Biological Sciences

Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. It can be taken to satisfy distribution requirements under Patterns I, II, or III. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Within these areas topics such as cell structure, cell metabolism, nutrition, human genetics, genetic engineering, cancer, nature of evolution, and sociobiology will be discussed. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. In discussion students will be required to read several papers related to course content and to write two or three critical analyses of these papers. Attendance at the discussion section is required. Course grade is determined on the basis of three lecture examinations and upon discussion quizzes and papers (Smith, Eernisse, and McKittrick)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 105. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable preparation are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings each week starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone on the waiting list. There will be three course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course.

Enrollment for Honors work will entail time and effort beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, register in Biology 112 (lecture section 002 and any lab/discussion) plus Biology 113 (one credit hour).

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building.) (Crum, Shappirio, and Tsubota)

Sections 008 and 009 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). These CSP sections, which cover the complete course syllabus, are designed for students who want to be certain they are highly prepared for Biology 114 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in these CSP sections will entail laboratories exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

113. Introductory Biology Honors. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 112 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The scientific method is the basis for inquiry in biology. This course is intended to introduce the scientific method to Honors students who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 112. Discussion materials may include classic papers of Watson-Crick, Briggs-King, etc., and such current problems as genetic engineering, acid rain, and the green revolution. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are requested to submit several short papers and one term paper, and are expected to participate in the weekly discussions. Open only to students admitted to the LSA Honors Program.

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, and includes the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. Each week students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. There will be two midterm examinations and a final examination at times and dates specified in the Time Schedule. Regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary material. Enrollment for Honors credit will entail time, effort, and written work beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, students in LSA Honors Program must register for Honors lecture section (031) in addition to the Honors laboratory. Further information about Biology 114 can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office, 1563 C.C. Little. (Doneen, OConnor, and Werner)

Section 037: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, provides extra class time for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratory exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

123. Human Sexuality. Not open to students concentrating in the biological sciences. (3). (NS).

Human Sexuality is designed to introduce students to the biological and social factors which determine and regulate their sexuality. Approximately two-thirds of the course deals with the anatomical, physiological and genetic determinants of sexuality. In this section the sexual anatomy of men and women, hormonal regulation of sexual function, fertilization, pregnancy, birth, lactation, conception control, and venereal diseases are examined. In the latter third of the course emphasis shifts to behavioral and social factors. Here, human sexual behavior, sexual response, orgasm, psychosexual development, and the genesis of sex roles are examined. The evolution of sexuality in both humans and other animals is a recurrent theme in this course. Biology 123 is designed for students with a minimal background in biological science. Even so you will profit more from this course if you have had some exposure to high school biology. Biology 123 is a logical counterpart to Biology 100 and Physiology 101. The text to be used in the course will be Katchadourian, Fundamentals of Human Sexuality, 4th ed., 1985. (J. Allen)

222. Energy and Ecology. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (2). (NS).

This study of the use of energy and its impact on the world ecosystems and climate treats the basic question of how to supply the energy needs of mankind while maintaining ecological integrity. The following sources of energy are considered: solar, biomass, wind, tidal, ocean thermal, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear, including their mining and manufacture, transport, utilization, and ecological principles and conservation practices that are essential for a healthful and stable world. (Gates)

262. Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology. (3). (NS).

The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the formation of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Although introductory biology is an essential prerequisite for this course, an attempt will be made to accommodate the needs and interests of students of varying backgrounds, including non-biology majors. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of quizzes, exams, and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately two weeks late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but an extensive reserve list of relevant books will be available in the Natural Science Library. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. (Kleinsmith)

291/Micro. 291. Microbiology Laboratory. Micro. 101 or Biol. 105 or 112-114; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The revolutionary advances in molecular biology, and their impact on society are based on the study and utilization of microorganisms. This laboratory experience helps form a sound foundation for all of the biological sciences. The course consists of one orientation lecture and two laboratory sessions each week. Topics covered include an introduction to microbial variety, methods of study, specific techniques, and general consideration of microbes in the world around us. The course is required in the microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for concentrators in biology, botany, and cell biology. Evaluation is based on performance on three exams, and a variable number of quizzes, practical exams, and written reports. There is no required text. (Helling)

300. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 105 or 112-114, and English 125 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

