groups. Topics are selected to highlight advances in understanding the nature and adaptive significance of behavior. They include morphological, physiological and environmental influences on social life, detailed analyses of social behavior, including cooperation and competition, reproduction and sexual behavior, development, dispersal and inter-group relations, communication and learning, and links with human behavior. Instruction is by lecture and some discussion. Evaluation includes two exams and a term paper. (Wrangham)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Every human culture exemplifies both universal patterns of human adaptation and a unique constellation of these patterns rooted in a particular time and place. Through lectures, films, and discussion, the course first focuses on the unity in human diversity by examining the conditions essential to human culture, and then interprets cultural diversity as the product of evolutionary, historical, and social transformations of these fundamental conditions. This constant movement between the abstract and the concrete, between a concern for human universals and the cultural particulars that express them, epitomizes the anthropological perspective and demands that we regard all cultures, including our own, as singular instances of a more abiding common humanity. Readings for the course include a basic text and four case studies: the life history of a tribal leader on a South Pacific island, the life story of a woman in a foraging society in southern Africa, a novel about contemporary Mayan Indians in southern Mexico, and an account of struggles for dominance within a colony of chimpanzees in a Dutch zoo. Course grades will depend on a midterm, a final, two exercises, and two quizzes. (Watanabe)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).

See Linguistics 272. (Bloome)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

319(342). Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).

This course examines the major configurations of contemporary Latin American society and culture. Readings will introduce students to the range of communities anthropologists have studied in Latin America, from peasants in Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru, to Amazonian forest people, Puerto Rican and Colombian sugarcane workers, Bolivian tin miners, and women factory workers on the United States-Mexico border. To understand the diverse lives of Latin Americans, a variety of themes and issues emerging in current research will be considered: (1) the legacy of the European conquest and the meeting of indigenous, Spanish, and African cultures; (2) the plight of being Indian in a society dominated by non-Indians; (3) the structure of peasant communities and the ideology of reciprocity; (4) the nature of kinship and gender relations; (5) folk Catholicism and religious revitalization movements; (6) shamanism and healing; (7) devil beliefs and capitalist development; (8) dependency, proletarianization, and class consciousness; and (9) the role played by the North American anthropologist doing fieldwork in Latin America. The course will follow a lecture/discussion format, and films and slides that complement the required readings will be shown. Evaluation will be based on a take-home midterm and final consisting of essay questions that ask the student to synthesize materials from lectures, films, and readings, and a short research paper on any of the course topics the student would like to explore in detail. (Behar)

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

420(320). Anthropology of Contemporary American Culture. Two courses in anthropology. (4). (SS).

Anthropology is a comparative science that examines all societies, from simplest to most complex, from humanity's remote past to the most modern nations. During the past decade, anthropologists have focused more and more on contemporary American society and culture. Anthropologists have done research in small towns, urban neighborhoods, and among ethnic groups. In addition to such ethnographic studies, anthropologists have also examined aspects of contemporary mass culture, including fast-food restaurants, television, motion pictures, sports, and social issues that are attracting media attention. This course will bring anthropology's distinctive comparative, cross-cultural, and cultural evolutionary to bear on several contemporary issues including the following: consumerism; work and employment; the rise of the service-oriented economy; professionalism, specialization, and the role of the expert; mental and physical health; sex roles; the family, marriage, and divorce; sexuality, including incest, spouse and child abuse, prostitution, cross-sexualism and homosexuality: child rearing; competitive sports; eating habits, including fast food; television and other mass media; holidays; religions of a mass society; and patterns of magical thought. These issues will be placed in comparative perspective by references to customs and organizational schemes of other cultures. In particular, there will be systematic comparison with Brazil, the western hemisphere's second most populous nation. The cross-cultural, cultural evolutionary viewpoint will reveal the novel features of our hyperindustrial society and consumers' culture, while upholding the relativistic view that many of the values and beliefs that are considered natural and inevitable by Americans are manifestations of human culture, rather than human nature. In analyzing contemporary life, Anthropology 420 employs many methods and techniques originally developed by anthropologists working in small-scale societies and non-western cultures. The course focuses on cultural themes and patterns that unify Americans, but also stresses the socioeconomic differences that divide us. Ethnic and religious differences receive some, but less intensive, consideration. The major course requirement is a paper based on original research on some aspect of contemporary American society/culture. The research project will be planned by the student in regular consultation with his/her discussion leader, who will monitor the project carefully. There will also be 2-3 short papers and at least one exam. (Kottak)


327. Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (3). (SS).

