Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to be a well-rounded introduction to Islam in theory and practice, and will deal with the following subjects: fundamental of Islam; principal intellectual pursuits of Muslims, with emphasis on the formative phase; and modern religious developments in the Muslim world. Two exams and a paper. (Mir)

361. Gods, Men, and History in the Ancient Near East: Evolution and Transformations of Society and Culture in the Lands of the Fertile Crescent. Part I: From the Beginnings to Alexander the Great (ca. 5000-323 B.C.) Sophomore standing. (4). (HU).

This course, specifically for undergraduates, attempts a combination of approaches to Ancient Near Eastern History, one which stresses cultural and intellectual concerns against the backdrop of necessary political history. Beginning with the decipherment of the first writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the study explores the first organizations of human life and activity in recorded history. The course is as much interested in "capturing" the human perspectives of the era (3000-323 B.C.) as in setting in order consecutive events. We shall be looking at politics, religion, subsistence issues, literature and world-views of ancient Semitic peoples. The course requires no previous background, and is introductory in nature. It will be taught through a combination of lecture and discussion techniques. Grading in the course will be based on two papers of about six pages each, and final examination. Texts will include a collection of paperbacks, such as: S.N. Kramer, THE SUMERIANS; A.L. Oppenheim, ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA; John Wilson, THE CULTURE of ANCIENT EGYPT; and Frankfort, Wilson, and Jacobson, BEFORE PHILOSOPHY. (Orlin)

398. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

This course is an independent study reading course which must be supervised by a Near Eastern Studies faculty member. It is normally taken by a student who would like to study some aspect of a subject within a course already taken in further detail. Arrangements for the course are made directly with the faculty member.

423/Geography 423. Geography of the Near East. (3). (SS).

This course presents a systematic view of the environments and ecologies of the Near East and North Africa. It discusses how different subsistence patterns interact with each other and modern development places additional strains on the overall system. Rather than attempting a country by country survey, examples are drawn throughout the region with particular emphasis on those areas familiar to the instructor. Lectures, outside readings, movies and seminar-type discussions constitute the body of the course. There will be a midterm and a final examination. Graduate students are expected to write a term paper. Text: Beaumont, Blake, and Wagstaff, THE MIDDLE EAST- A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY (John Wiley, 1976). (Kolars)

435. Literary Analysis and Theory I. (3). (HU).

The study of Near Eastern literatures from the viewpoint of contemporary literary theories is fairly new. This course offers an introduction to that study. The emphasis will be on the practical application of major literary theories. These will be surveyed in the first part of the course, together with analyses done and discussed jointly by the class. In the second half of the course, the major Near Eastern literatures, ancient or modern, will be introduced, and sample texts jointly analysed, with emphasis on the literatures represented by the participants. Participants will take turns in presenting assigned readings, taking minutes, and analysing assigned texts and, later, texts of their choice. The latter will form the basis for their term paper. Evaluation will be on these assignments and class participation. (Windfuhr)

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the modern literature of the Arab Lands, Iran, Israel and Turkey. The course is taught by four professors, each of whom will examine the literature in which he/she specializes. Lectures introduce major literary figures and their works within the framework of the historical and social circumstances of their lives. Materials in English translation are reviewed wherever possible and discussions relate particularly to genre development and external influences on the literatures of the modern Near East. (Stewart-Robinson)

463/Hist. 507. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

This course will investigate the following topics (and several more not listed) ON A COMPARATIVE BASIS AMONG VARIOUS SOCIETIES IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST e.g., Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Hittite, Hebrew, and EARLY GREECE: types of conceptualization-reason and myth; intellectual activities-invention of writing, pseudo-science; data-keeping; libraries; standards of aesthetic perceptions; origins of various literary and non-literary genres (especially history-writing); origins of various political, economic and legal institutions; perceptions of the cosmos (religious and philosophical); ideas on knowledge and wisdom. The course will be taught in a combination lecture-discussion method. Examination of the various issues will be grounded in selected readings from standard texts and documents, as well as in general interpretive articles. A number of paperback books will be required texts, while an additional supply of sources will be placed on reserve in the Undergraduate Library. These will be spelled out on the first day of class. The course work will require a term paper, a shorter project, and the final examination (usually a take-home exam). Those interested in the history of ideas and the development of various types of cognition, both undergraduates and graduates, are sincerely welcome. The course will operate in the spirit of exploration and intellectual adventure. (Orlin)

481/Rel 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (3). (HU).

