Romance Languages and Literatures

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French may elect this course only by permission of an LSA academic advisor or of the department. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (1 1/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is not open to students who have begun instruction elsewhere. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. For advice, see H. Neu or M. P. Hagiwara.

Section 014: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they are highly prepared for French 231 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to be so.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by academic advisor or department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course by permission of an LSA academic advisor or of the department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 1-3 years in high school or 1 term of college or University French not at University of Michigan) whose proficiency is not sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by term, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Section 001.
French 206 is an informal mini-course with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Pass-Fail only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by academic advisor or by department. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. Both courses also have listening comprehension and speaking tests, and 232, in addition, has an outside reading test.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by academic advisor or by department. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

See French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LSA language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward mid term students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 18-20 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Pass/Fail grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet twice a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, one novel, one play. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. Also, one weekly lecture on some linguistic problems and cultural aspects of modern France for all sections together, as part of the three hours per week required. (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, two novels, one play, simulation, bi-weekly essays. (Gabrielli)

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to help students improve their pronunciation of French (1) through a study of the physical characteristics of each sound, the relationship between sounds and their written presentations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) through intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllable structure, intonation, liaison, and in the delection/retention of the "mute." The class meets three hours per week and is conducted in French. Regular attendance and participation are required. Students are expected to familiarize themselves with the assigned theoretical material before each class period. Oral exercises are to be prepared in the lab on a regular basis. Each student will record a speech sample during the first week of the term and will be informed of problem areas on which he/she needs to work independently throughout the term, using the audiotapes available in the lab and checking with the instructor periodically for individualized help. Evaluation of proficiency in pronunciation will be based on a final oral exam. Homework assignments, short quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will be given to evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. (Neu)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Muller)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This new course is designed as an introduction to translation from English into French. Texts to be translated will be chosen from contemporary articles in magazines and newspapers as well as contemporary novels, the choice being dictated by the social and linguistic interest of the texts. We shall review some of the grammatical pitfalls encountered in translation by means of comparison and exercises; special attention will be given to the enrichment of vocabulary by systematic work on synonyms and idiomatic phrases. Students are expected to come prepared to every class. The final grade will be based on class participation, weekly papers, and short quizzes to check the acquisition of points discussed in class. Midterm and final exams. Maximum enrollment is 15. (Belloni)

408. Advanced Translation, French-English. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Texts to be translated will be drawn from literature, newspapers, technological, diplomatic and economic reports. Literature : (three weeks). Short excerpts from Rousseau, Diderot, Stendhal, Balzac, Gide, Levi-Strauss, Barthes. Journalism : (four weeks) Le Monde, Le Figaro, Le Point, Le Nouvel Observateur, L'Express. Technology and Finance : (six weeks) L'Expansion, technical reports from the U.N. economic and financial forecasts from international agencies, banks, brokers, etc. Instruction: Students will prepare for each class a translation of some 20 to 30 lines for possible variants. We shall then go over this work in class calling on as many students as possible. Homework will include the two hour exam (French into English) given to prospective translators by the United Nations. By the end of the term the student should: (1) Be able to translate from French into an English which is idiomatic and smooth flowing while conveying the message with clarity and accuracy; (2) Be able to discern when an expression in French, whether technical, idiomatic, a coinage, a witticism, a literary allusion or whatever lies beyond his knowledge of the French language, and be able to inform himself adequately for resolving the problem; (3) Be able to propose variant translations, all permissible, of key phrases and to choose among them according to the accuracy of the rendition and the achievement of a tone fitting to the source text. (Morton)

416. Advanced Business French. French 380 (Intermediate Business French). (3). (Excl).

As a follow-up to Business French 380, we will look further into economic and commercial matters in France such as banking, distribution, taxes, whether they apply to businesses or to individuals or both, with emphasis on functional and conceptual generalities. Case histories will serve as a basis for oral group presentations in class. They will involve such themes as launching of a product or service, relocation and closing-up shops, mergers, union conflicts, etc. In addition, some other topics will be touched upon such as the analysis of commercials, export marketing in French, and the Paris Stock Exchange. All classes are conducted in French. Some students may be entitled to apply for an internship with a French firm in France in the Spring of 1987. One paper on each case history. No auditors. (Section 001 Gabrielli; Section 002 - Belloni)