This course is an intensive survey of anthropological theories and institutional analysis as they relate to selected ethnographic accounts. Lectures will deal with what theory consists of, how theory and ethnographic reporting relate to one another, and how ethnographic writing is informed by theory as well as fieldwork. The course is based primarily on lectures with optional hours devoted to discussion. Requirements consist of a midterm paper and a final examination. (Yengoyan)

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is an introduction to the cross-cultural study of concepts and meanings. Anthropologists are constantly confronted with the task of explaining the enormous diversity of known cultures in a way that takes into account the similarities that appear from culture to culture. The problem of uniformity and diversity has been tackled through psychological, sociological, and cultural-intellectual lines of reasoning. Students will be introduced to these lines of reasoning and to anthropological data, through a focus on some of the more frequently debated customs of tribal and early state societies: warfare and institutionalized homicide, witchcraft beliefs, exotic sexual practices. Students can choose between 5-five-page essays that will be evaluated primarily in terms of writing skills or two five-page essays and two essay-style exams (midterm and final) which will be evaluated more in terms of the mastery of anthropological reasoning. Suggested paper topics will often involve additional reading. Some films will be shown. There are no prerequisites. (Whitehead)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare includes: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/222 or equivalent or sophomore standing. This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. (Kelly)

352/RC Soc. Sci. 352. Social Perspectives: Cross-Cultural Study of Women. One social science course or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).
Section 001 The Latina.
TaughtIn Winter Term, 1987, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 410.003. (Moya-Raggio)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The status of women varies dramatically from culture to culture. There is, however, no clear consensus about the determinants or even the most useful measure of that status. This course considers the problem of gender inequality by reviewing the life experience of women living throughout the world under widely differing social, economic, religious and technological conditions. Lectures and discussions will be based on a series of autobiographical accounts, some told to anthropologists and some recorded by women in their own words. These accounts will be supplemented by short articles that will identify significant questions for discussion and analysis. These questions will include the following: How may we define or measure the status of women? What is the relationship between women's economic contribution and their perceived social value? How does technological development affect women's status? How do religious and meaning systems shape women's roles? What are the most effective strategies for achieving an egalitarian social order in contemporary American society? Requirements will consist of a weekly reading log, a short midterm essay, a longer term paper and an in-class presentation based on the term paper. (Parker)

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.

This course is designed for students enrolled in the Honors Program in Anthropology with a focus on cultural/social anthropology. The class meets partly as a seminar in which students discuss the nature of their specific projects, both in terms of the subject matter and how the subject matter relates to different sets of empirical evidence within the context of cultural anthropology and other social sciences. The course requirement is a BA Honors thesis which is done in conjunction with a three person committee which is formed by each student. (Yengoyan)

Section 002 Anthropology 399 is a continuation of Anthropology 398. Both constitute the senior Honors sequence for students who are accepted into the Anthropology-Archaeology Honors Program. Anthropology 399 is devoted to completing an individual Honors research project and to writing and defending an Honors Thesis. (Marcus)

428. Ethnopersonality: Native Concepts of Self and Person. Junior standing or Cult. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

Do the concepts of self and person vary cross-culturally? Are emotions biologically or culturally constituted? These are the difficult questions addressed in this course. In contrast to "culture personality" approach in anthropology, which has tended to be a psychological study of cultures, ethnopersonality (or ethnopsychology) offers a cultural analysis of native categories of self, person, identity, and emotion by means of which human social behavior is motivated and made meaningful. The course will begin with a discussion of the ideas of Mauss, Hallowell, Fortes, Geertz and several other anthropologists that inspired more recent studies in ethnopsychology. This will be followed by an examination of several indigenous models of self, person and emotion and their expression in life-cycle rituals, kinship, ideas about rank and power, deviance, mental illness, and in other cultural domains. The fundamental features of the Western, and particularly the American, ethnopsychology will also be discussed. Course prerequisites include junior standing. Anthropology 101 or 222, or permission of instructor. Course format includes lectures and class discussions. Student evaluation will be based on two essay-type examinations and a short research paper. Graduate students are expected to do some additional reading and write a longer paper. (Kan)

430. Anthropology of Death and Dying. Sophomore standing; Anthro. 101 or 222 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Death is a universal human experience, yet the attitudes and responses towards it develop out of a complex interplay between individuals and their sociocultural environment. Using anthropological works, novels, films and other sources, the course explores the meaning of death in several Western and non-Western cultures and religious traditions. Particular attention is paid to understanding native ideas about the person, the life-cycle (birth, maturation, aging) and the afterlife, as well as interpreting mortuary rituals and the experience of the dying and the mourners. The course also offers an anthropological perspective on the development, since the 19th century, of the characteristic American mode of dealing with death and dying. Recommended prerequisites: Anthropology 101 or 222, sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Student evaluation is based on two take-home exams and a short research paper. Method of instruction combines lectures and discussion. (Kan)