See English 401. (Williams)

587. Readings in Classical Arabic Islamic Texts. Reading knowledge of Arabic. (3). (N. Excl).

Students will read a number of texts taken from various Islamic disciplines, such as law, theology, and philosophy. Grading will be done on the basis of class performance and several assignments. (Mir)

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

280/Rel. 280. Jesus and the Gospels. (4). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to the rich corpus of traditional materials commonly known as gospel traditions and literature. Without making a theological distinction between canonical and extracanonical traditions, this course will enable the student to apply to these texts the most recent historical-critical and literary-critical methods. This critical methodology will further enable the student to observe the rich diversity of interpretation which already existed at the earliest recoverable periods within both the so called orthodox and unorthodox circles. Inferences can then be drawn about the origins and development of the tradition in the period before and up to the emergence of "early catholicism." Evaluation will be determined by six objective exams. (Mirecki)

444/Rel. 444. Myth in the Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern World. (3). (HU).

This course will explore a number of mythic texts from the cultures of the ancient Near East Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, and Canaan and then ask whether one can talk about myth in the literature of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. The texts to be treated will cover such themes as creation and world order; immortality, death, and the netherworld; and the role of the female in human and divine society; and in each instance, we shall want to test our own reading of the texts against a variety of general approaches to myth developed in Western scholarship. Two overriding questions will govern our inquiry: 1) what light do the myths throw on the nature and function of myth in general? The format of the course will consist of lectures and class discussions based upon the original mythic texts in English translation and modern interpretative studies. It is anticipated that there will be at least two examinations, both emphasizing essay questions, and a term paper of about 18-20 pages. There is no prerequisite for the course, but some prior acquaintance with the history of the Mediterranean world and/or ancient Near East would be helpful. (Machinist)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to four credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN MODERN ARABIC PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT by E. N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC PART ONE, by P. Abboud et al. (Staff, Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course may not be taken until SIX hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART TWO by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

202. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 201 or equivalent. (6). (FL).

This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. It is the second of a year-long course whose primary goals are to enable the student to (1) understand familiar spoken literary Arabic, (2) converse with a native speaker of Arabic using simple terms, (3) read and understand the specific content of an elemental level and (4) write correct short responses within the scope of his/her vocabulary and experience. The method of instruction puts equal emphasis on the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course is conducted in Arabic except for grammatical explanations. It meets six hours weekly and requires approximately ten hours every week for outside of class preparation including listening to lesson tapes in the laboratory or at home, writing assignments and review of material covered in class. Course grade is based on classroom preparation including written assignments and performance (25%), tests and quizzes (50%), and a final examination (25%). Required texts: Peter Abboud et al, ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC. PART I and TWO. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1975. (Staff, Rammuny)

402. Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 401. (6). (Excl).

This is a fairly intensive course, with heavy emphasis on oral and written expression. IMSA PartI and II will be used. Students will be encouraged to read and discuss lengthy original passages of literary and non-literary nature by modern Arab authors. They will also be required to produce compositions and presentations of their own on a regular basis. By the end of the Winter Term, participants should be capable of confronting unfamiliar Arabic texts (spoken or written) with reasonable assurance. Evaluation will be based on class participation, weekly quizzes, home assignments, and two examinations. (Ferhadi and Rammuny)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

414. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 413 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course builds on the skills developed in Arabic 413. Although published texts as well as handouts prepared by the instructor will be utilized for reference purposes, oral exchange is the main activity to which explanations and drills will be directed. The objective of the class is to enable students to function adequately and with reasonable fluency in natural life communication involving the use of the Egyptian dialect. Aspects of Egyptian culture, e.g., customs, humor, songs, and the like, will be made familiar to the students in the course of language practice. Evaluation will be based entirely on class participation and effective oral comprehension and performance. (Staff, Rammuny)

431. Arabic Phonology and Morphophonology. Arabic 402 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

This lecture-discussion course deals with the morphophonology of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Specifically, it deals in detail with the generative phonology of MSA as developed in M. Brame, ARABIC PHONOLOGY: Implications for Phonological Theory and Historical Semitic. Prerequisite Arabic 430 or equivalent. Course grade will be based primarily on a term paper or final exam, plus class participation. (McCarus)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills.

