Romance Languages and Literatures

Courses in French (Division 371)

ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE COURSES. Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school MUST see an academic advisor or check with the Department of Romance Languages office to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also speak to an advisor.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with one-two years prior study of French may elect this course only by permission of an LSA academic advisor or of the department and should enroll in sections 001-0l3. Students with absolutely no previous study of French are encouraged to enroll in sections 014-019. (These special sections are offered in fall term only. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (l 1/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103 or 102. It is strongly suggested that transfer students see H.Neu or M.P.Hagiwara for advice re placement in the appropriate course.

Section 014: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP).

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course by permission of an LSA academic advisor or of the department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 1-3 years in high school or 1 term of college or University French not at University of Michigan) whose proficiency is not sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by midterm, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. French 206 may be elected prior to French 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Section 001. French 206 is an informal mini-course with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Pass-Fail only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must see an academic advisor for placement. Students enrolling in French 231 are assumed to have completed at least 3 years of high school French, French 102 or 103 here, or equivalent. The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. Both courses also have listening comprehension and speaking tests, and 232, in addition, has an outside reading test.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

See French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LSA language requirement.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward mid term students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 18-20 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

306. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. French 306 may be elected prior to French 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 306 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, but homework, attendance, and participation in classroom activities determine the Pass/Fail grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, one novel, one play. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, two novels, one play, simulation, bi-weekly essays. (Morton)

363. French Phonetics. French 361 and 362, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to help students improve their pronunciation of French (1) through a study of the physical characteristics of each sound, the relationship between sounds and their written presentations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) through intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllable structure, intonation, liaison, and in the delection/retention of the "mute E." The class meets three hours per week and is conducted in French. Regular attendance and participation are required. Students are expected to familiarize themselves with the assigned theoretical material before each class period. Oral exercises are to be prepared in the lab on a regular basis. Each student will record a speech sample during the first week of the term and will be informed of problem areas on which he/she needs to work independently throughout the term, using the audiotapes available in the lab and checking with the instructor periodically for individualized help. Evaluation of proficiency in pronunciation will be based on a final oral exam. Homework assignments, short quizzes, a midterm, and a written final exam will be given to evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. (Neu)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Muller)

408. Advanced Translation, French-English. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Texts to be translated will be drawn from literature, newspapers, technological, diplomatic and economic reports. LITERATURE: (three weeks). Short excerpts from Rousseau, Diderot, Stendhal, Balzac, Gide, Levi-Strauss, Barthes. JOURNALISM: (four weeks) LE MONDE, LE FIGARO, LE POINT, LE NOUVEL OBSERVATEUR, L'EXPRESS. TECHNOLOGY AND FINANCE: (six weeks) L'EXPANSION, technical reports from the U.N. economic and financial forecasts from international agencies, banks, brokers, etc. Instruction: Students will prepare for each class a translation of some 20 to 30 lines for possible variants. We shall then go over this work in class calling on as many students as possible. Homework will include the two hour exam (French into English) given to prospective translators by the United Nations. By the end of the term the student should: (1) Be able to translate from French into an English which is idiomatic and smooth flowing while conveying the message with clarity and accuracy; (2) Be able to discern when an expression in French, whether technical, idiomatic, a coinage, a witticism, a literary allusion or whatever lies beyond his knowledge of the French language, and be able to inform himself adequately for resolving the problem; (3) Be able to propose variant translations, all permissible, of key phrases and to choose among them according to the accuracy of the rendition and the achievement of a tone fitting to the source text. (Morton)

416. Advanced Business French. French 380 (Intermediate Business French). (3). (Excl).

As a follow-up to Business French 380, we will look further into economic and commercial matters in France such as banking, distribution, taxes, whether they apply to businesses or to individuals or both, with emphasis on functional and conceptual generalities. Case histories will serve as a basis for oral group presentations in class. They will involve such themes as launching of a product or service, relocation and closing-up shops, mergers, union conflicts, etc. In addition, some other topics will be touched upon such as the analysis of commercials, export marketing in French, and the Paris Stock Exchange. All classes are conducted in French. Some students may be entitled to apply for an internship with a French firm in France in the Spring of 1988. One paper on each case history. No auditors. (Belloni) Section 002 Belloni)

