All mathematics courses require a minimum of one year each of high school algebra and geometry. In order to accommodate diverse backgrounds and interests, several course options are open to beginning mathematics students. Courses preparatory to the calculus are offered in pairs: a recitation format and a self-paced version of the same material. The even-numbered course of each pair is self-paced. Department policy limits a student to a total of 4 credits for courses numbered 110 and below.

MATH 103/104 is the first half of MATH 105/106; MATH 107/108 is the second half. MATH 112 is designed for students of business and social sciences who require only one term of calculus. The sequence 113-114 is designed for students of the life sciences who require only one year of calculus. The sequence 115-116-215-216 is appropriate for most students who want a complete introduction to the calculus. Each of MATH 112, 113, 115, 185, and 195 is a first course in calculus; credit can be received for only one course from this list. Math 109/110 is designed for students whose preparation includes all of the prerequisites for calculus but who are unable to complete one of the calculus courses successfully. Math 109/110 will be offered as a 7-week course during the second half of each term.

Admission to MATH 185 or 195 requires permission of a mathematics Honors advisor (1210 Angell Hall). Students who have performed well on the College Board Advanced Placement exam may receive credit and advanced placement in the sequence beginning with Math 115. Other students who have studied calculus in high school may take a departmental placement examination during the first week of the fall term to receive advanced placement WITHOUT CREDIT in the MATH 115 sequence. No advanced placement credit is granted to students who elect MATH 185. Students electing MATH 195 receive advanced placement credit after Math 296 is satisfactorily completed.

**102. Elementary Algebra (Self-Paced). *** (2). (Excl). *

Self-paced version of Mathematics 101. Material covered includes integers, rationals, and real numbers; linear, fractional, and quadratic expressions and equations, polynomials and factoring; exponents, powers and roots; functions. Text: INTRODUCTORY ALGEBRA by D. Novak.

**104. Intermediate Algebra (Self-Paced). *** Two to three years high
school mathematics; or Math. 101. One credit for students with credit for
Math. 101. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 or 106. (2).
(Excl) *

Self-paced version of Math 103. There are no lectures or sections. Students are assigned to tutors in the Mathematics Laboratory and work at their own pace. Progress is measured by tests following each chapter which must be passed with at least 80% success for the student to move on to the next chapter. Up to five versions of each chapter test may be taken to reach this level. Midterms and finals are administered when a group of students is ready for them. More detailed information is available from the Mathematics Department office. Text: ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY by Larson and Hostetler.

**105. Algebra and Analytic Trigonometry. *** See table. Students with
credit for Math. 103 or 104 can only elect Math. 105 for 2 credits. No credit
for students with credit for Math 106. (4). (Excl). *

Material covered includes review of algebra; linear, quadratic, polynomial and rational functions and their graphs; logarithmic and exponential functions and their graphs; triangle trigonometry, trigonometric functions and their graphs. Text: ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY by Larson and Hostetler.

*Section 006. *PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). This
CSP section is designed for students who want to be certain that they are
highly prepared for calculus and are willing to devote the necessary effort
to do so. The required extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis
of central concepts and group problem-solving.

**106. Algebra and Analytic Trigonometry (Self-Paced). *** See table.
Students with credit for Math. 103 or 104 can only elect Math. 106 for 2
credits. No credit for students with credit for Math 105. (4). (Excl). *

Self-paced version of Math 105. There are no lectures or sections. Students are assigned to tutors in the Mathematics Laboratory and work at their own pace. Progress is measured by tests following each chapter which must be passed with at least 80% success for the student to move on to the next chapter. Up to five versions of each chapter test may be taken to reach this level. Midterms and finals are administered when a group of students is ready for them. More detailed information is available from the Mathematics Department office. Text: PRECALCULUS by Larson and Hostetler.

**107. Trigonometry. *** See table. No credit granted to those who have
completed 105 or 106. (2). (Excl). *

Material covered includes a review of exponential and logarithmic functions and their graphs, triangle trigonometry, trigonometric functions and their graphs. The material is the second half of Math 105/106. This course provides the trigonometry background needed for Math 115. Students with a history of poor performance in high school mathematics, with or without trigonometry, who plan to continue in mathematics usually need a more general training than is offered in Math 107, and should elect Math 105 or 106. Text: ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY by Larson and Hostetler.