This course has been designed in cooperation with the English Composition Board to provide experience and practice in writing for juniors and seniors in the Department of Biology. Lectures deal with problems of organization, style, grammar, and punctuation as well as other aspects of effective communication. The scientific method as related to the way in which biological data are prepared for publication will indicate the importance of writing a fair and accurate assessment of what one actually demonstrated or discovered. Differences in presentation appropriate for scientific journals vs. the intelligent layperson, for original data vs. reviews, or for other purposes are considered. Students write and revise weekly papers for much of the term, each with a different focus. Besides one lecture a week there are two discussion sessions in which the written papers are critically reviewed and other exercises presented. (E. Voss)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into the following segments: DNA and chromosomes, gene transmission in Eukaryotes, linkage and recombination, mutation and its consequences, gene expression and regulation, population genetics. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. Practice problem sets designed for this course will be available and are covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Clinic where all office hours of TA's are held. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. (S. Allen)

343. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 105 or 112-114 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. It is the branch of biological oceanography that applies ecological principles to the study of marine life. Lectures will cover the inter-relationships of marine organisms and their environment. Organisms and communities from the following habitats will be discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea and the open ocean. The course will treat the ecology of marine organisms as different as bacteria and whales. This course fulfills the undergraduate Biology concentration requirements for a course in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. It may be taken singly, or as a complement to courses in physical and chemical oceanography taught by other units. Grading procedures will be based on exam performance: 2 one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. (P. Kilham)

392. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of developmental biology. Special emphasis will be placed upon the continuity of developmental processes in terms of 1) the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult and 2) levels of control, from the expression of genetic information to the organization of complex tissues and organs. Greatest emphasis will be placed on development in vertebrates. Whenever possible, the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental events will be stressed. Major areas of coverage will include gametogenesis, fertilization, early embryogenesis including maternal control and nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction and morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions in organogenesis, and morphogenesis. Certain aspects of postnatal development, such as regeneration, will also be covered. This course is intended for juniors and seniors, but it is also open to sophomores. There are three one-hour lectures per week. During the term there will be two evening examinations plus the final. (Carlson and Tosney)

401/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); preceded or accompanied by Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Eukaryotic micro-organisms and cells in culture are discussed, but emphasis is placed on prokaryotes and viruses. (Douthit and Helling)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in living cells. As an introductory course, emphasis is place on a broad view rather than a detailed knowledge of this enormously encompassing field. Thus, biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms and reactions, the chemical basis of life. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology including medicine, dentistry, and other professional pursuits. The general subject matter includes amino acids, protein structure and function, allosterism, molecular disease, enzyme properties, kinetics and mechanisms, connective tissue proteins, membrane structure and function, energetics, intermediary metabolism and its regulation, biosynthetic processes, DNA, RNA, transcription, the genetic code and protein synthesis, control of gene expression, muscle contraction and cell motility, and hormone action. This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's chosen according to interest and ability to help other undergraduates with biochemistry. The course is divided into 15 logical units of material, and students are required to master the content of each unit. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which, upon completion, is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 60 hours/week in a suite permanently assigned to this course. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by the professor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, each proctor provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

413/Nat. Res. 413. Biophysical Ecology. General physics. (3). (Excl).

This is an analytical approach to the understanding of how plants and animals interact with their environments. Concepts of energy exchange, gas exchange and chemical kinetics are combined with a description of the physical environments to account for the productivity of plants and the behavior of animals. Topics discussed include solar radiation, longwave radiation, spectral properties of radiation, plants, animals and terrain surfaces, conduction, convection, photosynthesis and the energy budgets of plants and animals. Topics important to remote sensing, such as polarized light and water stress effects on vegetation, are also investigated. (Gates)

424. Cell and Developmental Genetics. Biol. 305; a course in cell or developmental biology is helpful but not required. (2-3). (Excl).

This course is an in-depth analysis of current information on gene control of developmental processes in multicellular organisms. Stress is placed on reading articles in scientific journals. For each topic covered in lecture, a list of references including one or two key review papers is provided. Students are encouraged to read one or more of these papers. No examinations; student evaluation is based on two term papers, one being an extensive analysis of a topic covered in the lectures and the other a compilation of short summaries of the papers read during the term. Students electing the course for 3 credits are required to present a seminar. (Rizki)

428(415). Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This lecture course provides in-depth analysis of the molecular basis of structure and function in living cells. Topics covered will include: intracellular transport and secretion; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and prokaryotes; lysosomes and peroxisomes; organelle biogenesis; cytoskeleton and cell motility; cell cycle and cell differentiation; and a survey of methods for studying these topics. Emphasis on the interpretation of experimental data is heavy. There will be two exams (Thur 7-9) and a final exam. Questions should be addressed to Ms. Crandall, 2083 Nat. Sci. (Frasch and Pringle)