454/Rom. Ling. 454. French Syntax. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course combines an introduction to linguistics and an in-depth review of French syntax. We will explore the basic concepts of modern linguistic theories, including discourse analysis, and see how they are applied to French. We will also compare typical linguistic approaches to language analysis with traditional grammar rules. From this analysis of French we will proceed then to exercises designed to increase competence in grammar and awareness of French stylistics. These exercises involve comparisons of French and English, various ways of sentence-recombining, analysis of sentence structures from simple to complex patterns, including literary and conversational passages, a study of the relationship between word order and the "highlighting" devices and rhythmic patterns of French, correction of grammatical errors made in speech and compositions by French lycee students as well as American students learning French, and translations from English to French. The materials for the course include a course pack (approximately 150 pages) containing diagrams (derivational trees), supplementary explanations, examples, exercises, and articles on French linguistics and stylistics. A third-year level review or reference grammar book is also recommended. The course will be conducted in French, and the classroom work will consist of lectures and discussions (1/2), and travaux pratiques (1/2), emphasizing practical work with the language. Course grades will be based on the completion and quality of the assigned work (exercises), two one-hour examinations, and a two-hour take-home final examination. (Hagiwara)

480/Rom. Ling. 480. Background of Modern French. A thorough reading knowledge of French. (3). (HU).

A survey of the history of the French language with about equal emphasis on external social causes and internal grammatical effects from the Roman conquest to modern times. Students should have good proficiency in French; and any background in Latin or a second Romance language is helpful. Required of Romance Linguistics concentrators offering French rather than Spanish. Text: Peter Rickard, A HISTORY OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE (Hutchinson, London). Lecture and discussion. (Leonard)

Civilization

385. Civilisation française, Continued. French 361. (3). (HU).

Through a presentation of basic facts and figures, this course will inform students of the features and trends of contemporary France. Chapters tackled will include: demography and geographical economics, the Vth Republic institutions and the present political challenge, the health system, the family unit, the social and professional disparities, immigration, French cultural practices. Essentially lectures, but active participation of students is expected. One four or five page paper every three weeks, one final. No auditors. (Gabrielli)

440. Les structures socio-culturelles de la France actuelle. French 362 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

In May 1988, France will elect a president. As it does in the United States, the presidential election spotlights-though not always in a clear or illuminating fashion the system of government, political passions, and underlying social problems. An election campaign is always a difficult text for a foreigner to read, and the objective of this course is to enable students to both follow the campaign and better understand contemporary French society. We will begin with a look at political structures, parties, and candidates, but most of the term will be devoted to analyzing aspects of the French experience that are quite different from anything American and that will play a role, implicitly or explicitly, in presidential politics. Topics include (1) the tradition of a socialist and communist left, (2) generational and cultural politics in the student movements of May 68 and December 86, and (3) the social phenomenon of immigration. Materials will include literary works, nonfiction writings (sociological, political, journalistic), films and cartoons. Lectures, discussions. Two papers of moderate length, final examination. (Paulson)

Literature

387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and to introduce them to the methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Active student participation will be encouraged. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, LE CID, Molière, LE TARTUFFE, Racine, PHEDRE, Voltaire, INGENUE, Rousseau, LES CONFESSIONS. Grades will be based on a short paper on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French. (Gray)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to four of the principal writers of the nineteenth-century French literature. We study the themes of ambition, avarice and solitude in novels by Stendhal, Balzac and Flaubert. We also read poems from LES FLEURS DU MAL by Baudelaire. Emphasis placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment consists of reading some twenty-five pages in a novel with "close reading" of some four or five paragraphs. These pages are then discussed in class. Students are required to write some five to six papers in French of three to four pages in length. Each paper is corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grades are based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Gray)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

