161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).
Biological Anthropology is a subfield dealing with human evolution. This course presents a survey of the major topics in the subfield. The areas discussed include the fossil record for human evolution, the causes and consequences of human variation, the relevance of primate behavior for understanding human behavior, and genetic model of the evolutionary process and its pattern in human paleontology. Grading will be based on three one-hour exams. There is a required one-hour a week discussion section. No special background knowledge is required or assumed. (M.H. Wolpoff)
361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).
An evaluation of the contributions of culture and biology to several aspects of human morphology and behavior including alcoholism, mental illness, genetic disorders (e.g., sickle cell anemia), fertility, nutrition, growth, and disease transmission. A consideration of both theory and empirical studies are included; guest speakers are frequent. Grade is based on short papers and essay-style exams. No prerequisites. (Vitzthum)
362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).
The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Text: A.R. Frisancho, HUMAN ADAPTATION. (Brace)
369/Psychology 369. Primate and Human Social Relationships. Anthro. 368 or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).
This course will examine social relationships in primates in detail. Although some studies of humans will be covered, the emphasis of the course will be on nonhuman primates. One aim of the course is to use evolutionary theory to understand the types of social relationships found in primates and the differences in the social relationships of different species. A second aim is to use the data on nonhuman primate social relationships to generate principles applicable to human social behavior. Some of the topics that will be covered are dominance and aggression, reciprocity and friendship, male-female relationships, sexual behavior, and social development. Anthropology 368 (cross-listed as Psychology 368) (or permission of the instructor) is a prerequisite for this course. This course is more advanced and specialized than 368; it assumes a solid background in evolutionary theory and primate behavior, and it focuses on social relationships. Most or all readings will be provided in course packs; there may be a required book. There are two lectures plus one discussion per week; several lectures will include films. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, a final exam, some short essays, and a longer term paper. (Goldizen)
399. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.
Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)
462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (NS).
The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. (Livingstone)
564. Hominid Origins. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for biological anthropology concentrators. (3). (NS).
It has been known since Darwin's time that humans originated in Africa. Darwin suggested some explanations of why this new species might have become so unique, that his thinking has oriented the direction of human origins theorizing ever since. Only recently, however, has it become possible to use the fossil record to help understand the "who, what, when, where, and why" of human origins. This course examines what is known of our most ancient roots, emphasizing how we know what we do and where research might most profitably go from here. Anthropology 365 or its equivalent is the required prerequisite. (Brace)
568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).
This course evaluates the behavior of free-living primates from two perspectives. First, there is a full review of primate social organization that introduces students to biological and evolutionary problems of particular relevance to each sub-family. Second, topics are selected that highlight advances in understanding the nature and adaptive significance of behavior. These include morphological, physiological and environmental influences on social life, and detailed analyses of social behavior, especially cooperation and competition, reproduction and sexual behavior, development, dispersal and intergroup relations, communication, learning, emotion, and links with human behavior. Instruction is by lecture and discussion. (Watts)
101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).
Exposure to anthropology's cross-cultural, comparative and holistic viewpoints, and to ethnography, the field's characteristic data-gathering procedure, are important in a liberal arts education. Anthropology 101, which surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology) provides students (generally freshmen and sophomores) with a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. Anthropology 101 stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. Anthropology 101 teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about nature and diversity, and to think critically. As is proper for a distribution course, the principal aim of Anthropology 101 is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods which typify the discipline. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology, as well as surveying its content. (As such it is also recommended for anthropology concentrators.) Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex-gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings include basic text(s) and three paperbacks. Students must register for the three weekly lectures (section 001) and a discussion-recitation section. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Extra-credit option: Any student who wishes to earn extra credit by exploring anthropology's subject matter in greater depth (through extra reading and writing) may register for section 015 OR 021 AND two credit hours of Anthropology 449, Section 014. By doing this, you can earn six credit hours, rather than the usual four. Honors students should register in section 012, but may also choose one of the special sections. (Kottak)
272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).
What place does language have in everyday life? Do people really communicate when they speak to each other? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, gender, and class lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? This course is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and informs social life. Topics covered include: (1) how and why languages change; (2) the relationships between speech and social class, race, and gender; (3) the politics of language use in society, including language policy in third-world societies and the "English-only" movement in the United States; (4) the ways in which language is used to construct social, cultural, and political 'realities' and the ways these realities are contested as, for example, in the Iran-Contra hearings. The course text is Jean Aitchison, LANGUAGE CHANGE: PROGRESS OR DECAY? and a course pack. The course will be evaluated by in-class quizzes. A term paper is optional. The course has no prerequisites except for curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. (Mannheim)
319(342). Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).
