Courses in Biology (Division 328)

Introductory Courses

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. (Martin)

103(Botany 103). Plants and Society. (3). (NS).

The boundary between basic botany and society will be explored by discussion of the scientific roots of well known societal problems. In the section on "Origins," the origin of life will serve as the springboard from which the origin of man, agriculture and society can be discussed. A section on "Plant Populations" will lead to discussions of society's treatment of the environment in classical times, with most of the attention being directed toward the role of ecology in the fall of Rome. Basic sections on "Diversity" and "Evolution" lead to analyses of the origin of food plants, the sources of food and the problem of world hunger. Such matters as the use of toxic plants by certain human populations also will be considered herein. In addition, the botanical sources of drugs, creationism and religious controversy, evolution and literary themes and the social conflicts raised by the use of molecular biology will be considered in the context of basic botanical knowledge. No special background is required. The basis of student evaluation will be exams and a final paper on a subject to be chosen by each student. It is recommended that students buy BOTANY, PLANT BIOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO HUMAN AFFAIRS (by J.H. Langenheim and K.V. Thimann, publ. by John Wiley & Sons, 1982). Lectures will be the major means of instruction. (Sussman)

106(Botany 190). Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Botany 190 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible foods, the pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, drug and medicinal plants, alternative means of pest control, alternative energy sources, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, and wild and endangered species of plants. We have a natural foods dinner prepared by the students, and one field trip, late in the term, to the Kaufman farm. Throughout the course, students present oral environmental alerts on specific environmental problems and solutions to them. Grade evaluation is based on three midterms and one environmental alert (written or oral). (Kaufman)

152(Biology 112). Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

Biology 152 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (152/154). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, and preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable preparation are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. Development of thinking and writing skills is also a major aim. The topical coverage of Biology 152 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST. In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. There will probably be three course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students MUST be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course.

Enrollment for Honors work will entail time and effort beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, register in Biology 152 (lecture section 002 and ANY lab/discussion) plus Biology 153 (one credit hour). See separate listing.

NOTE CONCERNING PREREQUISITES. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 152. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). Although high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 152, it is not required. For further information contact Ms. Sabra Briere at the Biology 152/154 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building, 764-1430.) (Shappirio, Crum, and Tsubota)

Section 008 PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). This CSP section, which cover the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain they are highly prepared for Biology 154 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratories exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

153(Biology 113). Introductory Biology Honors. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 152 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The scientific method is the basis for inquiry in biology. This course is intended to introduce the scientific method to Honors students who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 152. Discussion materials may include classic papers of Watson-Crick, Briggs-King, etc., and such current problems as genetic engineering, acid rain, and the green revolution. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are requested to submit several short papers and one term paper, and are expected to participate in the weekly discussions. Open ONLY to students admitted to the LSA Honors Program.

154(Biology 114). Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit is granted to those who have completed 195. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 152, and includes the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 152. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION Section STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE, OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ELSE ON THE WAITING LIST. Each week students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. There will be two midterm examinations and a final examination at times and dates specified in the Time Schedule. Regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary material. Enrollment for Honors credit will entail time, effort, and written work beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, students in LSA Honors Program must register for Honors lecture section (031) in addition to the Honors laboratory. Further information about Biology 154 can be obtained from the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 C.C. Little. (Doneen, Belovsky, and Werner)

Section 037 and 053: PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, provides extra class time for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratory exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

Writing, Research and Experiential Courses

301(Biology 300). Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Designed in cooperation with the English Composition Board, this course will satisfy the junior/senior writing requirement. Lectures deal with the nature of science and the consequent need for clarity, precision, and accuracy in organization and style, not just in grammar and punctuation. Effective communication requires an honest and accurate assessment of what one actually demonstrated or discovered. Students write or revise a paper, each with a different focus, weekly for much of the term. These exercises relate to differences in presentation appropriate for scientific journals vs. the intelligent non-professional, for original data vs. reviews, or for other purposes. Besides one lecture a week there are discussion sessions in which the written papers are critically reviewed and other exercises presented. (E. Voss)

Molecular and Cellular Biology and Physiology

206(Biology 291)/Micro. 291. Microbiology Laboratory. Micro. 101 or Biol. 152-154 or 195; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The revolutionary advances in molecular biology, and their impact on society are based on the study and utilization of microorganisms. This laboratory experience helps form a sound foundation for all of the biological sciences. The course consists of one orientation lecture and two laboratory sessions each week. Topics covered include an introduction to microbial variety, methods of study, specific techniques, and general consideration of microbes in the world around us and their use in the laboratory. The course is required in the microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for concentrators in biology, botany, and cell biology. Evaluation is based on performance on two exams, and a variable number of quizzes, practical exams, and written reports. (Helling)