**108. Trigonometry (Self-Paced). *** Two or three years of high school
mathematics; or Math. 101. One credit for students with credit for Math.
101. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 or 106. (2). (Excl). *

Self-paced version of Math 107. There are no lectures or sections. Students are assigned tutors in the Mathematics Laboratory and work at their own pace. Progress is measured by tests following each chapter which must be passed with at least 80% success for the student to move on to the next chapter. Up to five versions of each chapter test may be taken to reach this level. Midterms and finals are administered when a group of students is ready for them. More detailed information is available from the Mathematics Department office.

**110. Pre-Calculus (Self-Paced). *** Two years of high school algebra.
No credit for students who already have 4 credits for pre-calculus mathematics
courses. (2). (Excl). *

Self-paced version of Math 109. There are no lectures or sections. Students are assigned to tutors in the Mathematics Laboratory and work at their own pace. Progress is measured by tests following each chapter which must be passed with at least 80% success for the student to move on to the next chapter. Up to five versions of each chapter test may be taken to reach this level. Midterms and finals are administered when a group of students is ready for them. More detailed information is available from the Mathematics Department office. Text: PRECALCULUS by Larson and Hostetler.

NOTE: Math 112 is a single term calculus course designed primarily for pre-business and social science students. The course neither presupposes nor covers any trigonometry. Math 113-114 is a special two-term calculus sequence for students in biology. Math 113 begins with a number of pre-calculus topics; the introduction to calculus is gradual. Neither 112 nor 113 nor 114 meshes with the standard sequence. Students who want to keep open the option of going beyond introductory calculus should elect the standard sequence. Credit is allowed for only one of the first term calculus courses: 112, 113, 115, 185, 195.

**112. Brief Calculus. *** Three years of high school mathematics or
Math. 105 or 106. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math.
112, 113, 115, 185 and 195. (4). (N.Excl). *

This is a one-term survey course that provides the basics of elementary calculus. Emphasis is placed on intuitive understanding of concepts and not on rigor. Topics include differentiation with application to curve sketching and maximum-minimum problems, antiderivatives and definite integrals. Trigonometry is not used. The text has been Hoffman, CALCULUS FOR THE SOCIAL, MANAGERIAL, AND LIFE SCIENCES, Second Edition. This course does not mesh with any of the courses in the regular mathematics sequences.

Section 016 and 018: PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). This CSP section is designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of calculus and are willing to devote the effort necessary on calculus. This section requires extra discussion time for in-depth analysis of central concepts and group problem-solving.

**113. Mathematics for Life Sciences I.*** Three years of high school mathematics or Math. 105 or 106. Credit is
granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4).
(N.Excl). *

Mathematics 113 and 114 constitute a two-term sequence designed for students anticipating study in fields such as biology, natural resources, microbiology, medical technology and nursing. Students in the life sciences who may need a more thorough mathematics background should elect one of the regular mathematics sequences. The material covered includes logic, set theory, algebra, calculus, matrices and vectors, probability and differential equations. Examples are chosen from the life sciences. The text has been Arya and R. Lardner, MATHEMATICS FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (Second Edition).

**114. Mathematics for Life Sciences II. *** Math. 113. Credit is granted
for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4). (N.Excl). *

See Mathematics 113.

**115. Analytic Geometry and Calculus I. *** See table. (Math. 107 may
be elected concurrently.) Credit is granted for only one course from among
Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl). *

Topics covered in this course include functions and graphs, derivatives; differentiation of algebraic and trigonometric functions and applications; definite and indefinite integrals and applications. Daily assignments are given. There are generally two or three one-hour examinations and a uniform midterm and final.

Sections 026 and 027: PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). These CSP sections are designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of calculus and are willing to devote the necessary effort to do so. The required extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts and group problem-solving.

**116. Analytic Geometry and Calculus II. *** Math. 115. Credit is granted
for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4). (N.Excl). *

Transcendental functions, techniques of integration, introduction to differential equations, vectors, conic sections, infinite sequences and series. The course generally requires two one-hour examinations and a uniform midterm and final exam. Text: CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY by Thomas and Finney, sixth edition.

Sections 042 and 043. PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). These CSP sections are designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of calculus and are willing to devote the effort necessary on calculus. The required extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts and group problem-solving.