This course attempts to make social, economic, and political events in contemporary Latin America understandable from an anthropological perspective. The predicament of Brazil's indigenous populations, the large foreign debts of many Latin American nations, the recurrent political shifts between totalitarian and democratic regimes, the pervasive effects of the world economic system, human rights violations in the Southern cone, political upheaval in Central America, ecological destruction, and the sprawling squatter settlements on the fringes of the major cities of Latin America are interrelated phenomena which require the kind of holistic approach that is so characteristic of Anthropology. The lectures will intertwine these themes with books that cover such diverse subjects as Amazonian Indians, Bolivian tin miners, military dictatorship in Argentina, and revolution in Nicaragua. Ethnographic films, literary works, and a course pack will situate these monographs in a wider context of Latin American society and culture. This is a lecture and discussion course with a short term-paper, and take-home midterm and final examinations with essay questions. The topic of the term-paper will be chosen by the student after consultation with the instructor. (Robben)
404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).
This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)
411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (SS).
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on INSTITUTIONAL characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. (Owusu)
336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (SS).
This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare includes: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/222 or equivalent or sophomore standing. This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. (Kelly)
352/RC Soc. Sci. 352. Social Perspectives: Cross-Cultural Study of Women. One social science course or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).
Section 001. THE LATINA. In Winter Term, 1988, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 410.001. (Moya-Raggio)
357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
In its very nature ethnographic practice represents a direct intrusion into people's lives. How do we justify this intrusion? Is adding to scientific knowledge enough? What must ethnographers give back to the people with whom they work? This course explores the political, moral and epistemological dilemmas faced by the field as a whole. How do we construct a relationship with the subjects of our inquiry? How do we construct a portrait or an image of their lives and their society which is both "true" in some dispassionate sense and recognizable as a portrait we ourselves have painted? Is it necessary, or appropriate, to act as an open political advocate for the people we study, and under what circumstances? Finally, what have we returned to the people who have given so much to us as scholars and as individuals? The class will work through a number of texts representing several points of view (both explicit and implicit) including straightforward ethnographies, critical and reflexive texts, and polemical discussions, and will conclude by exploring what it means to take informants seriously. Course requirements are a midterm essay exam and a term paper, the topic to be selected in consultation with the instructor. (Orent)
399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001 – Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program in Cultural Anthropology undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. This generally takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in a term paper, and it gives students the experience of conducting and writing up their own research. Most of this research is conducted independently, but students meet with each other and with an Honors adviser occasionally, so that they will have an opportunity to exchange experiences, and learn what other students are working on. 399 is a continuation of 398, both of which are required for those desiring senior Honors. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with Robin Burling, the departmental Honors adviser for cultural anthropology. Previous participation in the College Honors Program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Burling)
428. Ethnopersonality: Native Concepts of Self and Person. One course in cultural anthropology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Do the concepts of self and person vary cross-culturally? Are emotions biologically or culturally constituted? These are the difficult questions addressed in this course. In contrast to "culture personality" approach in anthropology, which has tended to be a psychological study of cultures, ETHNOPERSONALITY (or ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY) offers a cultural analysis of native categories of self, person, identity, and emotion by means of which human social behavior is motivated and made meaningful. The course will begin with a discussion of the ideas of Mauss, Hallowell, Fortes, Geertz and several other anthropologists that inspired more recent studies in ethnopsychology. This will be followed by an examination of several indigenous models of self, person and emotion and their expression in life-cycle rituals, kinship, ideas about rank and power, deviance, mental illness, and in other cultural domains. The fundamental features of the Western, and particularly the American, ethnopsychology will also be discussed. Course prerequisites include junior standing. Anthropology 101 or 222, or permission of instructor. Course format includes lectures and class discussions. Student evaluation will be based on two essay-type examinations and a short research paper. Graduate students are expected to do some additional reading and write a longer paper. (Kan)
430. Anthropology of Death and Dying. Sophomore standing; Anthro. 101 or 222 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Death is a universal human experience, yet the attitudes and responses towards it develop out of a complex interplay between individuals and their sociocultural environment. Using anthropological works, novels, films and other sources, the course explores the meaning of death in several Western and non-Western cultures and religious traditions. Particular attention is paid to understanding native ideas about the person, the life-cycle (birth, maturation, aging) and the afterlife, as well as interpreting mortuary rituals and the experience of the dying and the mourners. The course also offers an anthropological perspective on the development, since the 19th century, of the characteristic American mode of dealing with death and dying. Recommended prerequisites: Anthropology 101 or 222, sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Student evaluation is based on two take-home exams and a short research paper. Method of instruction combines lectures and discussion. (Kan)
439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
This course introduces students to economic anthropology and development in rural, village-based, tribal, peasant, urbanizing and industrializing societies and cultures of the Third World: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America and the Middle East. The FIRST PART reviews the nature of economic anthropology, its scope, objectives, basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation. It discusses economic anthropology as it relates to conventional/development economics. The SECOND PART examines anthropological (social science) perspectives on development and underdevelopment: progress, modernization, acculturation, socioeconomic growth, etc. The THIRD PART is concerned with specific case studies of problems of Third World development and underdevelopment: Rural/urban poverty and inequality; women and development; international migration; etc. The course CONCLUDES with an overview of global issues in Third World development and underdevelopment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators and all students with serious interest in comparative cultures and Third World development and underdevelopment. Junior standing or permission of instructor. Lecture/discussion format. Films shown in class when available. Final grades based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussion. Basic texts: Lucy Mair, ANTHROPOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT; Polly Hill, DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ON TRIAL. (Owusu)