224(Biology 262). Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the formation of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Although introductory biology is an essential prerequisite for this course, an attempt will be made to accommodate the needs and interests of students of varying backgrounds, including non-biology majors. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of quizzes, exams, and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately two weeks late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but an extensive reserve list of relevant books will be available in the Natural Science Library. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. (Kleinsmith)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into the following segments: DNA and chromosomes, gene transmission in Eukaryotes, linkage and recombination, mutation and its consequences, gene expression and regulation, population genetics. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. Practice problem sets designed for this course will be available and are covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Clinic where all office hours of TA's are held. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. (S. Allen)

307(Biology 392). Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of developmental biology. Special emphasis will be placed upon the continuity of developmental processes in terms of 1) the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult and 2) levels of control, from the expression of genetic information to the organization of complex tissues and organs. Greatest emphasis will be placed on development in vertebrates. Whenever possible, the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental events will be stressed. Major areas of coverage will include gametogenesis, fertilization, early embryogenesis including maternal control and nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction and morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions in organogenesis, and morphogenesis. Certain aspects of postnatal development, such as regeneration, will also be covered. This course is intended for juniors and seniors, but it is also open to sophomores. There are three one-hour lectures per week. During the term there will be two evening examinations plus the final. (Carlson and Tosney)

308(Biology 393). Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. (2). (Excl).

This course provides students with the opportunity to study firsthand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, induction, determination and differentiation of various tissues, metamorphosis and regeneration. In addition to one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three additional hours in the laboratory each week. Short lectures are presented to introduce aspects of basic morphological areas of investigation. Formal reports on two exercises are required. There are three laboratory tests. Maintenance of lab note book for a complete and accurate record of observations and experimental results is required. There is a required lab manual. (Jeyabalan)

325(Zoology 325). Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Biology 418, 421, or 422 these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Hume)

326(Zoology 326). Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. (1). (Excl).

The exercises in laboratory deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. Problem sets are graded for each exercise. In addition, two full-length reports are also required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Biology 326 should be taken concurrently with Biology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission.

408(Biology 401)/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); preceded or accompanied by Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Eukaryotic micro-organisms and cells in culture are discussed, but emphasis is placed on prokaryotes and viruses. (Bender and Douthit)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in living cells. As an introductory course, emphasis is place on a broad view rather than a detailed knowledge of this enormously encompassing field. Thus, biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms and reactions, the chemical basis of life. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology including medicine, dentistry, and other professional pursuits. The general subject matter includes amino acids, protein structure and function, allosterism, molecular disease, enzyme properties, kinetics and mechanisms, connective tissue proteins, membrane structure and function, energetics, intermediary metabolism and its regulation, biosynthetic processes, DNA, RNA, transcription, the genetic code and protein synthesis, control of gene expression, muscle contraction and cell motility, and hormone action. This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's chosen according to interest and ability to help other undergraduates with biochemistry. The course is divided into 15 logical units of material, and students are required to MASTER the content of each unit. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which, upon completion, is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 60 hours/week in a suite permanently assigned to this course. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by the professor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, each proctor provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has MASTERED the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

413(Botany 479). Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. Eight hours in biology; at least junior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course deals with contemporary methods and results of studies on plant biotechnology with plant protoplast, cell and tissue cultures. The LECTURES cover such topics as (1) how plant cells, tissues, and organs are cultured, (2) induction of roots and shoots in tissue cultures, (3) regeneration of whole plants from single cells, (4) protoplast isolation and fusion of protoplasts, (5) somatic cell hybridization in plants, (6) genetic engineering with plant protoplasts, cell, and tissue cultures, (7) applications of plant cell and tissue culture in plant breeding, forestry, crop production, and horticulture, (8) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to produce secondary compounds of interest in medicine and pharmacology, (9) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures in the U.S. Space Biology Program under NASA, and (10) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to save threatened and endangered plant species from extinction. The LAB deals with the primary techniques of plant biotechnology as applied to plant cell and tissue cultures: isolation of protoplasts, mericloning, establishing tissue cultures and cell suspension cultures, somatic embryogenesis, somatic cell hybridization, anther and pollen cultures to get haploids, production of secondary metabolites in cell cultures, isolation of the Ti plasmid DNA from the crown gall bacterium, plant bio-reactors, use of flow cytometers, automation as applied to plant cell/tissue cultures, and sterile techniques and media preparation. (Kaufman)

422(Zoology 422). Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), one year of chemistry, and a year of physics. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to neural function, including such topics as action potentials, synaptic phenomena, sensory systems, motor output, neurohormonal integration, development and memory. The instructor recommends one year of organic chemistry. (Oakley)

424. Cell and Developmental Genetics. Biol. 305; a course in cell or developmental biology is helpful but not required. (2-3). (Excl).