**118. Analytic Geometry and Calculus II for Social Sciences. *** Math.
115. (4). (Excl). *

Math 118, a sequel to Math 115, is a combination of the techniques and concepts from Math 116, 215, and 216, that are most useful in the social and decision sciences (especially economics and business). Topics covered include: logarithms, exponentials, elementary integration techniques (substitution, by parts and partial fractions), infinite sequences and series, systems of linear equations, matrices, determinants, vectors, level sets, partial derivatives, Lagrange multipliers for constrained optimization, and elementary differential equations. (Students planning to take Math 215 and 216 should still take 116, although one can pass from 118 to 215 with a bit of work and redundancy.) No credit for 118 after having taken 116 or 186. Like Math 116, this course will require two one-hour examinations, a midterm, and a final exam. Text: CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY by Thomas and Finney, sixth edition.

**186. Analytic Geometry and Calculus. *** Permission of the Honors
advisor. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4 each). (N.Excl). *

Second of a three course sequence, 185/186/285. Topics include those of Math 116, treated with somewhat greater depth and rigor. If time permits, additional topics may be included at the instructor's discretion. Students who elect Math 185/186 cannot also receive AP credit for Math 115/116.

**196. Honors Mathematics. *** Permission of the Honors advisor. (4).
(N.Excl). *

Continuation of Math 195. Topics include transcendental functions, methods of integration, infinite series, and some linear algebra. Additional topics may be included at the instructor's discretion. The coverage is quite rigorous.

**215. Analytic Geometry and Calculus III. *** Math. 116. (4). (N.Excl). *

Topics covered include elementary linear algebra, vector algebra and calculus, solid analytic geometry, partial differentiation, multiple integrals and applications. There are generally daily assignments and class examinations in addition to uniform midterm and final examinations.

**216. Introduction to Differential Equations. *** Math. 215. Students
with credit for Math. 117 can only elect Math. 216 for 3 credits. (3; 4
beginning IIIa 1982). (N.Excl). *

Topics covered include first order differential equations, linear differential equations with constant coefficients, vector spaces, differential operators, and linear transformations, systems of linear differential equations, power series solutions, and applications. There are generally several class examinations and regular assignments.

**217. Linear Algebra for Math Majors. *** Math. 215. (4). (Excl). *

This course is intended for students contemplating a mathematics concentration. It would normally be taken after Math 215 and instead of Math 216 as a prerequisite for concentration. Students who take Math 217 would follow a route which includes 215-217-316 (316 is a new three credit differential equations course which will assume a background in linear algebra – the content of Math 217). Students will therefore be able to cover differential equations and linear algebra through two routes: 215-217-316 OR 215-216-417. The latter is the traditional route for engineers and science students. The purpose of introducing Math 217 is to cover linear algebra at an earlier stage, to acquaint mathematics students with a mathematics course other than calculus, and to allow a higher quality introductory differential equations course than the present Math 216. Math 217 will be an alternative to Math 216 as a prerequisite for mathematics concentration.

**247. Mathematics of Finance. *** Math. 112 or 115. (3). (N.Excl). *

This course is designed for students who seek an introduction to the mathematical concepts and techniques employed by financial institutions such as banks, insurance companies, and pension funds. Actuarial students, and other mathematics concentrators, should elect Math 424 which covers the same topics but on a more rigorous basis requiring considerable use of the calculus. Topics covered include: various rates of simple and compound interest, present and accumulated values based on these; annuity functions and their application to amortization, sinking funds and bond values; depreciation methods; introduction to life tables, life annuity, and life insurance values. The course is not part of a sequence. Students should possess financial calculators.

**286. Differential Equations. *** Math. 285. (3). (N.Excl). *

Sequel to Mathematics 285. Material covered is approximately that of Math 216, but in more depth.

**289. Problem Seminar. *** (1). (N.Excl). May be repeated for credit
with permission. *

One of the best ways to develop mathematical abilities is by solving problems using a variety of methods. Familiarity with numerous methods is a great asset to the developing student of mathematics. Methods learned in attacking a specific problem frequently find application in many other areas of mathematics. In many instances, an interest in mathematics and an appreciation of mathematics is better developed by solving problems than by receiving formal lectures on specific topics. The student receives an opportunity to participate more actively in his education and development. This course is intended only for those superior students who have exhibited both ability and interest in doing mathematics. The course is not restricted to Honors students.

