Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. Essays will be short and based on the assigned readings. (Hughes)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

History 111 is intended as an introductory survey to the history of Europe during the past three centuries. Consequently it will emphasize the dynamic forces which have transformed the society and culture of Europe and by extension that of the world rather than a minute examination of events and particular national histories. Among those dynamic forces to be considered will be: the process of rationalization and bureaucratization, the growth of science and technology, industrialism and urbanization, centralization and the growth of state power, the transformation of the art of war into a military-industrial-enterprise, the dissolution of community and the secularization of society and culture. Particular national histories will be used to elucidate the functioning of these dynamic forces. There will be a text and appropriate readings, a midterm and a final examination and three short papers (1000 words each). There are no course prerequisites. (Tonsor)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

This is an introduction to the modern history, socio-cultural character, and economic development of China and Japan from about 1800 to the present, with brief attention to Korea and Vietnam as the other major components of East Asia over a quarter of the world, including its larger political and cultural unit (China) and some of its fastest growing, technologically advanced, and largest industrial units. East Asia is also the scene of the world's major revolutionary experience (China) and of the most successful effort to rival or surpass originally Western leadership in industry and technology (Japan). In addition, it has been the scene of three of the four major foreign wars fought by the U.S. (WW II, Korea, Vietnam). On a larger scale, some understanding of the development of this very large sector of the world, whose global importance continues to grow, is essential for any educated person, together with some knowledge of its culture and its varying approaches to modern challenges and to universal human problems. The impact of Western imperialism after 1800 contributed to a radical transformation of traditional Asian societies; their separate responses have created modern Asia. The approach here is interdisciplinary, with emphasis on history broadly conceived; guest lecturers from the University's large community of Asia specialists provide further perspectives. There will be one midterm and one final, mainly of the short essay type. Readings will include survey treatments, samples of fiction, and personal accounts. This is to some degree a continuation of Asian Studies 121 but may be taken separately, and no previous knowledge of the area is assumed. (Murphey)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to illuminate a few major episodes and issues in American history, 1607-1865. Among these are the nature of Puritanism, the texture of colonial society, the causes of the Revolution, the party division of the 1790's, the nature of Jacksonian society, and the causes of the Civil War. There is no textbook assigned, the reading instead being in separate books each week. These books include works by major historians, collections of contemporary writings, a contemporary analytical work (Tocqueville's, DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA), and a novel (UNCLE TOM'S CABIN). The major theme of the lectures is an assessment of one pervasive idea, "The growth and development of American individualism" although there will be excursions into some areas developed in the reading. There will be two hour examinations and a final. One or more of these will be the take-home variety. The principal purpose of the section meetings will be to develop issues arising from the reading. (Livermore)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 is designed to trace via talks, discussion sections and books America's history from 1865 to the present. The course will attempt to offer, with consistency, an analytical framework of usefulness to those trying to comprehend contemporary America. Its principal themes will be those of small-town America and its ideological persistence; the rise of an opposing set of values embodied in bureaucratic institutions; and the continuing tension between local and national values in such issues as race, religion, women's rights, foreign policy, government regulation, etc. The talks and a significant number of the books will also attempt to convey the varieties of personal experience so important to this period. The course meets four hours each week: two in lecture and two in a discussion section. Tentative marking requirements include a short paper, a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. There are no history course prerequisites for History 161. (Linderman)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (SS).

This seminar is concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be upon examining the life, work, living conditions, and problems confronted by working people and families who lived during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered for comparative purposes and to better identify patterns of change. An opportunity will be provided to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual original source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people and other groups. These include a unique collection of computerized source material concerned with the living conditions of industrial workers and their families during the Guilded Age. Secondary studies will also be employed. Through these materials the seminar will provide a glimpse of the way people actually lived at the time. Instruction will be conducted through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

A survey of Roman history from the foundation of the Roman Republic in the sixth century B.C. to the emergence of a Christian Roman empire in the fourth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include the consolidation of Italy under Roman rule; overseas wars of expansion in to the Mediterranean; the domination of military commanders such as Pompey and Julius Caesar; the establishment of an empire by Augustus; and the conversion of Constantine to Christianity. Readings will include many ancient texts in translation. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussion sessions led by TAs. Final grade is based on at least two exams and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. (Van Dam)

