161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).
Biological anthropology is a subfield of anthropology dealing with human biology and evolution. This course presents a survey of the major topics in the field. The course is divided into four major parts: (1) human genetics and evolutionary theory; (2) primate behavior and evolution; (3) the human fossil record; and (4) ecological, biological, and demographic variability in modern populations. No special background knowledge is required or assumed. (Hill)
361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).
An evaluation of the influence of biological and cultural factors on several aspects of human morphology and behavior. The course will start with an overview of evolutionary theory and of the evolution of behavior; subsequent topics include genetic disorders (e.g., sickle cell anemia), mental illness, fertility, cultural ecology, race, sexual behavior, and others. Several controversial issues (e.g., supposed race differences in intelligence) will be explored in lectures and readings. Grade is based on short papers and essay style exams. No prerequisite. (Watts)
362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).
The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that the race concept owes more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept; and (2) if the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology, what kind of sense can we make out of human biological variation? This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These aspects of the course's concern will be covered in lecture, but they can be supplemented by readings which will be suggested from time to time and by the assigned tests. Text: A.R. Frisancho, HUMAN ADAPTATION. (Brace)
369/Psychology 369. Primate and Human Social Relationships. Anthro. 368 or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).
This course will examine social relationships in primates in detail. Although some studies of humans will be covered, the emphasis of the course will be on nonhuman primates. One aim of the course is to use evolutionary theory to understand the types of social relationships found in primates and the differences in the social relationships of different species. A second aim is to use the data on nonhuman primate social relationships to generate principles applicable to human social behavior. Some of the topics that will be covered are dominance and aggression, reciprocity and friendship, male-female relationships, sexual behavior, and social development. Anthropology 368 (cross-listed as Psychology 368) (or permission of the instructor) is a prerequisite for this course. This course is more advanced and specialized than 368; it assumes a solid background in evolutionary theory and primate behavior, and it focuses on social relationships. Most or all readings will be provided in course packs; there may be a required book. There are two lectures plus one discussion per week; several lectures will include films. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, a final exam, and some essays. (Smuts)
462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (NS).
The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. (Livingstone)
469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001 – EVOLUTIONARY DEMOGRAPHY. We will begin the course discussing how evolution works, the principles for generating and testing evolutionary hypotheses, some general characteristics organisms are expected to possess as a result of their evolutionary history, some specific selective pressures underlying human evolution, the relationship between human evolutionary history and learning and culture, the evolution of the human life cycle, and the origins of parental care. Next we will use our knowledge of human evolutionary design to help us understand the origin and maintenance of what demographers refer to as "tastes" (i.e., preferences, desires, etc.) underlying, or related to, demand for children. Finally, models purporting to account for changing levels of demand for children will be discussed and evaluated. Two general questions that tie together the above topics are (1) Why is fertility as high as it is in traditional societies and as low as it is in modern societies? (2) Is our modern way of living adaptive? (Turke)
565. Evolution of Genus Homo. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for students concentrating in biological anthropology. (3). (NS).
The course begins with the appearance of HOMO ERECTUS and the unique aspects of the hominid line that accompany this event. Emphasis is placed on the ecological context and the adaptive shift to a hunting/gathering economy that seems to accompany the biological aspects that develop. The course traces the appearance of HOMO SAPIENS, the development of regional differentiation, and the continued feedback between social/cultural and biological evolution. A regional approach is taken in the analysis of HOMO SAPIENS evolution, with particular focus on the development of modern races and discussion of particular problems such as the Neanderthal one. The subsequent evolution of modern HOMO SAPIENS and the ancestry of living populations concludes the course. Material is presented through lectures, discussion, and individual laboratory work. Requirements include a midterm and a final exam, and a term paper. (Wolpoff)
568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).
This course evaluates the behavior of free-living primates from two perspectives. First, there is a full review of primate social organization that introduces students to biological and evolutionary problems of particular relevance to each sub-family. Second, topics are selected that highlight advances in understanding the nature and adaptive significance of behavior. These include morphological, physiological and environmental influences on social life, and detailed analyses of social behavior, especially cooperation and competition, reproduction and sexual behavior, development, dispersal and intergroup relations, communication, learning, emotion, and links with human behavior. Instruction is by lecture and discussion. (Watts)
Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.
101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).