Literature reflects both the changing attitudes of society and the special insights of individual authors. Freedom and constraints, love and death, fear, alienation, moral values, and the notion of self-concept: the evolution of these fundamental concerns of twentieth-century society as understood by major French authors is the primary focus of the course. Class discussions in French will analyze the special insights and literary techniques of writers such as Gide, Proust, Sartre, and Camus through examples of the novel, short story, the theater and poetry. Two mini-exams and two papers. (Nelson)

410. Le cinéma français. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Conducted in French, the course presents an introduction to film as language, with special attention to camera angle, distance, and movement, as well as to editing techniques, as means of expression. Examples are drawn from a series of films seen in class, which form the basis of class discussion and analysis. Since the series typically includes two or three classic films of the 1930's (Vigo, Clair, Renoir, etc.), two or three new wave films of the 50's and 60's, and a modern film or two, students can observe the evolution of film esthetics and technology in France. Class members are encouraged to see additional French films playing in Ann Arbor. The course seeks to enhance students' sensitivity to motion pictures in general, their appreciation of films made in the French cultural context, and their understanding of French directors' contributions to the cinematographic art. Readings from Mitry, Metz, and other theorists and from selected film scripts. Three short papers, midterm and final examinations. French concentrators are expected to write in French. (Nelson)

442. Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 READING FRENCH POETRY. Many people unnecessarily lack confidence in themselves when it comes to reading poetry. This course aims to cure the "fear of poetry" by looking at the kind of work with language that produces poetic texts, and by trying to make explicit the kinds of operations we perform when we make a poetic text meaningful. There will be some technical discussion (notably of French rhythm), some exercises - both in and out of class in writing poetry (to demonstrate how it is done), and plenty of practice in "making sense" of a range of poetic texts, from the Middle Ages to modern times, and including texts from Quebec. Occasional lectures, but mostly discussions of specific texts, all in French. Three short written assignments; midterm and final by interview with instructor. Texts: Fouchet, ANTHOLOGIC THEMATIQUE DE LA POESIE FRANÇAISE (Segher); Rancourt, POESIE DU QUEBEC. (Saint-Germain). (Chambers)

Section 002 SURREALISM. The course, which is part of the "Topics and Themes in French Literature," is designed as an introduction to the Surrealist movement and its poetics. The discussions will be concerned with issues of representation, the interrelation between visual and verbal modes of expression, the uses of myth, primitivism, dream-imagery, and the invention and practice of new techniques (automatic writing, collage, frottage) as modifications of visual and verbal expression. Evaluation will be based on an oral presentation and a term paper. TEXTS: Breton, Soupault, LES CHAMPS MAGNETIQUES; Andre Breton, NADJA, L'AMOUR FOU; Andre Masson, ECRITS. Poetry by: Aragon, Rene Char, Desnos, Eluard, Leiris Artaud, LE THEATRE ET SON DOUBLE. Coursepack will include excerpts from Surrealist manifestoes and theoretical writings. In addition to the reading material, the course will make use of visual media and movies. (Clej)

457. Problemes de l'analyse textuelle I. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is offered in the Winter Term 1988 and is a NEW course under an old title. The course is specifically designed to introduce students both to the SCIENCE and ART of analysis, that is to say the literary evaluation and appreciation of literary texts, stressing the importance of careful READING, LISTENING as well as UNDERSTANDING texts, using essential elements of theory such as Rhetoric, Phonetics, Semantic and other literary theory aids. No particular theory is emphasized and students with some training in different aspects of literary theory (Todorov, Derrida, Lacan, Freud, Jung, Kristeva, Hamon, and others) have the opportunity to experiment practically with the theory of their choice or with other methods or models with which they are less familiar. As a sample of theoretical aspects that are discussed I propose the following: semiology and analysis; phonostylistic elements and the literary text; grammar and poetic analysis; images and stylistic analysis; and aspects of the literary text. Following this survey of theoretical methods and problems, the course becomes PRACTICAL and students are EXPLICATING and ANALYSING texts of periods going from the Middle Ages to the XXth century as well as texts chosen among the different genres. Elements of the theory are applied during this phase of the course. WORK involved: Reading critical works; frequent ORAL textual analysis in class (the written text of the oral presentation must be submitted in good form following the presentation in class), one long term paper textual analysis for graduate students and no examination. For undergraduate students, a final examination (textual analysis) but no term paper. (Mermier)