454. French Syntax. French 453. (3). (Excl).

This course combines an introduction to linguistics and an in-depth review of French syntax. We will explore the basic concepts of modern linguistic theories, including discourse analysis, and see how they are applied to French. We will also compare typical linguistic approaches to language analysis with traditional grammar rules. From this analysis of French we will proceed then to exercises designed to increase competence in grammar and awareness of French stylistics. These exercises involve comparisons of French and English, various ways of sentence-recombining, analysis of sentence structures from simple to complex patterns, including literary and conversational passages, a study of the relationship between word order and the "highlighting" devices and rhythmic patterns of French, correction of grammatical errors made in speech and compositions by French lycee students as well as American students learning French, and translations from English to French. The materials for the course include a course pack (approximately 150 pages) containing diagrams (derivational trees), supplementary explanations, examples, exercises, and articles on French linguistics and stylistics. A third-year level review or reference grammar book is also recommended. The course will be conducted in French, and the classroom work will consist of lectures and discussions (1/2), and travaux pratiques (1/2), emphasizing practical work with the language. Course grades will be based on the completion and quality of the assigned work (exercises), two one-hour examinations, and a two-hour take-home final examination. (Hagiwara)

Civilization

385. Civilisation française, Continued. French 361. (3). (HU).

Through a presentation of basic facts and figures, this course will inform students of the features and trends of contemporary France. Chapters tackled will include: demography and geographical economics, the Vth Republic institutions and the present political challenge, the health system, the family unit, the social and professional disparities, immigration, French cultural practices. Essentially lectures, but active participation of students is expected. One four or five page paper every three weeks, one final. No auditors. (Gabrielli)

Literature

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature. The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to four of the principal writers of the nineteenth-century French literature. We study the themes of ambition, avarice and solitude in novels by Stendhal, Balzac and Flaubert. We also read poems from Les Fleurs du Mal by Baudelaire. Emphasis placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment consists of reading some twenty-five pages in a novel with "close reading" of some four or five paragraphs. These pages are then discussed in class. Students are required to write some five to six papers in French of three to four pages in length. Each paper is corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grades are based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Morton)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

Literature reflects both the changing attitudes of society and the special insights of individual authors. Freedom and constraints, love and death, fear, alienation, moral values, and the notion of self-concept: the evolution of these fundamental concerns of twentieth-century society as understood by major French authors is the primary focus of the course. Class discussions in French will analyze the special insights and literary techniques of writers such as Gide, Valery, Sartre, and Camus through examples of the novel, short story, the theater and poetry. Two mini-exams and two papers. (Ngate)

433/CAAS 433. African/Caribbean Francophone Literature in Translation. A literature course or any course dealing with the Black experience in Africa or the Americas. (3). (HU).

An advanced introduction to African literatures in Western languages, this course will have as its primary focus the literature of francophone Black Africa. But through a fairly extensive use of examples from the anglophone and the lusophone parts of the continent we shall seek to determine and evaluate major trends in the development of the Western language African literatures of this century. Lectures and class discussions will analyze the literary techniques and theories (where applicable) of writers such as Camara Laye, Cheikh H. Kane, Chinua Achebe, Agostinho Neto, Dennis Brutus, Leopold S. Senghor, T. U. Tam'si, Ayi K. Armah, Mariama Ba and others, through examples of the novel, poetry and short story. Three papers; active class participation expected. (Ngate)

464. Introduction to French Literature of the Nineteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Feminin/Masculin.
This course will study what 19th century literature had to say but also leave unsaid about relations of desire and power between men and women. From Madame de Stael's portrait of the romantic artist as woman to the female android of Villiers, from Balzac's confrontation between a male secret society and "le pouvoir feminin" to Sand's heroine who rejects both her suitors, we will examine such problems as: the fictional and poetic representation of women; the sexual politics of love as a literary theme; the relation between our topic and the development of literary genres in the nineteenth century; the role of the author's (and perhaps the reader's) gender. Readings will include two novels, two novellas, selections from two lyric poets, equally divided between male and female authors. Brief excerpts from non-literary 19th century texts related to the theme and from contemporary criticism. Evaluation is based on class participation, two short papers and an optional final. The works studied are Stael, Corinne ou l'Italie; Balzac, La Fille aux yeux d'or; Sand, Lavinia; Desbordes-Valmore, Baudelaire, poesies; Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, L'Eve future. (Paulson)