251. Modern China. (4). (SS).

This course is for those interested in modern Chinese history who have little or no background in this subject. We shall begin with a consideration of society and government in the late empire (from the 17th century), and then focus on the domestic turbulence and the foreign encroachment that marked China in the 19th and early 20th centuries. We shall study the emergence of modern revolutionary movements and the eventual triumph of the Chinese Communist party. We shall treat the history of the People's Republic, those primarily interested in the present Chinese political system would be better served by other offerings. There will be three lectures weekly, a midterm, a paper and a final. Reading will consist of a text and a variety of supplementary sources. (E. Young)

260/Am. Cult. 260. Religion in America. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (4). (HU).

An introductory survey of the history of religion in America, emphasizing the Protestant traditions (though not ignoring others) and stressing the broad movements of people and ideas rather than denominational histories. Two lectures per week. Midterm and final examinations. (Turner)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

333/Econ. 396/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (4). (SS).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women as a group, as individuals, as members of different classes, races, religions, and ethnic communities. Using "work" as an organizing concept, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experiences from 1870 to the present. Special attention is paid to women organizing women around issues of working conditions, suffrage, sexual behavior, reproductive freedom, civil rights, and welfare rights. (Karlsen)

376/Amer. Cult. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (SS).

See American Culture 372. (Doyle)

384. Modern Jewish History 1880-1948. (4). (SS).

This course centers on a number of themes; Jewish responses to development in late 19th century Western and Eastern Europe, including assimilation, migration, socialism, yiddishism, and Zionism; the impact of 20th century European culture on Jewish life and thought; the rise of modern anti-Semitism and its culmination in the Holocaust; the creation of non-Jewish centers in the United States and Palestine. Readings will be drawn from both primary and secondary sources, supplemented by selected fiction. There will be a midterm and final exam. (Steinlauf)

395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Section 001 PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIFE IN ANCIENT GREECE. Theme: Development of growing separation between public and private life in ancient Greece (c. 800-200 B.C.). Includes political institutions, role of philosopher, position of women, change in religion. Readings from ancient texts (translated), interpretive comment, comparative material. No prerequisites. History 200, Classical Civilization 101 useful for background. Assessment based on writing assignments spaced throughout the term (80%) plus participation in class discussion (20%). Instruction: lectures, discussion, individual conferences. Required texts: Barrington Moore, PRIVACY; Sophocles, ANTIGONE; course pack. (Humphreys)

Section 002 CLASS AND CULTURE IN THE 19th CENTURY. Discussions, common readings, oral reports and independent projects (two short papers and one term paper) will focus on the questions of how the great works of nineteenth-century culture (novels, painting, and literature) and the changes in popular culture (vaudeville, professional sports, cheap magazines) related to social class. The course is an exploration of how to address such questions focused on one of the greatest periods of cultural change. (Grew)

Section 003 MICHIGAN IN THE ERA of INDUSTRIALIZATION. This course provides students with an opportunity to do historical research using original historical papers and documents housed in the Bentley Historical Library. The first part of the course explores readings raising general questions about the growth of industry in the United States and the so called "progressive response." During the second half of the course, each student explores one of these questions in a Michigan context through the use of original historical records housed in the Bentley Library. Readings include Dunbar and May's MICHIGAN: A HISTORY of the WOLVERINE STATE and Alfred Chandler's THE VISIBLE HAND: THE MANAGERIAL REVOLUTION IN AMERICAN BUSINESS. Student evaluation is based on class participation, a midterm examination, and the major paper. After a few lectures, the course will focus on discussion. The course is designed to give students an opportunity to develop oral and written communication abilities. (Blouin)

Section 004 IMPERIALISM, NATIONALISM, WAR. This course is an effort to draw together and add to your general grasp of modern Asia, as concentrators in Asian Studies who have also completed a good deal of study of the field. Our focus will be on modern times, and the course is sub-titled Imperialism, Nationalism, War. Each of these themes will be pursued in each of Asia's major regions: South Asia (India), Southeast Asia, China, and Japan/Korea, and the effort made through these themes to see Asia as a whole, and comparatively. We will meet twice a week to discuss ("colloquium") the assigned readings, and (later in the term) for successive student presentations. There are four required essays of 5-10 pages each, based on the readings but no exams. The course will be restricted to graduating seniors specializing in Asian Studies or in Asian history. (Murphey)