463. Introduction to French Literature of the Nineteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Section 001 THE ARTIST AND SOCIETY IN LITERATURE. The word ARTIST in its modern sense is a creation of the nineteenth century. Faced with a society in which their role seemed uncertain, changing, and subject to uncomfortable economic constraints, creators in many genres attempted to assert the autonomy of art and the singularity of the artist. Yet most continued to seek or at least dream of public success, social prestige, or political influence. Artistic creation and the status of the artist thus became major artistic themes, especially in literature, and this will be the subject of the course. We will examine (1) what literature can contribute to a sociology of the artist, and (2) what the preoccupation with artistic themes reveals about literary works and genres. The course will also provide an introduction to the reading of nineteenth-century French texts and to sociological approaches to literature Readings will include novels by Flaubert (L'EDUCATION SENTIMENTALE) and Zola (L'OEUVRE), two short stories by Balzac (LE CHEF D'OEUVRE INCONNU, PIERRE GRASSOU), and Gautier's preface to MADEMOISELLE DE MAUPIN, excerpts from Murger's SCENES DE LA VIE DE BOHEME and from Baudelaire's poetry and art criticism. Informal lectures, discussions. Two papers of medium length. (Paulson)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. The text for the course is Lazzarino's PREGO with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's PREGO (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. Compositions are required and are based upon readings or current events. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination.

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

362. Advanced Italian. Italian 361 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Further proficiency in oral and writing skills will be stressed in Italian 362. Reading materials will include short fiction and non-fiction, as well as lengthier assignments of outside reading on which various written and oral assignments will be made. Participation in class discussion, occasional oral presentations, weekly compositions based for the most part on assigned readings, the subject matter of which will deal primarily with subjects of topical interest. Continuing grammar difficulties will be treated as they arise. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly.

380. Italian Cinema and Society. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

Conducted in English, the course presents an introduction to Italian movies from 1945 to the present. Besides examining the evolution of two of the most important trends in Italian cinema (the neo-realism and the COMMEDIA ALL'ITALIANA, we will also focus our attention on some of the problems that plague the Italian cinema industry. "The ugliest in the world" affirms one recent polemical essay on contemporary Italian movies. Is this true? Are Antonioni, Fellini, Wertmuller, just hiding behind their past glories? Understanding the Italian cultural context and the peculiar socio-political background will help in providing an answer to these questions. Text: Bondanella, ITALIAN CINEMA, Frederick Ungar, 1984. Two short and one long reviews and a final.

412. Politics, Poverty and Poetry. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

The early middle decades of the twentieth century in Italy, spanning the period of Fascism, the Second World War and a time of problematic economy, produced a literature of strong social and political import. An entire culture was in crisis, and the intellectual community that had been, for the most part, academic and conservative, began to insert itself forcefully into the mainstream of European cultural reality. Re-evaluation of the "official" Italian ethic, and a questioning and challenge of traditional mores resulted in political and philosophical polemic which was as a new translated lyricism into Italian fiction. Among the most effective writers of this period, Ignazio Silone, Carlo Levi, Alberto Morazia, Elio Vittorini, and Vasco Pratolini, typify the several approaches that were being taken to renew commitment and taste. Their most influential novels will be studied, following introductory lectures on the general literary climate of the 1930's and 1940's, with short readings by some of their "precursors," including Alvaro and Rea. Lectures, class discussion, short papers and exams. (Olken)