Exposure to anthropology's cross-cultural, comparative and holistic viewpoints, and to ethnography, the field's characteristic data-gathering procedure, are important in a liberal arts education. Anthropology 101, which surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology) provides students (generally freshmen and sophomores) with a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. Anthropology 101 stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. Anthropology 101 teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about nature and diversity, and to think critically. As is proper for a distribution course, the principal aim of Anthropology 101 is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods which typify the discipline. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology, as well as surveying its content. (As such it is also recommended for anthropology concentrators.) Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex-gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings include basic text(s) and three paperbacks. Students must register for the three weekly lectures (section 001) and a discussion-recitation section. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. (Kottak)
272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS).
What place does language have in everyday life? Do people really communicate when they speak to each other? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, gender, and class lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? This course is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and informs social life. Topics covered include: (1) how and why languages change; (2) the relationships between speech and social class, race, and gender; (3) the politics of language use in society, including language policy in third-world societies and the "English-only" movement in the United States; (4) the ways in which language is used to construct social, cultural, and political 'realities' and the ways these realities are contested as, for example, in the Iran-Contra hearings. The course material includes selected readings in a course pack. The course will be evaluated by in-class quizzes. A term paper is optional. The course has no prerequisites except for curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. (Farris)
404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).
This course examines the basic economic, social and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)
409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (SS).
This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on the Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant, and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area; the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women, and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term-paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology. (Dresch)
421. The Immigrant Community in North American Society. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).
This course will examine the history and ethnography of immigrant communities in North America between 1850 and the present. Its aim is to foster a deeper understanding of the immigrant experience. Major issues of concern include the formation and perseverance of immigrant communities and inter-ethnic boundaries, the maintenance of relations between the homeland and the immigrant, and the impact of migration on family life and gender roles. To comprehend the conflicting pressures and complex cultural experiences which contribute to the attitudes and worldviews of our immigrant populations, we shall analyze personal letters, diaries, autobiographies, as well as films and books describing different immigrant communities. Class meetings will be devoted to lectures and discussion sessions. Course grades will be based on class participation, two exams, and a research paper for which students will be encouraged to focus on topics relating to their individual interests. In addition to a course pack, the following texts will be required: Dinnerstein, Leonard and David M. Reimers. 1982 (1975). ETHNIC AMERICANS: A HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION AND ASSIMILATION. Harper Row. (paper, $13.95); Kikumura, Akemi. 1981. THROUGH HARSH WINTERS: THE LIFE OF A JAPANESE IMMIGRANT WOMAN. Chandler and Sharp. (paper, $8.95); Lewis, Oscar. 1966. LA VIDA: A PUERTO RICAN FAMILY IN THE CULTURE OF POVERTY - SAN JUAN AND NEW YORK. New York: Random House.; Myerhoff, Barbara. 1978. NUMBER OUR DAYS. New York: Simon and Schuster. (paper, $8.95). (Huseby-Darvas)
515. Native American Ethnology and Ethnohistory. Anthro. 315 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The objective of this seminar is to show the importance of combining ethnographic and ethnohistorical research in studying North American Indian cultures. The readings and discussions focus on several key issues currently being investigated and debated by North Americanists, including the fur trade and other forms of economic cooperation and conflict between Indians and whites, leadership and authority in pre- and post-contact Indian societies, the politics of Indian-white relations, Christian missionization and transformation of indigenous religions, nativistic and messianic movements, Indian-white intermarriage and partnership and the development of the metis population, Indian ethnicity and the changing native historical consciousness, and a few others. These new works by ethnohistorians illustrate how an increased use of archival and library materials, combined with a diachronic perspective, has led to a reexamination and reinterpretation of earlier theories and assumptions about past and present Native American sociocultural systems. Specific attention is paid to evaluating ways in which anthropologists have used (and misused) various ethnohistorical sources, including written documents, oral histories, (auto)biographies, photographs, and so forth. The seminar is designed primarily for graduate students (and advanced undergraduates) interested in ethnohistory in general and/or North American Indian ethnology and history. Students are expected to take an active part in discussion and present their own papers at the end of the term. The requirement for the course is a single paper based on ethnohistorical research on any North American Indian society. Prerequisites: graduate standing or permission of instructor. (Kan)
327. Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (3). (SS).