This course is an in-depth analysis of current information on gene control of developmental processes in multicellular organisms. Stress is placed on reading articles in scientific journals. For each topic covered in lecture, a list of references including one or two key review papers is provided. Students are encouraged to read one or more of these papers. No examinations; student evaluation is based on two term papers (one being an extensive analysis of a topic covered in the lectures and the other a compilation of short summaries of the papers read during the term) and participation in class discussion. Students electing the course for 3 credits are required to present a seminar. (Rizki)

505/Micro. 505. Pathogenic Microorganisms. A course in general microbiology and biological chemistry. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

The course attempts to provide an understanding of the current views of bacteria as pathogenic agents. Human pathogens are emphasized. The course is designed to avoid the problems inherent in broad coverage of an extensive field. To this end, only a limited number of pathogenic bacteria will be discussed. The main emphasis of the course will concern the mechanisms by which bacteria cause disease. These mechanisms will be discussed both on the molecular level and in relation to the complex interactions between host and bacteria. The lectures will emphasize experimental approaches and problems still to be resolved, in addition to furnishing a basic factual foundation. Students will also have an opportunity to gain some exposure to the current literature by analysis of research articles. Grades in the course will be based on three written examinations (which will count 30% each). The final examination is optional. For students who take this examination, it will count 30% in the final grade, and the three preceding examinations will then count 20% each. In either case, participation of a student in discussion will be considered for 10% of the final grade. About 30% of the reading assignments will be from Zinsser, MICROBIOLOGY, by W.K. Joklik, H.P. Willett and D.B. Amos (Appleton Century-Crofts, New York). The remainder of the reading assignments will consist of individual articles which will be kept on reserve in the library. (Freter)

514(Biology 567). Topics in Molecular Evolution. Biol. 305 and one upper level course in either molecular or evolutionary biology. (3). (Excl).

This year's topic will be EVOLUTION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS, GENES, AND CHROMOSOMES. The specific topics to be covered include (1) early stages of chemical evolution (nature of the primordial gene, RNA catalysis, evolution of the genetic code, evolution of processes of DNA replication, transcription, and translation); (2) evolution of the gene (gene duplication, concerted evolution and gene conversion, intron evolution and exon shuffling); and (3) evolution of chromosomes (origin of repeated sequences, transposons and chromosomal repatterning, packaging of genes into single or multiple chromosomes, viral evolution, origin and evolution of organelle genomes, movement of sequences between cellular compartments). The format will consist of discussions of current literature, student presentations, and a limited number of lectures. Student evaluations will be based on classroom presentations, a review paper, and participation in discussions. The class will meet twice weekly for 90 minutes. (Palmer and Pichersky)

Animal Biology

252(Zoology 252). Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course teaches the comparative method, using the "four-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, paleontology, and biogeography. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections, preparation of cleared and stained materials, and examination of fossils. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used, with supplementary texts on reserve. (Fink and Kluge)

450(Zoology 450). Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (4). (Excl).

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize identification, life history, adaptations, and field methods. (Nussbaum)

532. Birds of the World. Sixteen hours of biology and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course is a comparative survey of avian systematics and the world avifauna. It provides systematic training in ornithology, particularly at the species and family level, and utilizes the research collections of birds (study skins and anatomical materials) of the Museum of Zoology. It highlights problems for research in the evolutionary systematics of birds. Testable objectives include an ability to identify birds to family or lower level and discuss their systematic relationships. Methods include lectures, demonstrations of avian diversity with the museum collections, bioacoustic analysis, library readings, and experience in independent research in systematic ornithology. Student evaluations are based on exams and papers. (Payne)

533(Zoology 580)/Anatomy 715. Regeneration in Vertebrates. An introductory course in developmental biology; graduate or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This is a lecture-discussion course designed principally for graduate students. Its object is to cover the principles of regeneration in vertebrates. The first half of the course is devoted to an in-depth analysis of amphibian limb regeneration as a biological model system. The second half of the course is tailored according to the interests of the members of the class. Class participation consists of regular readings and discussions based upon them, a one hour student seminar and a paper. (Carlson)

Plant Biology

255(Botany 207). Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (4). (NS).