482. Literature of the Eighteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will examine some of the generic and linguistic ambiguities produced by 18th century literary theory and practice. The main emphasis will be on the complex and unstable relation between truth and fiction, in such narrative forms as the epistolary novel, confessions, and memoirs. Montesquieu, Lettres persanes; Prevost, Manon Lescaut; Marivaux, Le Paysan parvenu; Diderot, La Religieuse; Rousseau, Les Confession (vol. I) and Laclos, Les Liasons dangereuses. ( Clej)

487. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Seventeenth-century French literature canonically evokes notions of gravity, dignity, formality and rationality. This course, however, aims to explore the various manifestations of the comic the burlesque, witty, humorous, ludic that permeate the poetry, drama, the novel and other prose genres of the period. Authors to be read include Corneille, Molière, Scarron, Pascal, La Fontaine, Boileau and La Bruyere, as well as Bergson, Freud and Bakhtin for their theories of the comic. Course requirements: two papers and a final exam. (Stanton)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's Prego with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's Prego (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

112. Second Special Reading Course. Italian 111. (4). (Excl.).

Continuation of Italian 111. Open only to students who have completed Italian 111. Tutorial. (Olken)

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written assignments will be made. Participation in class discussions on topics chosen jointly by instructor and students, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. (Vitti-Alexander)

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

Conducted in English, the course presents an introduction to Italian movies from 1945 to the present. Besides examining the evolution of two of the most important trends in Italian cinema (the neo-realism and the commedia all'italiana), we will also focus our attention on some of the problems that plague the Italian cinema industry. "The ugliest in the world" affirms one recent polemical essay on contemporary Italian movies. Is this true? Are Antonioni, Fellini, Wertmuller, just hiding behind their past glories? Understanding the Italian cultural context and the peculiar socio-political background will help in providing an answer to these questions. Text: Bondanella, Italian Cinema, Frederick Ungar, 1984. Two short and one long reviews and a final. (Mazzola)

412. Politics, Poverty and Poetry. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

The early middle decades of the twentieth century in Italy, spanning the period of Fascism, the Second World War and a time of problematic economy, produced a literature of strong social and political import. An entire culture was in crisis, and the intellectual community that had been, for the most part, academic and conservative, began to insert itself forcefully into the mainstream of European cultural reality. Re-evaluation of the "official" Italian ethic, and a questioning and challenge to traditional mores resulted in political and philosophical polemic translated lyricism into Italian fiction. Among the most effective writers of this period, Ignazio Silone, Carlo Levi, Alberto Morazia, Elio Vittorini, and Vasco Pratolini, typify the several approaches that were being taken to renew commitment and taste. Their most influential novels will be studied, following introductory lectures on the general literary climate of the 1930's and 1940's, with short readings by some of their "precursors," including Alvaro and Rea. Lectures, class discussion, short papers and exams. (Olken)

420. Topics and Themes in Modern Italian Literature. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Regionalism and Its Continuing Influence in the Twentieth Century.
Continuing regional identity, and the accompanying questions relating to dialect versus a standard language, have constantly influenced the directions taken by Italian writers from the time of Dante Petrarca and Boccaccio. National unification in the late nineteenth century underscored the lack of a definitive solution in this area, if indeed, such was desirable. The writers to be studied in this context have adopted several and divergent patterns of approach to the question; through their major works novels, plays, and short stories an attempt will be made to understand both the strengths and weaknesses that motivate and nourish pride, ambivalence, and disdain for regional elements in the modern periods. Selections will be read from the works of Giovanni Verga, Grazia Deledda, Matilde Serao, Luigi Pirandello, Alberto Moravia, Aldo Palazzeschi, and Vasco Pratolini. Lectures, class discussion, short papers or individual projects and exams. (Olken)

468. Modern Italian Novel. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Beginning with the exacerbated and misunderstood theme of the Nietzschean superman, as portrayed by Gabriele D'Annunzio, novels will be selected by major writers of the recent period. They will represent several movements and tendencies including Neo-realism, Populism and fantasy that dominate the 1940's 1960's, and express post-Second World War aspirations and disappointments. Required readings include works by Cesare Pavese, Dino Buzzati, Natalia Ginsburg, Italo Calvino, Carlo Cassola, and Pier Paolo Pasolini. Lectures, discussion, papers, and exams. (Olken)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (FL).