471. Population and Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

Current ecological theory and research is examined in depth. Topics include the logic of hypothesis testing, the maintenance of species diversity, the roles of competition, predation, mutualism, and environmental heterogeneity in ecological systems, and the analysis of population growth and fluctuations. A general background in ecology is required. This course complements Biology 470, Evolutionary Ecology. Short papers and a term paper are required. Readings are from current literature. There are two 1-hour lectures and one 2-hour discussion per week. (Rathcke)

527. Experimental Limnology. Biol. 443 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Experimental Limnology is our main advanced limnology course. Its primary purpose is to explore modern limnology with the aid of the current literature published in scientific journals. The course will focus on the structure of aquatic ecosystems. We will discuss food chains, community structure, trophic-dynamics, and thermodynamics. Weekly lectures and discussions will treat the ecological relationships of organisms at each trophic level from Decomposers (bacteria) to Top Carnivores (insects, fish). Students are expected to spend the week prior to each discussion reading relevant papers that will be placed on reserve in the library and any other useful materials. (Kilham)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

This course aims to teach the techniques for successfully growing and propagating plants and the principles of botanical science upon which they are based. Students are also introduced to the various ways in which the knowledge of plants and their use by the lay person can enhance the quality of life. The environmental factors important in plant growth, particularly light, temperature, water, and soil will be studied. Students will gain practical experience in such applied botanical techniques as the following: preparation of soils and artificial growth media; use of fertilizers; propagation of plants by cuttings, layering, division, bulbs, grafting, and seed; methods of pruning, plant breeding, pest and disease control; preparation of terraria, hanging baskets, and bonsai; the use of plants in landscaping, and the ecology and management of natural areas; and the care and development of living plant collections. Students will be expected to learn to recognize a selected group of indoor and outdoor garden plants, edible wild plants, and common poisonous species. Field trips will include a visit to a commercial greenhouse and an estate garden. Two lecture-discussion periods, and six hours of laboratory per week. Discussions and laboratories are held at the Botanical Gardens, with bus service provided. (Steiner)

103. Plants and Society. (3). (NS).

The boundary between basic botany and society will be explored by discussion of the scientific roots of well known societal problems. In the section on "Origins," the origin of life will serve as the springboard from which the origin of man, agriculture and society can be discussed. A section on "Plant Populations" will lead to discussions of society's treatment of the environment in classical times, with most of the attention being directed toward the role of ecology in the fall of Rome. Basic sections on "Diversity" and "Evolution" lead to analyses of the origin of food plants, the sources of food and the problem of world hunger. Such matters as the use of toxic plants by certain human populations also will be considered herein. In addition, the botanical sources of drugs, creationism and religious controversy, evolution and literary themes and the social conflicts raised by the use of molecular biology will be considered in the context of basic botanical knowledge. No special background is required. The basis of student evaluation will be exams and a final paper on a subject to be chosen by each student. It is recommended that students buy Botany, Plant Biology and its relation to Human Affairs (by J.H. Langenheim and K.V. Thimann, publ. by John Wiley & Sons, 1982). Lectures will be the major means of instruction. (Sussman)

190. Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Botany 190 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible foods, the pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, drug and medicinal plants, alternative means of pest control, alternative energy sources, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, and wild and endangered species of plants. We have a natural foods dinner prepared by the students, and one field trip, late in the term, to the Kaufman farm. Throughout the course, students present oral environmental alerts on specific environmental problems and solutions to them. Grade evaluation is based on three midterms and one environmental alert (written or oral). (Kaufman)

207. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (4). (NS).

An introductory botany course covering a broad spectrum of topics including principles of plant systematics, evolution, ecology, and biogeography. The lectures and laboratories concentrate on a group-by-group treatment of plant diversity, ranging from algae and fungi through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. The approach is an evolutionary perspective, treating plants as organisms (individuals, populations, and communities) and emphasizing the innovations and adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. The course also includes plant growth and structure. Two or three field trips are scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Text: Raven et al, Biology of Plants, 3rd edition. (Wynne)

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 105 or 112; or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. (Noodén)

425. Phytogeography. Bot. 422 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Phytogeography, the study of plant distribution patterns and the processes of their development, draws upon evidence from diverse areas of the life sciences and the earth sciences. It is currently an arena of lively debate because of its contributions to topics such as plate tectonic theory, episodes of catastrophic extinctions, and changes of climate. Lectures (about two-thirds of the meetings) introduce topics from which students may choose questions to pursue in detail for class discussions and in the term paper. The textbook is Biogeography (1983) by Brown and Gibson, and some additional readings will be assigned. There are a midterm hour exam and a final exam. (Benninghoff)