This course is a survey of the schools of thought which construct anthropology and influence current anthropological theory. Through several "classic" ethnographic accounts, the course will examine the main theoretical concepts in anthropology; how theory and ethnographic reporting relate to one another; and how ethnographic writing is informed by theory as well as fieldwork. Classes will be based on lectures and discussions. Requirements consist of four assigned essays. (Darlington)
332. Social Forms. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).
The aim is to provide a solid grounding in core subjects and theories of ethnology. This course should be useful not only to anthropology concentrators, but to those wishing to use ethnological ideas in other subjects. A previous course in ethnology is no hindrance but is NOT essential. Every effort will be made toward clarity of presentation. No previous knowledge will be assumed. Topics such as witchcraft, kinship, and symbolic classification will be used cumulatively to demonstrate the principles which inform social life. The way anthropologists elucidate those principles will be explained. The positions of different authors and schools will be pointed out, and the meaning discussed of such terms as society, culture, and social structure. The worth of different approaches will be tested at the end by looking at millenarian movements: such events as the Sioux ghost dance and the Tai Ping rebellion. There is a lot to cover. The essential points of each topic will be dealt with in LECTURES. Lecture material and required readings will be discussed separately in sections, led alternatively by the instructor and a TA. Assessment will be based on short take-home papers, the objectives of which will be explained beforehand. (Dresch)
310. Religious Movements and Social Change. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).
This course deals with religion as a dynamic force in society. Religious change and social change interact with and influence each other to varying degrees. Issues to be covered include the general characteristics of religious movements; the ways in which religious movements interact with political and economic forces; questions of legitimacy in social change; the use and interpretations of religion in directed social change; and religion as a revolutionary force. Case studies will include early Christianity and the Reformation, Cargo Cults of Melanesia, the Rastafarian movement of Jamaica, Liberation Theology in Latin America, and Buddhism and development in Sri Lanka and Thailand. Classes will be based on lectures, discussions, and some films. Requirements consist of three quizzes, a midterm, and a term paper. (Darlington)
357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 – ENGENDERING THE PAST: WOMEN AND MEN IN PREHISTORY.
Traditional models of human cultural evolution have implicitly
or explicitly adopted a male-centered view of crucial social transitions, as human society developed from its earliest hominid roots to the early states and empires of the New and Old Worlds. In this
course we will develop and explore alternative ways of viewing
our past by explicitly examining the emergence, nature, and range
of variation in gender relations in prehistory. Among the topics
to be discussed are: the biological and cultural basis of the
sexual division of labor, the "man the hunter" model
of cultural evolution, gender representations in Paleolithic art, the emergence of agriculture and its impact on kinship and marriage
systems, the emergence of social inequality in early chiefdoms, and the origins of class society and the state. We will also consider the peculiar problems of studying gender relations from archaeological
data. Specific archaeological and ethnographic case studies will
be used to examine each of these issues. Student evaluations will
be based on two short (5-7 page) papers, a take home final, and class room participation. (Sinopoli)
Section 002 – CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION. This seminar will examine human semiosis, or sign-use. It addresses the problem of how people make sense of, and otherwise deal with, their material, social, and supernatural worlds by means of codes and messages. We will look at a broad range of semiotic systems (including proxemic, gestural, vestimentary, architectural, linguistic, political, aesthetic, moral, scientific, and divinatory systems to name but a few) and at the ways these play out across the spectrum of communicational contexts – mass, organizational, group, dyadic, and intrapersonal. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a research paper that explores sign practices occurring in a culture of their own choosing. Students are also expected to participate in class discussions, which will center on readings drawn from the ethnological and ethnographic literature. (Pollack)
428. Ethnopersonality: Native Concepts of Self and Person. One course in cultural anthropology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Do the concepts of self and person vary cross-culturally? Are emotions biologically or culturally constituted? These are some of the major questions addressed in this course. In contrast to "culture and personality" approach in anthropology, which has tended to be a psychological study of cultures, ethnopersonality (or ethnopsychology) involves a cultural analysis of native categories of self, person, identity, and emotion, by means of which human social behavior is motivated and made meaningful. The course begins with a discussion of the ideas of Mauss, Fortes, Hallowell, Geertz and several other anthropologists that inspired more recent studies in ethnopsychology. This is followed by an examination of several indigenous models of the self, person, and emotion and their expression in life cycle rituals, kinship systems, ideas about power and rank, deviance, mental illness and healing, and other cultural domains. Course format combines lectures and class discussions. Student evaluation will be based on class participation, two essay-type take-home examinations, and a short research paper. Graduate students are expected to do some additional reading and write a longer paper. (Kan)