419. Italo Calvino: A Writer for All Seasons. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2). (HU).

The magic of Calvino is his prodigious talent as a master teller of tales; realistic, fantastic, set in centuries past or the present, his stories form a pattern of all the possible paths men have taken, and all the destinies that have befallen them. Elusively didactic, yet openly vulnerable, Calvino's characters are involved in all the great deeds and dull minutiae of life, exploring themselves and the world around them. This world as Calvino sees and appraises it, his concern with its style and meaning, will be the central topic of this course. Texts will include his first novel, THE PATH TO THE SPIDERS' NEXT; the fantasy trilogy: THE CLOVEN VISCOUNT, THE NON-EXISTENT KNIGHT, THE BARON IN THE TREES, and THE COSMICOMICS; and selected Neo-Realistic novellas and short stories. Class format will be based on lectures and discussion, and standard written assignments. The language of instruction will be English; the texts may be read in English or Italian. (Olken)

463. Italian Neo-realism. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

With their narratives of Elio Vittorini and Cesare Pavese, the literary, critical and spiritual masters in the creation of new prose models of the 1940's and 1950's in Italy, Neo-Realism began and flourished. Its various themes and exponents are the subject of this course, which will treat the form and structure, as well as the highly polemic orientation of the fiction of this period, and into the 1960's. Novels, novellas, and short stories by Corrado Alvaro, Vittorini, Pavese, Carlo Levi, Vasco Pratolini, and Italo Calvino will be presented. The format of the course includes lectures and class discussion. Short papers and exams. (Olken)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (FL).

The text for the course is Ellison et al. MODERN PORTUGUESE. Portuguese 102 covers units eleven through twenty. Because of the nature of the text and accompanying tapes, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. About one fourth of the classroom time is devoted to readings (each unit presents an aspect of Brazilian culture) and free discussion of topics raised by them. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises ranging from meaningful sentences to compositions, and spending one or two hours a week in the lab working on pronunciation, listening comprehension, etc. (mostly reviewing the structural exercises and dialogues done in class). Grading will be based on one-hour quizzes given every other week, two oral exams, class participation and a final exam. Our language lab also makes available to our students tapes with Brazilian music, and video-taped TV news in Portuguese. A Brazilian newspaper (O Estado de Sao Paulo) is available in the Graduate Library and other reading materials are available at the instructor's office. Because of staff limitations, Portuguese 102 is offered only in the Winter Term. (Warshai) only in the Winter Term. (Musso)

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second Year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required texts at the moment are King and Suner, PARA A FRENTE!, and selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. There is no formal grammar review, and the readings include novels and/or plays. Because of staff limitations, Portuguese 232 is offered only in the Winter Term. (Warshai)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

454/French 454. French Syntax. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See French 454. (Hagiwara)

480/French 480. Background of Modern French. A thorough reading knowledge of French. (3). (HU).

See French 480. (Leonard)

481/Spanish 481. Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (HU).

See Spanish 481. (Dworkin)

Courses in Romanian (Division 463)

102. Elementary Romanian. Romanian 101. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of Romanian grammar, conversation in the language, exercises, readings in Romanian, translations from Romanian into English, and vice versa. This course is intended also, to improve the student's vocabulary, speaking, reading and listening and to inquire into the Romanian literature and culture. Daily oral class participation. Written examination will be given on approximately a monthly basis. (Rosu)

232. Second-Year Romanian. Romanian 231. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to enhance the student's reading, accurate pronunciation, writing and speaking of Romanian and increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. Brief review of grammar and Romanian history, literature and culture presentation, will be another purpose of this course, using audiovisual materials. This course will be of special interest to students of Romance Languages and Literatures, Comparative Literatures, History, Political Science, Art History, Classical Art and Archaeology, East European Studies, Communication, Business Administration, etc. Monthly speaking and reading tests, and a final examination. (Rosu)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, two oral exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, three oral exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

Section 021: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP).