An introductory botany course covering a broad spectrum of topics including principles of plant systematics, evolution, ecology, and biogeography. The lectures and laboratories concentrate on a group-by-group treatment of plant diversity, ranging from algae and fungi through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. The approach is an evolutionary perspective, treating plants as organisms (individuals, populations, and communities) and emphasizing the innovations and adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. The course also includes plant growth and structure. Two or three field trips are scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Text: Raven et al, BIOLOGY OF PLANTS, 4th edition. (Wynne)

256/Geol. 256. Ancient Plants and the World They Lived In. Biol. 152, 195 or 255. (2). (NS).

See Geological Sciences 256. (Beck)

275(Botany 275). Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life including the anticipated advances in plant biotechnology. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. (Nooden)

Ecology, Evolution and Animal Behavior

280(Biology 222). Energy and Ecology. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (2). (NS).

This study of the use of energy and its impact on the world ecosystems and climate treats the basic question of how to supply the energy needs of mankind while maintaining ecological integrity. The following sources of energy are considered: solar, biomass, wind, tidal, ocean thermal, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear, including their mining and manufacture, transport, utilization, and ecological principles and conservation practices that are essential for a healthful and stable world. (Gates)

495(Botany 472). Plant Population Biology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

The course will cover empirical and theoretical approaches to the ecology of plant populations and communities. Topics include plant life history patterns, breeding systems, ecotypic differentiation, population dynamics, mechanisms and consequences of intraspecific and interspecific competition, interaction of plants with other trophic levels, plant distribution patterns, and community organization. Although the emphasis will be on natural populations, managed systems will also be considered. A course in ecology is required background. Grades will be based on a literature review paper, midterm, and final examination. Although there will be a textbook, emphasis will be placed on reading primary sources. The format of the course will be lecture and discussion. (Goldberg)

496(Biology 472)/Nat. Res. 425. Population Ecology. General ecology and Nat. Res. 438; calculus recommended. (4). (Excl).

The study of the dynamics of single species populations and systems of multi-species populations is examined. This is accomplished by reviewing the theoretical explanations for various topics and comparing these predictions with observations and experiments with animal and plant populations. Topics covered include population growth and its limiting factors (resource acquisition, life history patterns, habitat use, and social structure), competition, predation, population cycles, food web structure, and the stability and persistence of assemblages of populations. Because the theoretical development of these topics depends upon mathematics, students will find experiences with introductory calculus useful, and basic statistical knowledge is useful in understanding the comparison of observed plant and animal populations with the theoretical predictions. The course consists of two 90-minute lectures, a lab experiment requiring one hour and a discussion group for one-two hours each week. Students are evaluated on the basis of two hourly exams, a term paper, weekly short lab reports and participation in the discussion group. (Belovsky)

587. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Biol. 381 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The climate of the world is warming rapidly. The temperature increase in the next few decades may be greater and more rapid than at any time in the last 100,000 years. There will be an enormous impact on ecosystems as the mean annual isotherm moves from Georgia to Michigan. The effects of temperature and moisture changes on plants and animals may be almost unprecedented. Past climates and their effects on ecosystems and the vulnerability of specific species of plants and animals to climate conditions of the future will be discussed. Students of biology and of environmental sciences should understand these highly important issues which will be a significant part of their lives. This is a lecture course but students will investigate and report on selected topics of their choice. Book: CLIMATE AND PLANT DISTRIBUTION by F.I. Woodward (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987) (Gates)

589. Mechanisms of Microbial Evolution. Biol. 305. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to the processes of evolution in the context of microbes. The course will focus on the forces which promote variation and change in microbial populations. Among the topics covered during the term will be: structure of microbial populations and measures of genetic variation; evolution of community structure including predatory/prey interactions; roles of mutator genes and transposable elements in evolution; evolution of plasmids and their interaction with the host genome; enzyme evolution; evolution of the E. coli genome. The course is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in evolutionary biology, and/or molecular biology and/or microbiology. In addition, the course is one of the electives for the undergraduate concentration in microbiology. The course will meet three times a week. Two of these hours will generally be devoted to formal lectures and the third to discussion. Course requirements are two term papers plus a miniseminar presentation and participation in the discussions; no exams. (Adams)

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