Section 005 HISTORIANS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: THE SOCIAL BASIS OF HISTORICAL OBSERVATIONS. The broad problem that members of the colloquium will examine, each in a specific and different context, is: what is the relation between the social environment surrounding the historian and what he or she sees, finds relevant, understands about the past? In this instance, the histories to be used will be histories (very broadly defined to include even some novels) of the French Revolution, but the "historians" may be of any nationality and taken from any period after 1789. Students are to look for the connection between the historians' special views and interpretations (explicit or implicit) of the French Revolution, on the one hand, and the political, social, economic, or intellectual conditions in the periods and places where they wrote, on the other. How did those conditions shape and limit (or strengthen) the understanding? What then-current assumptions about life and conflict, what distinctive canons of relevance, what principles of selection, conscious or unconscious, did the historian apply, and why? The course will begin with common readings and several short papers, followed by a long paper (presented to the group in installments) on the individual historian or other observer whom the student will have chosen to work on. It is expected that students will already know something about European history, by courses or preliminary reading. (Bien)

Section 006 MORALITY IN THE WEST IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. A historical examination of the origins, development, and functions of the ethics of sexual behavior (and PERHAPS political behavior). Readings will include the Bible, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas and a selection of authors from the early-modern and modern periods. Three 4-6 page essays (first draft and final revised draft required for each) and a fourth essay of 8-10 pages. (Tentler)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Section 002 MODERN JEWISH CULTURE in EASTERN EUROPE. This undergraduate colloquium will look at some of the ways in which the Jews of Poland and Russia, between the end of the nineteenth century and 1939, attempted to create a NATIONAL culture that was both "modern" and "Jewish." Our goals will be to appreciate the notable successes and failures of this creative upsurge, and to understand what, in marked contrast to Western Europe and America, made it possible. We will begin by surveying traditional Jewish life-ways, and the sources of political, social and cultural transformation in Eastern Europe. Then we will look at the development of new voices and ideas in literature, theater and politics, focusing on representative examples of each. Readings and discussion will center both on primary texts (mainly translations from Yiddish) and secondary literature, supplemented by films and tapes. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation and several written assignments. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students without some background in modern European or Jewish history may experience difficulty in this course. (Steinlauf)

Section 003 ROMAN EMPERORS AND CHRISTIAN SAINTS. Undergraduate seminar approaching the Roman empire to ca. 500 A.D. by the way of biographies and panegyrics of emperors, autobiographical confessions, and hagiographical lives of Christian saints. Topics to be discussed include the personification of virtues; the reliability of panegyrics as historical sources; biography as a legitimate form of historical analysis; and the impact of individuals on a traditional society characterized by inertia. Classes will be discussions based on the readings, which will include Suetonius' LIVES of emperors, Eusebius' LIFE OF CONSTANTINE, the LIVES OF St. Anthony AND St. MARTIN, and Augustine's CONFESSIONS, as well as material from modern historians and anthropologists. Final grade is based on three papers and participation in discussions. No prerequisites, although some familiarity with the Roman empire would be useful. (Van Dam)

Sections 004 and 005 THE THIRD REICH. This course will feature the domestic development in Germany. On the basis of an analysis of the rise of the National Socialist Party we shall look at the nature of the regime, the economic and social development of Germany under the impact of rearmament and war, the role of anti-Semitism, foreign policy and the occupation policies during the war. (Homburg)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (J. Fine)

413/MARC 413. Intellectual History of the Italian Renaissance. (4). (HU).