**296. Honors Analysis II. *** Math. 295. (4). (N.Excl). *

This course on multivariate calculus is a sequel to Math 295. The subject matter is differential and integral calculus on Euclidean space. The presentation is rigorous. Computational facility is gained through challenging problems. The text is ADVANCED CALCULUS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES by C.H. Edwards.

**300/EECS 300. Mathematical Methods in System Analysis. *** Math. 216
or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 448. (3).
(N.Excl). *

This is a lecture course required for all electrical and computer engineering students. The primary focus is the operational mathematics necessary for the solution of linear system problems, but the coverage also includes Fourier series and transforms, and functions of a complex variable, which are needed in other areas as well. The topics and the times allotted are as follows: Laplace transforms with particular reference to the solution of differential equation (2 weeks), linear systems – concepts and solution techniques (3 weeks), Fourier series and the steady state response of systems (2 weeks), theory of functions of a complex variable, leading up to integration in the complex plane (4 weeks), Fourier transforms (2 weeks), and Laplace transform inversion (1 week). The course grade is determined from graded weekly homework assignments, two or three hourly quizzes and the final examination. Text: MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, by Thomas B.A. Senior (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1986)

**312. Applied Modern Algebra. *** Math. 116, or permission of mathematics
advisor. (3). (N. Excl). *

This course is an introduction to algebraic structures having applications in such areas as switching theory, automata theory and coding theory, and useful to students in mathematics, applied mathematics, electrical engineering and computer science. It introduces elementary aspects of sets, functions, relations, graphs, semigroups, groups, rings, finite fields, partially ordered sets, lattices, and Boolean algebras. Computer oriented applications are introduced throughout.

**350/Aero. Eng. 350. Aerospace Engineering Analysis. *** Math. 216
or the equivalent. (3). (N.Excl). *

This is a three-hour lecture course in engineering mathematics which continues the development and application of ideas introduced in Math 215 and 216. The course is required in the Aerospace Engineering curriculum, and covers subjects needed for subsequent departmental courses. The major topics discussed include vector analysis, Fourier series, and an introduction to partial differential equations, with emphasis on separation of variables. Some review and extension of ideas relating to convergence, partial differentiation, and integration are also given. The methods developed are used in the formulation and solution of elementary initial- and boundary-value problems involving, e.g., forced oscillations, wave motion, diffusion, elasticity, and perfect-fluid theory. There are two or three one-hour exams and a two-hour final, plus about ten homework assignments, or approximately one per week, consisting largely of problems from the text. The text is MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES by M.L. Boas.

**371/Engin. 303. Numerical Methods. *** Engineering 103 and preceded
or accompanied by Math. 216. (3). (N.Excl). *

Basic mathematical methods used in computing. Polynomial interpolation. Numerical integration. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. Linear systems. Monte Carlo Techniques. Round-off error. Students will use a digital computer to solve problems. (Graduates and more qualified undergraduates should elect Math. 471).

**404. Differential Equations. *** Math. 216 or 286. (3). (N.Excl). *

This is a second course in differential equations which reviews elementary techniques and delves into intermediate methods and equations. Emphasis varies slightly with individual instructor and student needs but usually includes power series expansions about ordinary points, perturbation series, simultaneous linear equations (solutions by matrices), numerical methods, nonlinear equations, phase-plane methods and qualitative behavior of solutions. The format is lecture/discussion, and the course is often elected by engineering students and students of the natural, physical and social sciences.

**412. First Course in Modern Algebra. *** Math. 215 or 285, or permission
of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 512. Students
with credit for 312 should take 512 rather than 412. (3). (N.Excl). *

This course assumes a level of mathematical maturity and sophistication consistent with advanced level courses. It is a course elected primarily by mathematics majors including teaching certificate candidates and by a small number of master's degree candidates. Normally it is the first "abstract" course encountered by students in mathematics. Most students continue with Mathematics 513 for which Mathematics 412 serves as a prerequisite. Course topics include basic material on sets with special emphasis on mappings, equivalence relations, quotients and homomorphisms; groups and subgroups; rings, integral domains and polynomial rings; and fields and simple extensions. Students seeking a more comprehensive presentation should consider Mathematics 512.

**416. Theory of Algorithms. *** Math. 312 or 412 or ECE 367; and CCS
374. (3). (N. Excl). *

This course will introduce the students to algorithms and the analysis of the algorithm complexity. The emphasis will be on algorithms to solve mathematical problems and algorithms based on mathematical ideas. Topics include: Recursive algorithms, Huffman codes, Pruffen codes, Quicksort, Strassen's Matrix Multiplication, FFT's, Network Flows, the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm and layered networks, Applications, Number Theoretic algorithms, factoring large numbers and pseudo-primality testing. Class format will be lecture/discussion. Grades will be based on homework and take-home exams.