302(402). Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In addition to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. (Coffin)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

402(502). Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (3). (HU).

The object of the course is to enhance the student's Hebrew reading and writing skills. In addition, emphasis is placed on expanding the students' vocabulary. (Balaban)

451. Modern Hebrew Fiction: The First Half of the 20th Century. Hebrew 402. (3). (HU).

This course is the first of a two term sequence consisting of a survey of modern Hebrew Fiction. The emphasis is on early 20th century Hebrew authors (Steinberg, Shofman, Baron, Agnon and others). The course is planned for undergraduate and graduate students. The objective of the course is to give the student a comprehensive picture of modern Hebrew prose. After having the general picture, the student would be able to choose courses which deal with specific generations or specific writers in modern Hebrew fiction. Since the course is a general survey of major trends and generations in the first half of the 20th century there might be short overlap with courses which focus on specific eras (such as "Contemporary Israeli Fiction"). The grades will be based on weekly papers, midterm and a final exam (or final paper). (Balaban)

541. Hebrew Legendary (Tannaitic) Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Readings and interpretations of texts from the Tannaitic corpus of literature, including Mishnah and Midrash. (Schramm)

547. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (HU).

Readings of biblical selections, thematically related together with interpretations provided by the medieval commentators. Discussion will center on the evidence of "non-unique" interpretations and how they structure. (Schramm)

552. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be elected for credit more than once with permission of instructor.

Reading and discussion of fiction by Israeli authors: S.Y. Agnon, A.B. Yeshoshna, and others. Reading selections include short stories and novellas by the authors above. (Coffin)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

This course is the natural continuation of Elementary Persian 201. The emphasis will be on the use of the language in real-life situations, i.e., conversations and narratives, oral and written, on such topics as language and nationality, family, shopping, emergencies, etc. Oral and written drills and the use of the language laboratory accompany the dialogs and compositions. By the end of the term the student should have acquired an adequate knowledge of all major points of Persian grammar with an active vocabulary of about 1000 items, should be able to read simple texts and to write short passages on simple topics. Grading will be based on attendance, homework, tests and the final examination. Incoming students may join the class pending examination and approval by the instructor. (Windfuhr)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

541. Classical Persian Texts. Iranian 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course involves the reading and literary analysis of texts from major authors of the classical period (ca. 950-1500) and includes basic skills in reading aloud and the use of the rules of prosody in scansion and interpretation of poetry texts. It will include shorter or longer passages from such writers as Ferdowsi, Nezami, Rumi, Sa'di, Hafez, Bayhagi, Nezamiye Aruzi, and others, according to the interests of the class and the instructor. There are midterm and final exams. The texts are in the form of a photocopied course pack. (Luther)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course is the sequel to Turkish 201 and is the second half of Elementary Turkish. We will focus on speaking and writing the language of Modern Turkey. Course topics include the phonological structure of Turkish, basic sentence patterns, and basic vocabulary. The aural-oral approach is emphasized and serves as the basic course format. There are tapes which accompany the text, TURKISH FOR FOREIGNERS. Student evaluation is based on written and oral quizzes, and a final examination. (Stewart-Robinson)

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. The course is designed for students who have completed Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It provides further study of Turkish grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Comprehension and oral and written expression will be developed through translations and compositions. Readings will be emphasized. Special needs of the students as to subject matter will be taken into consideration. Reading material will be provided. Evaluation will be determined on the basis of class quizzes and performance, a midterm and final examination. (Stewart-Robinson)

412. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 411. (3).

Second half of first year Ottoman intended to sharpen skills in the handling of a variety of styles, topics and scripts through the reading and analysis of specially selected texts. Quizzes and a final examination required. (Stewart-Robinson)

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