The course will commence with a discussion of the culture of the Northern and Central Italian city-states in the 13th century. Emphasis will be placed on the civic and public nature of city life, and it is in this context that the ideas of Dante and others of his generation will be considered. Next we shall treat the emergence of Italian humanism tracing its religious and political strands leading from Petrarch in the 14th century to his more civically minded successors in the following century. After this, we will evaluate the leading ideas of Italian Neoplatonists and their impact on fields as varied as poetry and science. Machiavelli and Machiavellianism will be examined for an understanding of the rise of a new political ethic. Courtly society and courtly culture will be studied in order to appreciate the social and political transformation occurring in Italy in the 16th century. The course will close with an analysis of scientific developments leading to the New Science of the 17th century. (Becker)

417. Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (4). (HU).

The Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present is a lecture discussion of the chief ideas of "modernity" from the inception of the symbolist movement and the anti-positivist revolt to the beginnings of the post-modernist period following 1945. The course will consist of lectures and bi-weekly discussions of five books chosen to illuminate particular ideas and problems dealt with in the course. There will be a midterm and a final examination. An effort will be made to give a coherent account of the impact of symbolism and elite aesthetic and social theory on the development of art, literature and politics. Elite theories of socialism, anti-democratic biological, cultural and social theories, the rise of authoritarianism and ideology, the loss of religious faith and the growth of Irrationalism, the revolution in science and technology and the anti-technological response will all be discussed. Books to be purchased and read by the student: Renato Poggioli, THE THEORY OF THE AVANT-GARDE; Ernst Nolfe, THREE FACES of FASCISM; Vladimir Lenin, WHAT IS TO BE DONE, BURNING QUESTIONS OF OUR MOVEMENT; Georges Sorel, REFLECTIONS ON VIOLENCE; Walter Laqueur, WEIMER, A CULTURAL HISTORY. (Tonsor)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (4). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French Revolution to the 1930's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure and role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a final take-home examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

A history of twentieth-century Russia, which concentrates on the social, political, economic and intellectual forms of Bolshevism as they developed before 1917, and as they were applied in domestic and, to some extent, foreign policies after 1917. Stress is placed on understanding Russian perspectives of Russian history, and on developing an awareness of important aspects of social development generally. Readings are drawn from various literary and historical monographs, rather then from a single text; and students are asked to integrate their own interests with the substantive material of Soviet history through class "projects," which may or may not be written term papers. There is also a midterm exam (with graded/ungraded option as well as a take home/in class choice). (Rosenberg)

438. Eastern Europe from 1500 to 1900. (4). (SS).

This course is a general survey of early modern and modern history of Eastern Europe up to the outbreak of World War I (1914), but its special focus is the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795) and the subsequent history of its peoples the Poles, Lithuanians, Belorussians, Jews, and Ukrainians in the Russian Empire, Austria, and Prussia/Germany, during the nineteenth century. The course will examine the formation of a modern national identity in the period of political, social and economic change inaugurated by the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Readings will include Norman Davies, GOD'S PLAYGROUND, Piotr S. Wandycz, THE LAND of PARTITIONED POLAND, 1795-1918, and Andrei S. Markovits and Frank E. Sysyn, eds. NATIONBUILDING and the POLITICS OF NATIONALISM: ESSAYS ON ASTRIAN GALICIA. There will be a midterm and final exam as well as a paper. In justified cases, students may write, as an alternative to the final, a more substantial paper. (To be arranged with the instructor after the midterm.) (Szporluk)

442. The Ottoman Enterprise. History 110 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This is a course in the history of the Near East during the era of Turkish domination. I plan to treat this period and its features from a historiographical standpoint, that is, with special emphasis on how people saw, understood, and explained their successes and failures: people in the past, and scholars in the present. Class time will be devoted to lecture and discussion of the readings, and students will be responsible for discussing the readings in class and for analyzing the lectures and readings in the examinations. Although we will discuss ALL the readings in class, I must state that the course requires a lot of reading. (Lindner)

458. Twentieth-Century India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. (4). (SS).

This course will explore certain problems in understanding modern South Asia, but will not cover events after 1947 in any systematic way. In particular, the course will concentrate on colonialism and nationalism, assessing the contradictory impacts and legacies of British colonialism as well as the continually shifting character of "traditional" and "modern" forms in the development of social, political, and cultural institutions in India. Careful attention will be paid to 1) British colonial politics of representation; 2) movements based on shared commitments to social reform, cultural revitalization, and political change; 3) the politicization of caste and community; 4) nationalist politics and rhetoric; and 5) the special and controversial roles played by Gandhi and Nehru in twentieth century India. The course will also include theoretical and comparative material of relevance to the framing of the study of contemporary India. Two short critical papers will be due during the term, and a longer research paper should be prepared by the end of the term. (Dirks)