**417. Matrix Algebra I. *** Three terms of college mathematics. No
credit granted to those who have completed 513. (3). (N.Excl). *

The course covers basic linear algebra and touches on several of its applications to many different fields. Emphasis is on introducing a diversity of applications rather than treating a few in depth. Topics emphasized include a review of matrix operations, vector spaces, Gaussian and Gauss-Jordan algorithms for linear equations, subspaces of vector spaces, linear transformations, determinants, orthogonality, characteristic polynomials, eigenvalue problems, and similarity theory. Applications include linear networks, least squares method (regression), discrete Markov processes, linear programming, and differential equations. The class is elected by a cross section of students, and usually includes some graduate students. The class format is lecture/discussion. The text has been LINEAR ALGEBRA AND ITS APPLICATIONS by Strang.

**419/EECS 400. Linear Spaces and Matrix Theory. *** Four terms of college
mathematics beyond Math 110. One credit granted to those who have completed
417; no credit granted to those who have completed 513. (3). (Excl). *

Finite dimensional linear spaces and matrix representations of linear transformations. Bases, subspaces, determinants, eigenvectors, and canonical forms. Structure of solutions of systems of linear equations. Applications to differential and difference equations. The course provides more depth and content than Math 417. Math 513 is the proper election for students contemplating research in mathematics. The objectives are to give a rigorous understanding of linear algebra and linear spaces. Abstract methods are used and some emphasis is given to proofs. The course is essential for the mathematics section of the CICE qualifying examination. Some mathematical maturity and ability to cope with abstraction is required; elementary understanding of matrices and differential equations. Three lectures per week, the grades are based on exams.

**420. Matrix Algebra II. *** Math. 417 or 419. (3). (N.Excl). *

Similarity theory. Euclidean and unitary geometry. Applications to linear and differential equations, least squares and principal components.

**424. Compound Interest and Life Insurance. *** Math. 216 or permission
of instructor. (3). (N.Excl). *

Rates used in compound interest theory, annuities- certain and their application to amortization, sinking funds and bond values; introduction to life annuities and life insurance; both the discrete and the continuous approach are used.

**425/Stat. 425. Introduction to Probability.*** Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl). *

This course is a basic introduction to the mathematical theory of probability. Course topics include fundamental concepts, random variables, expectations, variance, covariance, correlation, independence, conditional probability, Bayes' Theorem, distributions, random walks, law of large numbers and central limit theorem. By itself the course provides a basic introduction to probability and, when followed by Statistics 426 or Statistics 575, the sequence provides a basic introduction to probability and statistics.

**431. Topics in Geometry for Teachers. *** Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl). *

The major goals of this course are to: (1) survey the modern axiomatic foundations of Euclidean geometry, (2) study at least one non-Euclidean geometry as a concrete example of the role of axiomatics in defining mathematical structures, (3) provide an introduction to the transformation approach to geometry, (4) introduce students to application, enrichment, and problem materials appropriate for secondary school geometry classes.

**433. Introduction to Differential Geometry. *** Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl). *

Curves and surfaces in three-space, using calculus. Curvature and torsion of curves. Curvature, covariant differentiation, parallelism, isometry, geodesics, and area on surfaces. Gauss-Bonnet Theorem. Minimal surfaces.

**450. Advanced Mathematics for Engineers I. *** Math. 216 or 286. No
credit granted to those who have completed 305. (4). (N.Excl). *

Topics include: vector analysis, line and surface integrals, Stoke's and Divergence Theorems, Fourier Series and Mean Square Convergence, Implicit functions, Separation of Variables for heat and wave equation.

**451. Advanced Calculus I. *** Math. 215 and one course beyond Math.
215; or Math. 285. Intended for concentrators; other students should elect
Math. 450. (3). (N.Excl). *

Single variable calculus from a rigorous standpoint. A fundamental course for further work in mathematics. Text: ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS by Ross.

**452. Advanced Calculus II. *** Math. 451 and 417, or Math. 513; Math.
417 or 513 may be elected concurrently. (3). (N.Excl). *

Multi-variable calculus, topics in differential equations and further topics.