438. Urban Anthropology. (3). (SS).
What is it like to live in an urban society? What are the principal factors shaping the nature of urban life? And how can we go about investigating and representing the interplay of broad forces and personal experience in urban settings? This course will address such questions by focusing on anthropological approaches to the following themes: the class structure of urban societies; migration and migrant communities; ethnicity and multiculturalism; gender relations; networks and voluntary associations; family and kinship; the ethnography of work and leisure; and forms of organized and personal struggle. At the same time, the course will examine the relationship between urban societies in the Third World and the First and, more narrowly, the varied and changing character of urban life in the United States. Lectures will be combined with class discussion and both will be tied closely to the reading of required texts. Grades for undergraduates will be based on a short midterm paper and a final exam. For graduate students, a research paper will take the place of the exam. (Rouse)
444. Medical Anthropology. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).
This course explores the cross-cultural factors affecting health, illness, and healing. Its focus is on the examination of the behaviors of humans in understanding and coping with disease, illness, and injury. Because illness and misfortune are symbolic, the signs and symptoms of illness and disease require explanatory systems, healing arenas, health rituals, and a cadre of persons whose role involves healing. The explanatory systems, healing systems, healing rituals, and healers in modern and traditional societies will be critically examined. Consideration will also be given to the varying cultural responses to illness. The course is recommended for upper division undergraduate students and also carries graduate credit. This course is part of the optional Ethnology sequence in the Department of Anthropology. A directed mini-field work experience focused on selected cultural phenomena related to health, illness, or healing is required. Methods of instruction include lecture, group discussion, directed reading, and audio-visual aids. (Barbee)
448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (SS).
RITUAL, SANCTITY, AND SOCIAL LIFE. Through cross-cultural comparison of religious practices in mostly small-scale, non-western societies, this course examines the place of religion in human social life in two ways. First, how does religion relate to everyday experience in different societies, and second, what distinguishes religion as a human institution from other aspects of everyday existence? Topics such as myth, ritual, symbolism, magic, witchcraft, curing, and religious syncretism and change will be approached holistically within the broader concerns of meaning, sanctification, and conventionality in human social life. The course consists primarily of lectures, with discussion as time permits. Readings will presume a good knowledge of anthropological concepts and theories. Course requirements will entail papers and take-home exams. (Watanabe)
458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 – NARRATIVES OF THE SELF. Narratives of the self have a long tradition in the West, stemming in part from the notion that the soul can be purified through speaking or writing a confession. Since the end of the last century, the forms of self-narration have been radically altered as women, racially oppressed groups, the working classes, and people of other cultures have used these forms to give voice to their lives, struggles, and coming to consciousness. In this course we will cast our net widely into the expanding sea of autobiographies, biographies, testimonials, and anthropological life histories, asking questions about the engendering of subjectivity, the racialization of the self, the complex, contradictory, and multifaceted nature of post-modern identity, and the inscription of class and culture in first-person narratives. As we consider the ways in which the self is narrated in oral discourse and written text, I will also want us to ask questions about the telling of the stories themselves, looking closely at how language, style, modes of representation, and allegorical forms are used by the teller as well as by the biographer inscribing the tale in a text. The course will be divided into a two-part sequence, focusing first on the biography and autobiography, especially women's self-narratives, and then moving to an examination of the life history in anthropology and the problems of cross-cultural representation. The course will involve a substantial amount of reading of life stories, so it is mainly recommended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in anthropology as well as in such neighboring disciplines such as literature, history, and women's studies. We will use a seminar format in the class, to encourage discussion and interchange of ideas. The central aim of the course is to allow you to develop your own areas of interest as well as your critical and creative faculties through class participation and writing of two papers, a review paper treating any of the central issues in the course, and an original research paper based on further reading and/or fieldwork interviews.