444. Medical Anthropology. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course explores the cross-cultural factors affecting health, illness, and healing. Its focus is on the examination of the behaviors of humans in understanding and coping with disease, illness and injury. Because illness and misfortune are symbolic, the signs and symptoms of illness and disease require explanatory systems, healing arenas, health rituals, and a cadre of persons whose role involves healing. The explanatory systems, healing systems, healing rituals, and healers in modern and traditional societies will be critically examined. Consideration will also be given to the varying cultural responses to illness. The course is recommended for upper division undergraduate students and also carries graduate credit. This course is part of the optional Ethnology sequence in the Department of Anthropology. A directed mini-field work experience focused on selected cultural phenomena related to health, illness, or healing is required. Methods of instruction include lecture, group discussion, directed reading, and audio-visual aides. (Barbee)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course approaches universal aspects of religion-religious experience, the concept of the sacred, the sense of the divine, the notion of occult power, through an analysis of the most prevalent form of religious behavior, namely ritual. Having examined and discussed religious concepts and actions in their own right the course will consider their places in human affairs. Although the course will be universalist in its orientation, illustrative materials will be drawn from a range of simple and complex societies. There are two take home examinations. Although there are no prerequisites a background in anthropology, the social sciences generally, religion or philosophy will be helpful. Junior standing is required; enrollment is generally about 75% undergraduate, 25% graduate students. (Rappaport)

452/Women's Studies 410. Gender Ideologies. Anthro. 101, 330, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

"Male" and "female" are cultural symbols, not natural facts. Every culture constructs the genders differently, and the purpose of the course will be to explore the sources and consequences of these varying constructions. Two different approaches will be employed, the first relating gender symbols to other cultural symbols, and the second relating gender symbols to features of social organization marriage, status and prestige, economy, politics. Cases will be drawn from a variety of non-Western and Western cultures. Format : lectures, discussions, outside speakers. Requirements : Midterm and final exam for undergraduates, midterm and paper for graduate students. (Ortner)

457. The Film and Other Visual Media in Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This is primarily a course on ethnographic film, although we will also consider and compare the use of still photography, video-tape, and television as these are relevant to the portrayal of society and culture. Much of the class time will be devoted to the viewing and discussion of particular visual materials. There will be one evening session each week, during which we will view 1-2 hours of ethnographic films (these will be open to the public and free of charge). In addition, there will be two class meetings a week devoted to lectures, discussions, and other visual materials. The text is Heider, Ethnographic Film, plus shorter articles. Class requirements will consist of two essay type exams and a video production. (A workshop to teach all video skills necessary will be arranged.) The class is intended for students of (and those with a serious interest in) either anthropology or film. (Lockwood)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 The Life History in Anthropology.
In this course we will examine anthropological approaches to the writing of biography. Unlike conventional biographies with their focus on "great" and famous people, anthropological biographies take as their subject the personal narratives of non-Western people and "ordinary people" in our own society, people who are not usually asked to recount the history of their lives. These life histories, which are always the product of an extended dialogue between the anthropologist and the informant, raise many important questions: what constitutes the self, and what is the relation between the self and culture; how is the past both remembered and repressed to form a personal history with ties to a collective history; what is the nature of the politics and the poetics that goes into the fashioning of a text of someone else's life; and in what sense is the vision of the other given form in a life history also means of constructing and understanding the self? While we will focus on the life history as an anthropological approach and a product, we will also consider its links with the psychological case history, labor history, ethnic history, oral history, and women's history. The course will be conducted as a seminar. Student evaluation will be based on three short papers, a class presentation, and a research project, which may involve fieldwork. The readings will include Kroeber, Ishi in Two Worlds; Mintz, Worker in the Cane; Shostak, Nisa; Myerhoff, Number Our Days (the book and the film); Burgos-Debray, I...Rigoberta Menchu; Terkel, Working; Langness and Frank, Lives; and essays by Erikson, Sacks, Rosaldo, Crapanzano, and Clifford. (Behar)