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish l02 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. Spanish 206 may be elected prior to Spanish 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Section 001. The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week; grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. One section of 206 is usually reserved for students who plan to participate in the Summer Study in Spain program. Class content and activities are designed to prepare students for the experience of living and studying abroad. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on two oral exams and a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on two oral exams, a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is a continuation of Spanish 111. Students continue to review the basics of Spanish grammar and build vocabulary for the purpose of reading comprehension. In Spanish 112, more attention is given to reading in the particular area of interest of the individual students enrolled in the course. Spanish 111 is not a prerequisite to 112, but is encouraged. (Dvorak)

Other Language Courses

306. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. Spanish 306 may be elected prior to Spanish 305. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to acquire the linguistic habits (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. Students share their knowledge with one another, and more advanced students help to maintain the continuity of the course as well as to encourage and to motivate less proficient class members. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. THE COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3) (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used, centered on a grammar-based course book. The student will do readings in Spanish, prepare discussion topics, revise and extend grammar, prepare exercises and translations, and expand vocabulary. Ample time is allotted to class discussion of the readings, and to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, exams, and participation in discussion.

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Section 001 Anderson; Section 003 Vaquero; Section 004; Calvo)

481/Rom. Ling. 481. Background of Modern Spanish. A thorough reading knowledge of Spanish. (3). (HU).

This lecture course surveys the historical, social, and literary background against which the Spoken Latin of the Iberian Peninsula evolved into Spanish. The emphasis is on the external rather than the internal history (historical grammar) of Spanish. The topics treated include the influence on the development of Spanish of such diverse languages as Basque, Gothic, Arabic, French, Italian and English. Although the course is taught in English, the ability to read Spanish with ease is essential. There will be a midterm, a final exam, and a written report. English or Spanish can be used for the exams and report. (Dworkin)

Literature

331. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

Section 001 GALDOS'S FORTUNATA AND JACINTA. FORTUNATA AND JACINTA (Two Stories of Married Women), Benito Perez Galdos' XIX-century masterpiece, turned one-hundred in 1987. It remains an enduring and intriguing work of fiction for an amazing spectrum of readers. The fact that the novel has been filmed as a movie and as a television series in Spain bears additional witness to its wide appeal. In this course, we will be exploring Galdos' novel as one of those experiences which reveals the whole of a particular society, a writer, and indeed, the novel form itself. At the same time, students will have the opportunity to view the well-received, ten-part television series of FORTUNATA AND JACINTA, and thus be able to make comparisons between two different media and approaches. We will be using Agnes Gullon's excellent English translation of FORTUNATA AND JACINTA (Univ. of Georgia Press, 1986). There will be a midterm, final exam, and two papers (each 10 pp. in length). (Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required). (Valis)

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

A study of Spanish literature in the Medieval and Golden Age periods (1000-1700). Students will read several texts of Spanish literature including POEMA DE MIO CID, EL ABENCERRAJE Y LA HERMOSA JARIFA, and LAZARILLO DE TORMES. The discussions will center around a broad cultural background including moral and political themes as well as formal aspects of the texts. There will be one short report to be given orally in class, two 3-4 page papers in Spanish on the texts, and one final exam consisting of essay questions on readings. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, exams and class discussion. Methods: lecture discussion. (Vaquero)

376. Latin American Civilization. Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

Professor Kubayanda has been especially invited to teach this course which will focus on Caribbean literature. Although the reference point will be Caribbean literature written in Spanish, the course will also consider French and English literatures of the area. The course is not only addressed to Spanish Concentrators but also to students in Latino Studies, the Latin American Studies Program, Comparative Literature, English and the Residential College. Spanish Concentrators will read in Spanish and non-concentrators in translation. Call Professor Walter Mignolo (4-5249) for more information about this course.