The text for the course is Ellison et al., Modern Portuguese. Portuguese 102 covers units eleven through twenty. Because of the nature of the text and accompanying tapes, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. About one fourth of the classroom time is devoted to readings (each unit presents an aspect of Brazilian culture) and free discussion of topics raised by them. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises ranging from meaningful sentences to compositions, and spending one or two hours a week in the lab working on pronunciation, listening comprehension, etc. (mostly reviewing the structural exercises and dialogues done in class). Grading will be based on one-hour quizzes given every other week, two oral exams, class participation and a final exam. Our language lab also makes available to our students tapes with Brazilian music, and video-taped TV news in Portuguese. A Brazilian newspaper (O Estado de Sao Paulo) is available in the Graduate Library and other reading materials are available at the instructor's office. A weekly "brown bag lunch" is held every Wednesday around noon in the Commons Lounge on the fourth floor of MLB. Students are not required to participate, but often enjoy doing so. Because of space limitations, Portuguese 102 is offered only in the Winter Term. (Musso)

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second Year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required texts at the moment are King and Suner, Para a Frente!, and selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. There is no formal grammar review, and the readings include novels and/or plays. Because of staff limitations, Portuguese 232 is offered only in the Winter Term. (Musso)

Courses in Romanian (Division 463)

102. Elementary Romanian. Romanian 101. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of Romanian grammar, conversation in the language, exercises, readings in Romanian, translations from Romanian into English, and vice versa. This course is intended also, to improve the student's vocabulary, speaking, reading and listening and to inquire into the Romanian literature and culture. Daily oral class participation. Written examination will be given on approximately a monthly basis. (Rosu)

232. Second-Year Romanian. Romanian 231. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to enhance the student's reading, accurate pronunciation, writing and speaking of Romanian and increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. Brief review of grammar and Romanian history, literature and culture presentation, will be another purpose of this course, using audiovisual materials. This course will be of special interest to students of Romance Languages and Literatures, Comparative Literatures, History, Political Science, Art History, Classical Art and Archaeology, East European Studies, Communication, Business Administration, etc. Monthly speaking and reading tests, and a final examination. (Rosu)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, two oral exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, three oral exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

Section 021: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for native speakers of Spanish who have some degree of aural-oral fluency in the language but lack basic reading and writing skills. The class will meet five hours a week.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish l02 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. Spanish 206 may be elected prior to Spanish 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Section 001.
The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week; grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. One section of 206 is usually reserved for students who plan to participate in the Summer Study in Spain program. Class content and activities are designed to prepare students for the experience of living and studying abroad. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on two oral exams and a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on two oral exams, a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is a continuation of Spanish 111. Students continue to review the basics of Spanish grammar and build vocabulary for the purpose of reading comprehension. In Spanish 112, more attention is given to reading in the particular area of interest of the individual students enrolled in the course. Spanish 111 is not a prerequisite to 112, but is encouraged. (Dvorak)

Other Language Courses

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Sections 001-002 Velazquez; section 003 Fraker; section 004 Coello)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Section 001 Calvo; Section 002 Anderson; Section 003 Coello; Section 004 Wolfe)