Section 002 Maritime Anthropology. The sharp separation of family and work, the importance of environmental constraints, the structure of production units as total institutions, and the isolation from the social, political, and cultural life ashore, justify the field of maritime anthropology. The fishing vessel is more than a work place away from home; it is engulfed by danger and uncertainty in a natural environment whose resources are largely invisible. These general characteristics make maritime anthropologists interested in a wide range of aspects of society and culture in which the influence of the sea is particularly felt, such as gender relationships and family life, technical innovation and social change, ritual and religion, property and territoriality, and uncertainty and risktaking. This is a seminar in which students are supposed to pursue their own interests after having discussed the required texts. Students will be required to write a short literature review and an extensive research paper. (Robben)

531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). 319;531

This course investigates (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g., kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence, etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. (Kelly)

535. Peasant Society and Culture. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course discusses rural populations in Medieval Europe and contemporary Nonwestern societies who produce for subsistence and are often in control of their means of production. These peasants stand in asymmetrical relations with dominant groups of power holders who appropriate the surplus production and hinder rural capital accumulation. Aside from these political and economic characteristics of peasant societies, much attention will be given to the ideological component of beliefs, rituals, and values that exist, partly in opposition to, and partly in harmony with the culture of the elite. The course will discuss major debates in peasant studies such as the folk-urban continuum, markets, peasants in cities, clientelism, ritual co-parenthood, agrarian reform, peasant revolts, and moral vs. the rational peasant debate, and world systems. This is a lecture and discussion course, with essay exams, oral presentations, and a term-paper requirement. A general or regional course in social and cultural anthropology is a prerequisite for enrollment. (Robben)

554. Structuralist Approaches to the Analysis of Praxis. Concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The aim of this course is to analyze various structural interpretations and methodologies as they relate to anthropological understanding. The focus of the readings will be Saussure, Levi-Strauss, and Dumont as well as post-structuralist viewpoints such as Ricoeur, Gadamer and Foucault. Class sessions will be based on lectures (the first half) and seminar discussion. Students will be asked to do a research paper based on either a theoretical topic or the structural analysis of a corpus of ethnographic data. (Yengoyan)


384. Prehistory of Egypt. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an anthropological perspective on the sequence of prehistoric cultures in the Nile Valley from the Lower Stone Age times (100,000 B.C.) until the death of Tutankhamun (ca. 1344 B.C., in the 18th dynasty). It begins with the earliest evidence for humans in Egypt and the Sudan, followed by a description of later Stone Age hunters and gatherers, and the origins of agriculture in the Nile Valley. A discussion of the Predynastic village sequence and the rise of the Egyptian state is followed by lectures on hieroglyphic writing, religion, sociopolitical organization, diet, pyramid building, and mummification. A midterm and final exam provide the basis for the course grade. (Flannery)

386. Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course takes an evolutionary perspective on the early civilizations of Mesoamerica, the Andes, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. Our basic concern will be: how and why did the cultures that we know as Maya, Aztec, Inca, Sumerian, Hindu, and Chinese develop from simple beginnings through a series of successive stages to levels of impressive social complexity and artistic sophistication? We will consider how archaeologists infer political, economic, and religious behavior from the non-perishable remains of these prehistoric societies. There will be an attempt to define general developmental processes common to all the situations we examine. In conclusion, we will discuss some implications for our own society of the rise and decline of these early civilizations. No special background is required. Instruction will be primarily lecture. Student evaluation will be on the basis of two take-home exams. The course text will be R.J. Wenke, Patterns in Prehistory, Oxford Univ. Press. (Wright)

390. Primitive Technology. (4). (SS).

A look at the material culture of non-western, non-industrial societies. We will examine raw materials available to non-industrial societies (e.g., stone, clay, basic metals, leather, bone, wood, etc.) and alternative ways of using them. We will look at how the inherent properties of such raw materials affect their human use as well as how technological systems (hunting, agriculture, transportation, architecture, etc.) are affected by environment, social organization, and cultural preferences. The role of technology in human society and culture will be discussed and a variety of ethnographic, historic and prehistoric technologies will be compared and analyzed. The course will consist of three lectures per week plus a three-hour lab session in which students will have the opportunity to familiarize themselves directly with different materials and technological applications. There will be two examinations (midterm and final) and one laboratory report. Anthropology 101 is recommended as background but not required. Students with widely different interests and backgrounds are encouraged to enroll. (Hutterer)

582. Archaeology II. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces theories explaining the origins of agriculture, the development of ranked and stratified societies, and the origins of states and empires. Exemplary data from Mesopotamia, India, China, Mesoamerica, Eastern North America, and the Central Andes will be used to evaluate these theories. The participants undertake two projects, one a research paper and one a take-home essay examination. Though the course forms a sequence with Archaeology I, it can be taken independently without prior archaeological experience. (Wright)

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