444. Medical Anthropology. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).
The concepts of "health" and "illness" are culturally constructed. This course will examine beliefs about these states of being, and the way in which they are both products and illustrations of the larger social system in which they are found. Ideas about illness causation, therapies and therapists, healing symbols and rituals, the social roles and interactions of patients and curers will be explored. In addition to examining these beliefs and processes in non-Western societies, we will also draw upon examples from our own culture – among them AIDS, cancer, anorexia and bulimia, schizophrenia - to illustrate the powerful way in which illness and culture are bound together. Methods of instruction will include lectures and films, with great emphasis on class discussion. The course is recommended for junior, senior, and graduate level students. Student evaluation will be based on a take-home midterm and a final paper. (Peters-Golden)
448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (SS).
This course approaches universal aspects of religion-religious experience, the concept of the sacred, the sense of the divine, the notion of occult power, through an analysis of the most prevalent form of religious behavior, namely ritual. Having examined and discussed religious concepts and actions in their own right the course will consider their places in human affairs. Although the course will be universalist in its orientation, illustrative materials will be drawn from a range of simple and complex societies. There are two take home examinations. Although there are no prerequisites a background in anthropology, the social sciences generally, religion or philosophy will be helpful. Junior standing is required; enrollment is generally about 75% undergraduate, 25% graduate students. (Rappaport)
458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 – POPULAR RELIGION IN EUROPE AND SPANISH AMERICA. This course focuses on the new directions that scholars in a variety of fields are taking in the study of popular religion. Readings will provide an eclectic introduction to a range of theoretical perspectives, from cultural anthropology and micro-history to feminist theology and symbolic analysis, as we consider recent fascinating case studies on folk Catholicism in historical and contemporary Europe (with emphasis on Spain, Portugal, Italy, and France) and in historical and contemporary Spanish America (with emphasis on Mesoamerica and the Andes). We will look at such themes as the interaction of witchcraft, magic, and religion, the development of devil beliefs, the history and diverse forms of the cult of the Virgin Mary, and the intricate and tense relationship between women and the Catholic Church. Since popular religion is, by definition, a product of a dialectic between the official religion of ecclesiastical authorities and the "unofficial" religion of ordinary believers, we will consider in detail how inquisitions and evangelization campaigns have sought to repress, alter, and erase popular forms of religious life; and how in turn, people have resisted these interventions through rituals and pilgrimages as well as through alternative beliefs in spiritism, visions, and magical healing. Students will be asked to prepare a class presentation, a short review of any theme covered in the course, and a longer research paper. The course is open to junior and seniors, and graduate students. Previous anthropology courses not required. (Behar)
Section 002 – INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND LOCAL MARKETS. This seminar explores how local and long-distance trade constructs and reproduces relations of both autonomy and subordination in the Third World countries. We will look at the influence of international trade and the terms of trade on processes of state formation, class formation and dependent development. Marketplace trade in local foodstuffs, imports and services is equally central to processes of urbanization, wage labor and commercialization of agriculture. We will compare cross-culturally specific trading relations, including credit, clientship, information and the sexual division of labor. We will consider examples of a wide range of societies and theoretical approaches. A term paper and exams will be evaluated. Students should have had an introductory course in cultural anthropology, or development economics. (Clark)
Section 003 – ETHNOGRAPHY IN AMERICA. This is a seminar course that will examine classic studies of American society based on ethnographic research - that is, based on field work involving extended residence in a community, extended contact with the "natives," open-ended interviews, etc. The course will be organized chronologically, beginning with earlier studies ("Yankee City," Middletown") in the '20's and '30's and moving to more contemporary studies. The course will also attempt to cover most regions of the country (northeast, south, midwest, California), as well as a variety of major groups or social sectors (elites; middle class; working class; white ethnics; Blacks; possibly certain industries). Requirements: reading one book per week; active seminar participation; midterm paper and final paper. (Ortner)
Section 004 – THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF AFRICAN ART.. During Winter Term this section is jointly offered with CAAS 458.002. (Roberts)
531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course investigates (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g., kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence, etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. (Kelly)
478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or the equivalent. (3). (SS).