Literature

331. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

A central development within the literature of Latin America during the twentieth century is the emergence of the all-encompassing or "total" novel. Responding to a wide variety of immediate concerns, these works reveal a commonly held concern for what Octavio Paz has termed "national introspection," the desire to know and understand the social, intellectual and historical factors which define present-day Latin America. For this reason, the "total" novel serves as a point of convergence for both the major trends of Latin American narrative as well as the underlying themes of its intellectual history. This course will focus primarily upon three novels, One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marques, On Heroes and Tombs by Ernesto Sabato and Hopscotch by Julio Cortazar and seek to understand the possibilities and formal limitations of the novel as a vehicle for self-knowledge. The format of study is a mixture of lecture, textual-analysis and discussion. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, class participation and a final examination. Readings and discussion will be conducted in English. (Boruchoff)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The Enlightenment, Romanticism, Realism, the Generation of '98, and the years around the Spanish Civil War are the periods represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, and an effort is made to show how they exemplify their historical and cultural context. Representative authors who may be studied are Larra, Zorrilla, Espronceda, Becquer, Galdos, Unamuno, and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of quizzes, a term paper, and a final examination. The course is conducted in Spanish. (Hafter)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 "El tema de Espana en la literatura peninsular."
En este curso se analizara el tema de Espana como problema a traves de una serie de textos literarios y ensayisticos. Entre los autores que se leeran se incluyen: Blanco White, Larra, Unamuno, Ortega y Gasset, Azorin, Valle-Inclan, una seleccion de poesia contemporanea, Juan Goytisolo, Cela, Buero y Martin Santos. Se dara la clase en forma de conferencia y discusion, con informes presentados por los estudiantes en su debido momento. Habra un examen intermedio (de Midterm), un examen final y un trabajo escrito final. (Valis)

374. Monographic Studies in Latin American Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Latin American Exploration and Discovery.
The course will introduce students to Latin American exploration literature of the 15th and 16th centuries. There will also be some comparative reading of works produced in North America. The narrative styles and personal concerns of several explorer/authors will be examined. The focus of this course is the body of writing as narrative literature, rather than primarily as history. Nevertheless, there will be a particular effort to highlight social, political and scientific aspects of the works and to contextualize these issues. Discussion will be in Spanish and students will be expected to contribute from the perspective of their own interests and disciplines. (Pollard)

375. Civilización de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

La Civilizacion de Espana es una muestra interesante de la historia humana: desde las pinturas paleoliticas de Altamira hasta la obra de Picaso, pasando por la presencia de finicios, griegos, romanos y visigodos en la Antiguedad, por la convivencia de cristianos, musulmanes y judios en la Edad Media, por la expansion imperial en la Edad Moderna, y por la reduccion a sus limites actuales en el siglo XIX. Las clases se dictan en espanol y se ilustran con lecturas de textos fundamentales y con proyeccion de transparencias. Los estudiantes realizaran un trabajo de investigacion sobre un tema especifico y examenes parciales a lo largo del curso. (Vaquero)

383. The Generation of 1898. A 300-level Spanish course or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

En este curso se analizaran algunos autores y textos representativos de la Generacion del 98, entre ellos, Angel Ganivet, (El Idearium espanol); Azorin, Castilla; La voluntad), la poesia de Antonio Machado; Unamuno (Niebla; una seleccion de su poesia y ensayos), Valle-Inclan (Sonata de otono; Luces de bohemia), and Baroja (El arbol de la ciencia) y otros. Tambien se discutiran el significado y la validez del termino "generacion del 98," segun la perspectiva personal de varios "miembros" (Baroja, Azorin, etc.) y la critica de hoy. Habra una introduccion a la epoca historico-cultural de la Espana finisecular para situar los intereses tematicos de estos escritores (Espana como preocupacion; la revaloracion del paisaje, por ejemplo); pero tambien se intentara relacionar este grupo con lo que se estaba produciendo literariamente fuera de Espana. Se dara la clase en forma de conferencia y discusion, con informes presentados por los estudiantes en su debido momento. Habra un examen intermedio (Midterm), un examen final y un trabajo escrito final. (Valis)