459. Science, Medicine, and Sexuality: Historical Perspectives. (4). (SS).

Medical concepts about sexuality have both affected and reflected changes in science and in society. This course will examine four aspects of that relationship: 1) comparison of men's and women's experiences as medical practitioners; 2) comparison of the health and medical treatments of women and men patients; 3) biological theories about sexuality and reproduction; and 4) the relationship between medical ideas about sexuality and gender roles in society. Emphasis will be placed on the ways in which women's history has affected men, and vice versa. Readings, lectures, and discussions will examine four different periods in the United States from the colonial era to the present, emphasizing the past two centuries. Although no background in history or biology is required, prior coursework in either would be helpful. An earlier version of this course, with the same title, was offered in Fall 1986 as History 397 section 004; students who took that course may not take this one for credit. Those with unexcused absences during the first week may not remain in the course. Students choose either a midterm and final exam, or a twenty-page original research paper. In addition you choose either weekly factual quizzes or two seven-page book reviews. (Pernick)

461. The American Revolution. (4). (SS).

A comprehensive look at recent writings about the American Revolution, aimed chiefly at presenting the case that the revolution revealed a rather thin "concensus" republicanism and the Constitution, beneath which lay significant social and ideological division within the revolutionary movement. A previous survey course in American history from 1607 to the present would be very useful. There will be three or four quizzes, a short and a longer paper. Most instruction will take the form of lecture-discussions. (Lockridge)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; and the presidencies of Carter and Reagan. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

474/Social Work 517. History of Aging. (4). (SS).

This course surveys major continuities and changes in the history of growing old(er) in the United States from colonial times to the present. We shall probe shifts in the meanings and experiences of childhood, youth, middle age, and late life. Special attention will be paid to the evolution of public policies and private measures to ameliorate problems associated with successive stages of the life course. The course is not part of a departmental sequence; no special background is recommended. Instruction will consist of lectures and discussions. Student evaluations will be based on class participation, a term paper, and a final examination. (Achenbaum)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493. (Roehl)

507/GNE 463. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 463. (Orlin)

521. Germany Since 1870. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the development of the German nation(s) from approximately 1870 to the present. It will begin with a discussion of German unification and the difficulties experienced then and since in matching the German state and the German-speaking cultural region in Central Europe. Otherwise the guiding question will be how the German state and the German people coped with industrialization. This will lead us into economic, social, political, and cultural interpretations. The two world wars will obviously play an important part in the course, but this is not a course in military history or about the German army. The course will conclude with a discussion of the German Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic. There are no formal prerequisites, although some knowledge of European history would be an advantage. Students should expect to do a heavy amount of reading and produce a substantial term paper. (Eley)

531. History of the Balkans Since 1800. (4). (SS).

History 531 is a lecture course which surveys the history of the modern Balkans the area which consists of the present-day countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. There are no pre-requisites nor required background. Interested freshman should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam (with the option of having a one-hour written exam, writing on one essay question out of about four, or a half-hour oral), one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor) and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: liberation movements of the Serbs and Greeks from the Ottomans, development of their two states, the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonia problem, terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. (J. Fine)

535/Armenian Studies 535. Armenia and the Armenians in the 20th Century. History 287 recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course investigates the modern history of the Armenian people, both in historical Armenia and in the diaspora. It begins with the revival of Armenian culture and the national movement of the late 18th century, proceeds through the years of political formation and the rise of Armenian nationalism, to the 20th-century genocide and establishment of Soviet Armenia. The course will be of interest to people in Middle East studies, Soviet studies, as well as those interested in Armenian history specifically. The course is based on lectures, discussions, and readings. One research paper is required, as well as an oral examination at the end of the term. (Suny)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (4). (HU).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: 1) the concept and structure of empire; 2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; 3) society, cities, and literature; 4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; 5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. (Chang)

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