Possible readings include: MARILYN: NORMA JEAN, Gloria Steinem; IDENTITY, SKIN BLOOD HEART, Minnie Bruce Pratt; SPLIT AT THE ROOT, Adrienne Rich; EYE TO EYE: BLACK WOMEN, HATRED, AND ANGER, Audre Lorde; THE WOMAN WARRIOR: MEMORIES OF A GIRLHOOD AMONG GHOSTS, Maxine Hong Kingston; LANDSCAPE FOR A GOOD WOMAN: A STORY OF TWO LIVES, Carolyn Kay Steedman; NISA: THE LIFE AND WORDS OF A !KUNG WOMAN, Marjorie Shostak; WORKER IN THE CANE: A PUERTO RICAN LIFE HISTORY, Sidney Mintz; I, RIGOBERTA MENCHU: AN INDIAN WOMAN IN GUATEMALA, Elizabeth Burgos-Debray (editor); CHILDREN OF SANCHEZ: AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A MEXICAN FAMILY, Oscar Lewis; MOROCCAN DIALOGUES: ANTHROPOLOGY IN QUESTION, Kevin Dwyer; NUMBER OUR DAYS, Barbara Myerhoff; BRAZILIAN WOMEN SPEAK: CONTEMPORARY LIFE STORIES, Daphne Patai; essays by Michel Foucault, Hayden White, James Clifford, Renato Rosaldo, Gelya Frank, Mary Louise Pratt, Carolyn Heilbrun, and Dennis Tedlock. (Behar)
Section 002 – TELEVISION, SOCIETY, AND CULTURE. Television has been compared to a new religion, cultivating homogeneity, uniting adherents in a common set of images and symbols. Television executives have become "key gatekeepers" assuming roles played historically by political and religious leaders. TV has been labeled "narcoticizing" and faulted for diverting attention from serious social issues and replacing effective thought and action with passive absorption in portrayals. Television has been said to reinforce existing hierarchies and impede social reform. It also stimulates participation in a worldwide cash economy, and TV's worldwide spread has raised concerns about cultural imperialism. Ethnocentrism is common in the evaluation of television and its effects. Understanding of TV impact can be broadened through cross-cultural research about this medium, which, specific content and programming aside, must be recognized as one of the most powerful information disseminators, socializing agents and public-opinion molders in the contemporary world. This seminar will consider cross-cultural diversity in TV and will assess the medium's various social, cultural, and psychological effects. Students, who will include seniors, concentrators and graduate students in American culture or anthropology, will each investigate an aspect of television aspect. Students will be responsible for attending class, organizing and participating in discussions of particular readings, and presenting, orally to the class and in writing, a term paper based on research concerning some aspect of TV impact. (Kottak)
Section 003. This is a lecture-seminar course. It will examine the nature of religion in the lives of humans, within the framework of culture, and as a pervasive social institution. The course will focus on the special case of the intensive and involved character of religion in the history and the lives of Afro-Americans. These special uses of religion create special problems. We will analyze those problems. The course is open to all students and it requires no special background or preparation. There will be two examinations and two short written assignments. Class participation and attendance are required. The required texts are: RELIGION: AN INTRODUCTION, T. W. Hall, R. B. Pilgrim, and R.R. Cavanagh; RELIGION IN HUMAN LIFE: ANTHROPOLOGICAL VIEWS, E. Norbeck; AFRO-AMERICAN RELIGIOUS HISTORY, M. Sernett; COMMUNITY IN A BLACK PENTECOSTAL CHURCH: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY, M. D. Williams; ON THE STREET WHERE I LIVED, M.D. Williams . The course objectives are to: (1) Introduce the subject of religion as a social institution, as a pervasive component of culture, and as a contemporary adjustment and adaptation to peculiar social problems, (2) Demonstrate how an anthropological analysis can be used to understand religion in contemporary society, (3) Develop skills in critical thinking and analysis, (4) Present the relationship between culture, institutions, religion, subculture, and the nature of man (humans), and (5) Enable students to understand the religious institutions of humans generally and Afro-Americans specifically. (Williams)
Section 004 – THE POLITICS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE. This course will examine the relationship between anthropological knowledge and the politico-economic circumstances in which it has been produced. It will draw examples from the history of social and cultural anthropology over the last one hundred and twenty years and will focus on three countries – France, Britain, and the United States. The themes to be addressed include the relationship of anthropological work to domestic political and economic concerns; the interplay between anthropology and the different forms of colonialism and imperialism associated with each country; the significance of class, gender, and ethnicity in the production of knowledge; and the politics of fieldwork and ethnographic writing. The course will be organized as a seminar and will involve a close reading of both major anthropological works and secondary texts that relate these works to the material conditions in which they have emerged. To facilitate discussion, enrollment will be limited to twenty. Grades for undergraduates will be based on a short midterm paper and a final exam. For graduate students, a research paper will take the place of the exam. (Rouse)