**454. Fourier Series and Applications. *** Math. 216 or 286. Students
with credit for Math. 455 or 554 can elect Math. 454 for 1 credit. (3).
(N.Excl). *

Orthogonal functions, theory of orthogonal expansions, Sturm-Liouville problems, Fourier series, applications to boundary value problems for partial differential equations, discrete Fourier transform, fast Fourier transform algorithm, applications to filtering and data smoothing, Fourier integrals, approximate computation of Fourier integrals via the FFT, band limited functions and the sampling theorem.

**462. Mathematical Models. *** Math. 216 and 417. (3). (N.Excl). *

This course will focus on dynamic mathematical models in the physical, social and life sciences. We will concentrate on the mathematical techniques commonly used to study dynamic phenomena: ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, and difference equations. We will use a number of variants of these techniques depending on the phenomenon under study, including stochastic equations, delay equations, and higher order systems. We will also spend some time on the non-linear difference equations which lead to "chaotic behavior." After discussing the basic principles behind each technique, we will learn more about these methods by seeing them in action, as we study such dynamic phenomena as population growth, ecological systems, mechanical vibrations, planetary motion, traffic flow, and the detection and spread of diseases. The prerequisite for Math 462 is a course in differential equations, such as Math 216 or 286. Some familiarity with matrices will also help. If you have any questions, call Prof. Simon at 763-3074. (Simon)

**471. Introduction to Numerical Methods. *** Math. 216 or 286 and some
knowledge of computer programming. (3). (N.Excl). *

Basic mathematical methods used in computing. Polynomial interpolation. Numerical integration. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. Linear systems. Monte Carlo Techniques. Round-off error. Students will use a digital computer to solve problems. The text is Burden, Faires, and Reynolds, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS. (Intended for graduates and more qualified undergraduates. Others should elect Math. 371).

**475. Elementary Number Theory. *** (3). (N.Excl). *

Often call the "Queen of Mathematics," number theory is the reason lots of mathematicians fell in love with their field. Roughly speaking it is the study of the properties of whole numbers. It is one of the few areas of mathematics where problems easily describable to an undergraduate (e.g., is every even number the sum of two prime numbers?) have remained unsolved for centuries. In the past number theory was thought to be a beautiful subject with no applications to the real world. But with the advent of "trapdoor codes" and number-theoretic algorithms, the subject is at the cutting edge of computer science research. The methods of number theory are often elementary in the sense that they do not require much formal background in mathematics. Indeed, beyond basic arithmetic most of the course will be self-contained. Three terms of college mathematics are recommended.

**480. Topics in Mathematics. *** Math. 417, 412, or 451, or permission
of instructor. (3). (Excl). *

This course on topics in mathematics has a lecture component and a writing component. See department for specific topics.

**525/Stat. 510. Probability Theory. *** Math.
450 or 451; or permission of instructor. Students with credit for Math.
425/Stat. 425 can only elect Math. 525/Stat. 510 for 1 credit. (3). (N.Excl). *

This course covers basic topics in probability, including random variables, distributions, conditioning, independence, expectation and generating functions, special distributions and their relations, transformations, non-central distributions, the multivariate normal distribution, convergence concepts, and limit theorems.

**526/Stat. 526/C.I.C.E. 516. Discrete State Stochastic Processes.*** Math. 525; or Stat. 510; or C.I.C.E. 512. (3). (N.Excl). *

See Statistics 526.

**575. Introduction to Theory of Numbers I. *** Math. 451 and 513; or
permission of instructor. Students with credit for Math. 475 can elect Math.
575 for 1 credit. (3). (N.Excl). *

Number Theory has long played a central role in mathematics. The tools learned in algebra and analysis courses come to life in this course since many were INVENTED to solve number theory problems. Long admired for its beauty, the techniques of number theory, modular arithmetic, quadratic reciprocity, solutions to diophantine equations, are being applied at the cutting edge of computer science research. We will study arithmetic in quadratic and cyclotomic fields, and see how they apply to solutions of famous equations like Fermat's last theorem, as well as to a study of the distribution of primes.

University of Michigan | College of LS&A | Student Academic Affairs | LS&A Bulletin Index

This page maintained by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, 1228 Angell Hall

The Regents of the University of Michigan,

Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA +1 734 764-1817

Trademarks of the University of Michigan may not be electronically or otherwise altered or separated from this document or used for any non-University purpose.