382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Covers the main Spanish American contemporary authors in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortazar, Gabriel Garcia Marquez; Vicente Huidobro, Pablo Neruda, Cesar Vallejo; Rodolfo Usigli, Octavio Paz). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. Conducted in Spanish. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports (b) midterm exam, and (c) final examination. There will be a course pack available at the beginning of the term. (Goic)

401. Spanish Honors: Introduction to Literary Studies and Criticism. One 400-level Spanish literature course, and permission of Honors advisor or instructor. (3). (HU).

The main goal of this course is to introduce the student to the fundamental principles of literary studies as a discipline. Literary studies, as any other discipline in the human services, can be seen as a series of knowledge-generating activities of theorizing or as a cluster of knowledge-problems and methods produced by these activities. Literary studies share, with other human sciences, a common goal: the explanation (theory) and interpretation (understanding) of our cultural world and our cultural experience. What distinguishes literary studies from other disciplines in the domain of the human sciences, is its focus on language, discourse and texts. Consequently, this course will emphasize critical thinking about texts by asking questions such as: What is literature? What is fiction? What are genres? What is explanation? What is explication? What is interpretation? Do we obtain knowledge or understanding in our transactions with literature and literary texts? A secondary goal of the course is to have a clear understanding of the meaning "Hispanic Language and Literature" within the context of general literary studies and of the current division of knowledge within colleges and universities in the USA. In this respect the course will focus on questions such as: What distinguishes the study of Hispanic from English language and literature? What are the relationships between foreign languages and literatures and comparative literature? Reflecting on these issues will help the student to understand both the place of literature among other human symbolic expressions and the cultural significance of understanding the "other" from "our native" point of view. (Mignolo)

462. Golden Age. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The one hundred and fifty years that followed the unification of the Spanish monarchy and the discovery of the New World witnessed an extraordinary invigoration of creative life that flowered into a Golden Age. The course will study the immense contribution of Spain to Renaissance literature by close analysis of the plaintive love lyrics of Garcilaso de la Vega, the spiritual and mystic poetry of Fray Luis de Leon and San Juan de la Cruz. Representative prose will be an Erasmist dialogue and the first picaresque novel of European literature, the LAZARILLO DE TORMES. Seventeenth-century literature will include plays by Lope de Vega and Calderon de la Barca, to exemplify the unique characteristics and achievements of Spain's national theater, an exemplary novel of Cervantes, and Quevedo's picaresque novel, the Buscon. Lectures in Spanish, term paper, hour and final exams. (Hafter)

468. Spanish Literature of the Fifteenth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The course is designed as an introduction to literary works from Spain in the fifteenth century. Readings will include the great Renaissance drama CELESTINA and a representative selection of fifteenth century and poetry. The discussions will center around themes, motifs, moral concerns, political and broad cultural background as well as formal aspects of the works. Two ten to fifteen page papers will be expected, as well as two oral reports and one final exam. Lectures will be given in Spanish, discussions in Spanish and English. (Fraker)

469. Spanish Theater of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

After a brief introduction to certain important trends in twentieth-century Spanish drama, the course will concentrate on a number of plays by five of the century's most outstanding playwrights: Benavente, Valle-Inclan, Grau, Garcia Lorca and Alberti. The works selected, representing a wide variety of styles, themes and techniques, will be analyzed in detail, both as theatrical pieces and literary texts. The prescribed plays will include, among other things, examples of Benavente's bourgeois drama, Valle-Inclan's ESPERPENTO, both Lorca's more conventional and experimental dramas, and Alberti's radical adaptation of the AUTO SACRAMENTAL. Some acquaintance with the Spanish Golden Age COMEDIA and/or other European late nineteenth-century early twentieth-century drama would be something of an advantage but is certainly not a necessity. The basis of student evaluation will be class participation, papers devoted to the works of the authors listed above, and tests and exams. The method of instruction will be a mixture of lecture, analysis of specific extracts, and class commentary and discussion. (Anderson)


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