386. The Quest for Identity in Latin American Literature. Spanish 362 and either Spanish 381 or 382. (3). (HU).
The Quest for Identity in Latin American Literature.
A central development within the literature of Latin America during the Twentieth Century is the emergence of the all-encompassing or "total" novel. Responding to a wide variety of immediate concerns, these works reveal a commonly held concern for what Octavio Paz has termed "national introspection," the desire to know and understand the social, intellectual and historical factors which define present-day Latin America. For this reason, the "total" novel serves as a point of convergence for both major trends of Latin American narrative as well as the underlying themes of its intellectual history. This course will focus primarily upon three novels Cien anos de soledad by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Sobre heroes y tumbas by Ernesto Sabato and Rayuela by Julio Cortazar, and seek to understand the possibilities and formal limitations of the novel as a vehicle for self-knowledge. The format of study is a mixture of lecture, textual-analysis and discussion. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, class participation and a final examination. Readings and discussion will be conducted in Spanish. (Boruchoff)

420. Literary Movements in Twentieth-Century Spain. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The course on this occasion will address movements and trends in Spanish poetry, concentrating on the years 1898-1939. Commencing with a consideration of the position of Spanish poetry at the turn of the century, the course will look in chronological order at Symbolism and its Hispanic counterpart modernismo, the emergence of an avant-garde in Spain and its various European counterparts, and then the various "isms" which characterize the literary scene in Spain in the 1920s and 1930s, ranging from the extreme of self-indulgent aestheticism to that of the politically motivated verse. At each stage specific representative examples (collected in a course pack) will be studied, in order to illuminate some of the features of the movement and to observe them in individual poems and other texts. The course will be conducted in Spanish and by recitation (some lecturing plus class discussion). Some familiarity with French or English poetry of roughly the same period would be something of an advantage, but it is in no way necessary or required. (Anderson)

425. Spanish Romanticism. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

Spain, the most "Romantic" of countries for the rest of Europe, has not always been able to judge clearly its literature and art in the first half of the nineteenth century. Cutting through myths of a colorful, exotic, violent, passionate, fanatically religious Spain, we will analyze carefully what is unique in her Romantic literature and what it shares with other European literatures. Readings include plays by Rivas and others, poetry by Espronceda and Becquer, prose works by Larra, Donoso Cortes, and Blanco White, and a novel. Conducted in Spanish with papers, class exercises, and final examinations. (Hafter)

432. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

A study of representative works of Spanish and French Medieval Literature. Class format will include lectures on the cultural background of the Middle Ages, and discussions of the texts themselves. We will read Chanson de Roland and Poema de Mio Cid, selected pieces from Chrétien de Troyes' romances, Roman de la Rose, Libro de Buen Amor and Amadis de Gaula. (All works will be available in translation). Requirements: active participation in class discussion, four five-page papers on four different texts, and one final paper of ten pages or more. (Vaquero)

463. Literatura Hispano-Americana, Siglo XVI a XIX. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).
The West Indies.
The 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage is already a conflictive issue: "celebration" is used by some while others propose "impugnation"; "discovery" is still used by the former while "cultural encounter" is proposed by the latter. This course explores some fundamental issues of the cultural encounter such as European descriptions of the Indies and the "silent voice" of the native. The course will be divided into three main topics: (a) Saying and Silence. At the same time that Castilian culture was producing descriptions of the West Indies, the saying of the indigenous cultures was reduced to silence. In between saying and silence has emerged a group of illustrious men, sharing both culture and language, and trying to bridge the gap between the language of the conqueror and the silence of the native; (b) Seeing, knowing and saying. The impact of the cultural encounter has generated a conflict between the "precept" and the "concept," between the spectacle presented in front of the eyes of the "discoverers" and the limitations of their own language to express it and their world conception to integrate the new information into pre-existing frames of knowledge. (c) Writing and the idea of the book. Writing was not just reporting about unknown human beings and nature, but was in itself a kind of action parallel to exploring, conquering or converting the Indians to Catholicism. The "idea" about writing and about the book was as important, in the process of the cultural encounter, as the technology in the art of war and of navigation. Reading will be in Spanish and English. Lectures and conversations in either language, depending on the students enrolled. (Mignolo)

470. The Spanish Comedia. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The course will deal with the masterpieces of Spanish Golden Age Drama. It includes the works of Lope de Vega, Calderon, and Tirso de Molina. Emphasis will be placed on the ideological and literary content of this theater and on the dramatic structures of the works under discussion. Students are required to participate actively in class discussion and to write papers as well as a final examination. (Casa)


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