437. Anatomy of Vascular Plants. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or Bot. 207. (4). (Excl).

This most interesting course is basic to an understanding of plant biology and important for anyone planning to enter anthropology, archaeology, biology, botany, ecology, forestry and other areas of natural resources, horticulture, plant physiology, plant pathology, and others. The course deals with the nature of the cells, tissues, and organs of the plant body, the sites of their initiation, patterns of development, and the relationship between their structure and function. In other words, one will learn in detail about the internal structure of plants and how they grow. We also consider the evolution of plant structure. The course will consist of two well-illustrated lectures and two laboratories each week in which we shall study both prepared slides and a large quantity of living material. Botany 437 satisfies a requirement of both the Biology and Botany concentration programs. Student understanding of the subject matter will be evaluated by two lecture tests, two laboratory tests and a final exam. (Beck)

479. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. Eight hours in biology; at least junior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course deals with contemporary methods and results of studies on genetic engineering in plants and plant protoplast, cell and tissue cultures. The lectures cover such topics as (1) how plant cells, tissues, and organs are cultured, (2) induction of roots and shoots in tissue cultures, (3) regeneration of whole plants from single cells, (4) protoplast isolation and fusion of protoplasts, (5) somatic cell hybridization in plants, (6) genetic engineering with plant protoplasts, cell, and tissue cultures, (7) applications of plant cell and tissue culture in plant breeding, forestry, crop production, and horticulture, (8) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to produce secondary compounds of interest in medicine and pharmacology, (9) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures in the U.S. Space Biology Program under NASA, and (10) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to save threatened and endangered plant species from extinction. The lab deals with the primary techniques of plant genetic engineering and plant cell and tissue culture: isolation of protoplasts, mericloning, establishing tissue cultures and cell suspension cultures, somatic embryogenesis, somatic cell hybridization, anther and pollen cultures to get haploids, production of secondary metabolites in cell cultures, isolation of the Ti plasmid from the crown gall bacterium, electrophoretic separation of rice seed proteins and heat shock proteins, and sterile techniques and media preparation. Students will have an opportunity to do an independent project in the lab. (Kaufman)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

130. Animal Behavior. (3). (NS).

The course is an introduction to the behavior of animals in their natural environment. Social behavior of birds, mammals, and insects is emphasized. Topics include: the environment as animals perceive it, natural selection and adaptations, development of behavior, communication, sexual cooperation and mate choice, social behavior of animals in groups, the importance of family relationships, and the evolution of traditions. The course objectives are to gain a background in the natural behavior of animals and to explain the evolution of behavior. By the end of the course you should be able to: 1) explain how biologists explore the sensory world of animals, 2) evaluate the evidence that behavior is shaped by natural selection, 3) recognize the interaction between environmental modification and genetic determinism, and 4) explain sexual behavior, aggressive behavior, and social interactions in terms of evolution. The course consists of lectures, readings, slides and movies. Grades are based on two midterms and a final exam. The first midterm is 15% of the total grade, the second 30%, the final 55%. Exams are multiple choice. Texts: Social Evolution, by R. Trivers; Behavioural Ecology, an Evolutionary Approach, by J.R. Krebs and N.B. Davies; and one additional book. (Payne)

252. Pattern Analysis of Chordate Structure. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

Zoology 252 teaches the comparative method of science, and its application to understanding a wide variety of structural characteristics of chordate animals. The course begins with a description of the comparative method and lectures on evolutionary, speciation, and phylogenetic theories. The rest of the course is devoted to description and analysis of chordate features using these theoretical tools. The laboratory includes practical experiences with chordates intended to illustrate issues discussed in the lecture, and includes dissections and preparation of skeletal materials and embryos. This format has prepared pre-professional students in the medical sciences for many years. A good introductory biology course is the only prerequisite. There are three lecture examinations and at least one laboratory examination. A complete course syllabus is available. (Kluge and Fink)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Zoology 421, 422, or 428 - these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Hume and Webb)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Zool. 325. (1). (Excl).

The exercises in laboratory deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. Problem sets are graded for each exercise. In addition, two full-length reports are also required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Zoology 326 must be taken concurrently with Zoology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Zoology 325 will not be admitted to Zoology 326. (Hume and Webb)

422. Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), one year of chemistry, and a year of physics. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to neural function, including such topics as action potentials, synaptic phenomena, sensory systems, motor output, neurohormonal integration, development and memory. The instructor recommends one year of organic chemistry. (Oakley)

423. Laboratory in Neurobiology. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 422 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Anatomy and physiology of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems, including examination of various sensory and motor systems. Electrophysiological techniques are routinely used. (Easter and Oakley)

450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 105 or 114. (4). (Excl).

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize identification, life history, adaptations, and field methods. (Nussbaum)

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