See Linguistics 442. (Lippi)
386. Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).
This course considers the ancient prehistoric civilizations of Middle America, Andean South America, and the Middle East. The primary objective is to show how anthropological archaeologists attempt to understand the evolution of complex society. The course begins with a general discussion of cultural evolution, continues with a discussion of information from each study area, and concludes with a general consideration of what the archaeological study of prehistoric civilizations might tell us about the behavior of modern cultural systems. No special background is assumed, although sophomore standing is a prerequisite. Students are evaluated on the basis of two in-class exams: a midterm and a final The text is the most recent edition of PATTERNS IN PREHISTORY, by R.J. Wenke (Oxford Press). There will also be a course-pack of relevant journal articles. The primary method of instruction is lecture, although some in-class discussion is encouraged. (Parsons)
387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).
North America was the setting for roughly 10-20,000 years of cultural diversification before native Indian groups were confronted by European diseases and expansionist interests. This course will survey the varied lifeways of prehistoric societies north of Mexico as they have been reconstructed by archaeologists. Because it is impossible to adequately cover all regional manifestations in one term, emphasis will be placed on the Southwest, the Midwest, and the Southeast, but outlines of other regions will be included. There will be a focus on food-procurement systems and how these are connected with cultural variation. The evolution of agricultural societies will be explored in some depth, and students will become familiar with native plants domesticated within the present U.S. borders as well as crops that originated in Mexico and spread to temperate North America. Evaluations will be based on two midterm exams and a final exam – all of which will consist of essay-type questions – as well as a 10-15 page paper. There will be a textbook for general background reference and a course pack of readings. Most instruction will be by lecture, supplemented by slides. Several films will be scheduled. (Fritz)
482. European Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).
This is a general survey of the prehistoric archaeology of Europe and the British Isles from the earliest evidence for human occupation to the Roman conquest. Primary emphasis is on Western and Central Europe and on the history and evolution of social and economic systems in this area. Lecture course. Evaluation based on a paper and examinations. (Whallon)
489. Maya and Central American Prehistory Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).
This course emphasizes the cultural evolution of the ancient Maya, whose civilization once extended from eastern Mexico through Guatemala and Belize into El Salvador and Honduras. Stages of development include hunters and gatherers, egalitarian villagers, emerging rank, and the state. Topics include religion, social organization, architecture, political hierarchies, subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, exchange systems, and hieroglyphic writing. The last part of the class covers other tribes and chiefdoms that occupied lower Central America. A take home midterm and a final paper are required. (Marcus)
491. Prehistory of the Central Andes. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).
This course discusses the prehistoric cultural sequence for Andean South America. We begin with the first well-documented humans at about 13,000 years age, and end with the period of European contact in the 16th century A.D. The course's primary purpose is to describe and explain cultural evolution in this region over this long era. Following a general introduction to cultural evolutionary theory and Andean ecology, the course begins with a discussion of the historically-documented Inca empire as it existed at initial European contact in A.D. 1532. Then we go back to the oldest cultural materials and work upward in time to the Inca period. Some general background in anthropology is assumed, and Anthropology 101 or 282 are considered minimal prerequisites. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two take-home exams and a term paper. There is no textbook, but a course pack of relevant journal articles will be available. Primary instruction is by lecture, although discussion is encouraged. (Parsons)
494. Introduction to Analytical Methods in Archaeology. One course in statistics or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course is designed to acquaint students with the application of analytical techniques in archaeology and to provide an understanding of the role of numerical analysis in archaeological research. Course coverage will range from the most basic use of numbers in data presentation to the consideration of a variety of more complex techniques which have been developed specifically to cope with the unique character of archaeological research. The course will be organized around sets of lectures and class exercises, and a basic familiarity with archaeological research and common statistical methods will be assumed. Students will require a good hand calculator for regular class use. Readings for the course will be drawn from a variety of sources, and as such no core text will be assigned. Evaluation of student performance will be based on a series of assigned projects designed to highlight the student's control over the subject matter of the course. (Whallon)
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