Section 005 – RACE AND GENDER IN AMERICAN CULTURE: IMAGES OF DIFFERENCE. This course focuses on images of women and African/Afro-Americans in American culture, looking specifically at representations in popular culture and folklore. In view of the dual focus on race and gender, images of African and Afro-American women will be of particular concern. the conceptualization of difference and "otherness" in American cultural media will serve as a point of departure, and the key role of stereotyping will be a major point of discussion. Exploration of popular culture and folklore theory will provide a base from which to consider theoretical approaches for analysis. Issues to be considered include the historicity of racial and gender imagery, the unidimensionality and distribution of such images, and the extent to which they overlap and differ. The potential ways in which such images may be interpreted by their audience will be examined, as well as the extent to which these images have had an impact outside the United States. (Arewa)
552. Women in Traditional and Modernizing Societies. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course is concerned with the roles and status of women in a selection of societies representative of different levels of socioeconomic development. It considers the variant meanings of gender in foraging economies, among subsistence farmers, and in peasant and modernizing economies. Issues such as marriage, family organization, and participation in the religious and political sector will be discussed, as well as division of labor and cultural views of gender. The course is open to advanced undergraduates and to graduate students. For non-concentrators at least one course in cultural anthropology is required as well as permission of the instructor. The course is primarily a lecture with the latter part of the term reserved for student in-class presentation of their term paper research. Grades are based on class participation and the term paper. (Diamond)
476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).
See Linguistics 417. (Wiegand)
384. Prehistory of Egypt. (3). (SS).
This course provides an anthropological perspective on the sequence of prehistoric cultures in the Nile Valley from the Lower Stone Age times (100,000 B.C.) until the death of Tutankhamun (ca. 1340 B.C., in the 18th dynasty). It begins with the earliest evidence for humans in Egypt and the Sudan, followed by a description of later Stone Age hunters and gatherers, and the origins of agriculture in the Nile Valley. A discussion of the Predynastic village sequence and the rise of the Egyptian state is followed by lectures on hieroglyphic writing, religion, sociopolitical organization, diet, pyramid building, and mummification. A midterm and final exam provide the basis for the course grade. (Flannery and Marcus)
387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).
North America was the setting for roughly 12,000 years of cultural diversification before native Indian groups were confronted by European diseases and expansionist interests. This course will survey the varied lifeways of pre-Contact societies north of Mexico as they have been reconstructed by archaeologists. Because it is impossible to adequately cover all regions in one term, emphasis will be placed on the Eastern Woodlands and the Southwest. A focus will be on food-procurement systems and how these are connected with culture change. The evolution of agricultural societies will be explored in some depth. Evaluations will be based on two midterm exams and a final exam – all of which consist of essay-type questions - as well as a 10-15 page research paper. Assigned readings consist of the textbook PREHISTORY OF THE AMERICAS, by Stuart Fiedel, the monograph THE HURON: FARMERS OF THE NORTH, by Bruce Trigger, and a course pack of readings. (Fritz)
488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).
This course discusses the precolumbian cultural sequence for Mesoamerica outside the Maya region – focusing primarily on southern and central Mexico, but also considering north-central Mexico and linkages with the North American Southwest. We begin with the first well-documented human societies at about 13,000 years ago, and end with the period of European contact in the early Sixteenth Century A.D. The course's primary purpose is to describe and explain cultural evolution in this region during this long era. The course begins with a general introduction to cultural evolutionary theory and Mesoamerican cultural ecology. Then we discuss the historically-documented Aztec empire at the time of initial European contact in A.D. 1519. From there we go back to the oldest cultural materials and work forward in time to the Aztec period. Some general background in anthropology is assumed, and either Anthropology 101, or 282, or 386 should be taken as a prerequisite. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two take-home exams and a term paper. There is no textbook, but a course pack of relevant journal articles will be available at moderate cost. Primary instruction is by lecture, although some in-class discussion is encouraged. (Parsons)
496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.
The goal of this course is the introduction of museum collection management and exhibition. It will acquaint students with the ethics of collecting anthropological artifacts and archaeological objects, their proper storage, conservation, computer cataloging, procedures for lending and borrowing, and methods for exhibiting the collection. The course serves as an introduction to museum employment as a career and to general knowledge about the "behind the scene" operations in a museum. Lectures will be complimented by tours to laboratories, storage areas, and exhibits. Students will write short critiques of museum activities and complete a final examination. No prerequisites are required. (Ford)
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